Report On Cad Data Transfer Computer Science Essay

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Data transfer object is a design pattern used to transfer data between software application subsystems. DTOs are often used in conjunction with data access objects to retrieve data from a database.

Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer technology for the design of objects, real or virtual. CAD often involves more than just shapes. As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD often must convey also symbolic information such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application-specific conventions.

CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional ("2D") space; or curves, surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional ("3D") objects.

CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design, prosthetics, and many more. CAD is also widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by engineers of the 1960s. Because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics (both hardware and software), and discrete differential geometry.

The design of geometric models for object shapes, in particular, is often called computer-aided geometric design.

Windchill Enterprise System Integrations

Connect enterprise systems…Historically; enterprise system integrations have required error-prone manual processes or fragile, custom point-to-point solutions, resulting in significant cost and product quality issues.  But Windchill Enterprise Systems Integration (ESI) synchronizes processes and information, enabling optimization of product development while minimizing risk and total cost of ownership. Via bi-directional integration, Windchill ESI enables robust connection between PLM and ERP systems.

ABSTRACT

Cad data transfer means the, we can transfer our design to next person by means of one computer to another. There is many software for this in the market.

Multi-CAD fluency…Within a given supply chain or engineering team, design work invariably involves multiple mechanical and electrical CAD systems.  Controlling these disparate data sources is the domain of Windchill MCAD & ECAD integrations.  Through vast support of major MCAD/ECAD tools, they enable proper access of CAD data to all team members throughout the enterprise, greatly speeding the design process.

MCAD - Mechanical Computer-aided design

ECAD - Electrical Computer-aided design

Enjoy data compatibility with major MCAD & ECAD authoring solutions. Integrate Windchill functionality into each designer's unique design environment. Improve operating efficiency by sharing mission critical engineering information throughout the enterprise Simplify information management activities to improve productivity and accelerate the design process Ensure design data integrity throughout the design and engineering change processes

CHAPTER-2

As each CAD system has its own method of describing geometry, both mathematically and structurally, there is always some loss of information when translating data from one CAD data format to another. The intermediate file formats are also limited in what they can describe, and they can be interpreted differently by both the sending and receiving systems.

It is therefore important when transferring data between systems to identify what needs to be translated.

If only the 3D model is required for the downstream process, then only the model description needs to be transferred.

However, there are levels of detail. For example: is the data wireframe, surface, or solid; is the topology (BREP) information required; must the face and edge identifications be preserved on subsequent modification; must the feature information and history be preserved between systems; and is PMI annotation to be transferred.

With product models, retaining the assembly structure may be required.

If drawings need to be translated, the wireframe geometry is normally not an issue; however text, dimensions and other annotation can be an issue, particularly fonts and formats.

No matter what data is to be translated, there is also a need to preserve attributes (such as color and layer of graphical objects) and text information stored within the files.

Sometimes, however, there is a problem caused by too much information being preserved. An example are the constraints placed on designers arising out of the design intent-history captured in parametric design systems.

The receiving system must provide designers with the design freedom to modify geometry without having to understand the history of, or undo, the design tree.

Some translation methods are more successful than others at translating data between CAD systems.

Two CAD/CAM/CAE PLM trends have been driving CAD Data Exchange technology. One is the need for close interaction throughout today's extended multiCAD enterprises.

The other is the increased reliance on digital mockups to permit visualization, design in context, simulation and analysis of large scale assemblies prior to the actual manufacture of the physical product.

Ongoing advances in data exchange technology have enabled significant fulfilment of those needs.

The ability to visualize medium if not large scale assemblies was one of the early successes of these CAD translation formats. Hardware improvements and the development of lightweight formats supported larger scale assemblies.

By early 2005, Siemens Power Generation unit had implemented a multi-site collaboration environment using 800 licenses of Teamcenter at 180 sites including 70 suppliers. The system uses Siemens PLM/XML as its data transport protocol and JT Open for sharing 3D models.

Current advances now allow an "Active Mockup." This technology allows design in context with simulations such as dynamic clearance analysis and automatic generation of motion envelopes. Active mockups allow the edit of components from directly within the multi-CAD assembly. Multiple level-of-detail displays support interactive performance even in huge assemblies.

