Rapid Change Of Topology Causes Computer Science Essay

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Paper depicts reverse AODV protocol. Rapid change of topology causes that the route reply could not arrive to the source node, i.e. after a source node sends several route request message, the node obtains a reply message, especially on high speed mobility. This increases both in communication delay and power consumption as well as decrease in packet delivery ratio. To avoid these problems, this paper proposed a reverse AODV which tries multiple route replies.

In this paper [5] authors concentrate on practicable implementation of AODV routing protocol with respect to particular design possibilities and scope for capturing required AODV events for further study. Authors then describes the socket based mechanism particularly when AODV routing mechanism transfer changes to the IP route table. The paper recommends need of actual realization of Generic Netlink Family.

In this paper [6] propose a reverse AODV which tries multiple route replies. The extended AODV is called reverse AODV (R-AODV), which has a novel aspect compared to other on-demand routing protocols on Ad-hoc Networks. Authors design the R-AODV protocol and implement simulation models using NS-2. Simulation results show that the reverse AODV provides good experimental results on packet delivery ratio, power consumption and communication delay.

In this paper [7], author have a glance at successful QoS Models and Protocols of the IP network such as IntServ, DiffServ and RSVP and see how they have affected the evolution of Models and Protocols in the Wireless Ad-Hoc world. The report is mainly concentrated on QoS Models, Signaling Protocols and QoS Routing that have been proposed for MANets. Although QoS MAC Protocols are equivalently important to achieve a complete QoS Architecture they are out of the scope of this report.

In this paper [8] propose a novel way of transmission with stability using a technique called Optimized Power Reactive Routing (OPRR) and for more splendid performances. This proposed protocol avoids new route discovery process in AODV with low power consumption and maintain the stability of node and to improve scalability of the network. Preliminary the simulation using GloMoSim simulator was provided and the result shows the performance enhancements of the Optimized Power Reactive Routing.

This paper [9] reviews many 802.11 QoS schemes, which includes service discrimination in MAC layer, ingress control, reallocation of Bandwidth in MAC and upper layers and link adaptation & modification in physical layer meant for these requirements by incorporating desired improvements corresponding to QoS. Out of these sought after characteristics, protocol portability, multihop scheduling, complete mobility support, and coherent vertical handoff within multiple wireless interfaces are particularly focused on.

In this paper [10] authors had proposed improved AODV routing protocol in previous research. But it had studied about performance analysis based on IEEE 802.11. In this paper, authors proposed improved routing protocol using AODV for sensor network. The simulation result is analyzed and compared based on IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.4.

This article [11] categorically studies different facets of QoS routing and gives an overview & comparison of present QoS base modifications recommended for AODV protocol, hence gives the reader an insight into their discrepancies and allows to highlight research directions in protocol design and find out areas for future research.

In this paper [12], the issue of voice calls over a mobile Ad hoc network that employs IEEE 802.11b standard for the lowest communication layer is considered. The Distributed Coordination Function is considered as fundamental medium access control protocol. An altogether new metric for finding proper routing with respect to an extended AODV protocol is recommended and researched. The simulation findings depicts a novel routing protocol can revamp performance of VoIP on Ad hoc network in comparison with the standard.

The focus of this paper [13] is to bring out the supportive point of view to accept C-AODV as a suitable protocol for the tunnel’s network which has been built on top of clustered nodes. The tunnel is a subway where the people travel by train for long distance. The likely scenario for the people could be the absence of communication over the network while crossing the tunnel. The network which is exclusively for those tunnel travellers has been highly indispensable.

In this paper [14] the existing Local Repair Trial method in AODV is extended to achieve broadcasting and minimizing the flooding. Enhanced AODV-Local Repair Trial (EAODVLRT) protocol is implemented on NS2 network simulator. Simulations are performed to analyse and compare the behaviour of proposed protocol (EAODVLRT) for varying parameters such as size of network, node load etc. Proposed protocol has been compared with the existing AODV-LRT in terms of routing load, Data delivery ratio.

This paper [15] proposes a RREQ message forwarding technicque for AODV which reduces routing overheads. Simulation outcomes show that AODV_EXT obtains 3% energy efficiency, 19.5% enhancement in throughput and 69.5% decrease in number of discarded packets for an exemplar network of 50 nodes. Higher efficiency is accomplished in high density network and minor improvement in networks with less number of nodes.

The paper [16] compares the performance of three routing protocols for mobile Ad hoc networks: DSR, AODV and location-aided routing (LAR1). The performance parameters are analyzed by means of varying network load, mobility & network size. Simulation is carried out using GLOMOSIM simulator. By plotting graphs for different parameters authors make recommendations scenarios when the protocol will give best performance.

This article [17] proposes a new energy and delay aware protocols called, energy and delay aware Ad-hoc On demand Distance Vector Routing (EDAODV) and energy and delay aware Dynamic Source Routing (EDDSR) based on extension of AODV and DSR. Simulation results show that the proposed protocols have a better performance than AODV and DSR in terms of energy, packet delivery ratio & delay.

Article [18] present a fuzzy based priority scheduler for mobile ad-hoc networks, to determine the priority of the packets using Ad hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) as the routing protocols. It is found that the scheduler provides overall improvement in the performance of the system when evaluated under different load and mobility conditions. From the simulation results, the packet delivered for AODV improves by 38% for a total transmission of packets and end-to-end delay decreases by around 0.4seconds.

In this paper [19] authors study the performance parameters to compare all contemporary Ad hoc network protocols. Authors depict simulation results of three protocols of wireless Ad hoc networks consisting of thirty nodes. Data rate 2Mbps and simulation time 20 minutes were taken. AODV shows better performance in comparison with other two on-demand protocols.

Novel preventive link maintenance scheme based on directional antennas has been proposed in this paper [20] to extend the life of the link for multi hop infrastructure less networks like Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). Authors use the ability of directional antennas to orientate radio signals into the desired directions. Authors investigate preventive link maintenance scheme to on-demand routing algorithms. The