NC programming typically requires that the geometry received from a CAD system, whether in wireframe, surface, solid or combined formats, be free from any irregularities and inconsistencies that may have occurred in the CAD phase of geometry creation. Data exchange from CAD to CAM must therefore include tools for identifying and repairing those inconsistencies. These tools are typically included in the data exchange software of each CAM solution-set.

In a true PLM environment, CAD to CAM data exchange must provide for more than the transfer of geometry. Product Manufacturing Information, whether generated by the designer for use by manufacturing, or generated by the manufacturing organization for use by design, must be a part of the data exchange system. STEP-NC was designed to carry GD&T and other PMI through CAD and CAM into a CNC.

The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) (pronounced eye-jess) defines a neutral data format that allows the digital exchange of information among Computer-aided design (CAD) systems.

The official title of IGES is Digital Representation for Communication of Product Definition Data, first published in January, 1980 by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards as NBSIR 80-1978. Many documents (like early versions of the Defense Standards MIL-PRF-28000 and MIL-STD-1840) referred to it as ASME Y14.26M, the designation of the ANSI committee that approved IGES Version 1.0.

Using IGES, a CAD user can exchange product data models in the form of circuit diagrams, wireframe, free form surface or solid modeling representations. Applications supported by IGES include traditional engineering drawings, models for analysis, and other manufacturing functions.

VDA-FS is a CAD data exchange format for the transfer of surface models from one CAD system to another. Its name stands for "Verband der Automobilindustrie - Flächenschnittstelle", which translates to the "organisation of the automotive industry - CAM is Computer Aided Manufacturing, and is associated with CNC machines (Computer Numeric Control). CAD is Computer Aided Design, which is making drawings and plans using software on a computer instead of on paper.

There is also CAE, Computer Aided Engineering, which is computer simulation of physical objects and events.

surface translation format". Standard was specified by the German organisation VDA.

Information Exchange and Data Integration without Complications

Cross-application data compatibility and information exchange is an absolute necessity in product development. Generally though, it is a tough challenge to overcome during product development. But with robust support for all leading MCAD and ECAD tools, rich Info*Engine integrations, and turnkey support for providing connections to leading ERP systems, Windchill exchanges relevant product information accurately, and efficiently.

Windchill MCAD and ECAD Integrations

Multi-CAD fluency…Within a given supply chain or engineering team, design work invariably involves multiple mechanical and electrical CAD systems.  Controlling these disparate data sources is the domain of Windchill MCAD & ECAD integrations.  Through vast support of major MCAD/ECAD tools, they enable proper access of CAD data to all team members throughout the enterprise, greatly speeding the design process.

Enjoy data compatibility with major MCAD & ECAD authoring solutions

Integrate Windchill functionality into each designer's unique design environment

Improve operating efficiency by sharing mission critical engineering information throughout the enterprise

Simplify information management activities to improve productivity and accelerate the design process

Ensure design data integrity throughout the design and engineering change processes

Windchill Enterprise System Integrations

Connect enterprise systems…Historically; enterprise system integrations have required error-prone manual processes or fragile, custom point-to-point solutions, resulting in significant cost and product quality issues.  But Windchill Enterprise Systems Integration (ESI) synchronizes processes and information, enabling optimization of product development while minimizing risk and total cost of ownership. Via bi-directional integration, Windchill ESI enables robust connection between PLM and ERP systems.

Provides turnkey SAP and Oracle Manufacturing integration processes

Synchronizes parts, documents, bill of material (BOM) structures, engineering change notification (ECN), product configurations

Bundles TIBCO EAI technology for connectivity to the broad suite of TIBCO adapters

Improves product data quality and reduces errors through automated exchange of information

Accelerates time to market through improved process coordination between engineering and manufacturing

Windchill Info*Engine

Seamless information access…Enterprise systems harbor great potential for your organization, yet poor information accessibility often keeps that value from being realized. For maximum benefit, companies must extend enterprise information assets to a wide range of users and applications for context-specific usage. Windchill Info*Engine provides a flexible, standards-based foundation for seamless data sharing between enterprise applications and user communities.

Helps companies take advantage of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) with support for SOAP and WSDL Web Services Technologies

J2EE support, including standard JSP tag libraries, JMS, and Java Connector with automatic DAO and EJB generation

Application and technology adapters to meet the most popular integration needs 

Robust transaction management: synchronous/asynchronous operation modes, transaction units, check pointing, parallel processing, load balancing and failover

Sophisticated integration engine supports Java native and XML/XSL representations and data transformations

Originally software for Computer-Aided Design systems was developed with computer languages such as Fortran, but with the advancement of object-oriented programming methods this has radically changed.

Typical modern parametric feature based modeler and freeform surface systems are built around a number of key C (programming language) modules with their own APIs. A CAD system can be seen as built up from the interaction of a graphical user interface (GUI) with NURBS geometry and/or boundary representation (B-rep) data via a geometric modeling kernel.

A geometry constraint engine may also be employed to manage the associative relationships between geometry, such as wireframe geometry in a sketch or components in an assembly.

Unexpected capabilities of these associative relationships have led to a new form of prototyping called digital prototyping. In contrast to physical prototypes, which entail manufacturing time and in the design.

Computer-Aided Design is one of the many tools used by engineers and designers and is used in many ways depending on the profession of the user and the type of software in question. There are several different types of CAD.

Each of these different types of CAD systems require the operator to think differently about how he or she will use them and he or she must design their virtual components in a different manner for each.

There are many producers of the lower-end 2D systems, including a number of free and open source programs. These provide an approach to the drawing process without all the fuss over scale and placement on the drawing sheet that accompanied hand drafting, since these can be adjusted as required during the creation of the final draft.

3D wireframe is basically an extension of 2D drafting. Each line has to be manually inserted into the drawing. The final product has no mass properties associated with it and cannot have features directly added to it, such as holes. The operator approaches these in a similar fashion to the 2D systems, although many 3D systems allow using the wireframe model to make the final engineering drawing views.

3D "dumb" solids (programs incorporating this technology include AutoCAD and Cadkey 19) are created in a way analogous to manipulations of real world objects.

Basic three-dimensional geometric forms (prisms, cylinders, spheres, and so on) have solid volumes added or subtracted from them, as if assembling or cutting real-world objects. Two-dimensional projected views can easily be generated from the models.

Basic 3D solids don't usually include tools to easily allow motion of components, set limits to their motion, or identify interference between components.

3D parametric solid modeling require the operator to use what is referred to as "design intent". The objects and features created are adjustable.

Any future modifications will be simple, difficult, or nearly impossible, depending on how the original part was created. One must think of this as being a "perfect world" representation of the component.

If a feature was intended to be located from the center of the part, the operator needs to locate it from the center of the model, not, perhaps, from a more convenient edge or an arbitrary point, as he could when using "dumb" solids. Parametric solids require the operator to consider the consequences of his actions carefully.

Some software packages provide the ability to edit parametric and non-parametric geometry without the need to understand or undo the design intent history of the geometry by use of direct modeling functionality.

This ability may also include the additional ability to infer the correct relationships between selected geometry (e.g., tangency, concentricity) which makes the editing process less time and labor intensive while still freeing the engineer from the burden of understanding the model's design intent history.

These kind of non history based systems are called Explicit Modellers. The first Explicit Modeling system was introduced to the world at the end of 80's by Hewlett-Packard under the name Solid Designer. This CAD solution, which released many later versions, is now sold by PTC as "CoCreate Modeling"

Draft views are able to be generated easily from the models. Assemblies usually incorporate tools to represent the motions of components, set their limits, and identify interference. The tool kits available for these systems are ever increasing; including 3D piping and injection mold designing packages.

Mid range software are integrating parametric solids more easily to the end user: integrating more intuitive functions (SketchUp), using the best of both 3D dumb solids and parametric characteristics (VectorWorks), making very real-view scenes in relative few steps (Cinema4D) or offering all-in-one (form•Z).

Top end systems offer the capabilities to incorporate more organic, aesthetics and ergonomic features into designs (Catia, GenerativeComponents). Freeform surface modelling is often combined with solids to allow the designer to create products that fit the human form and visual requirements as well as they interface with the machine.

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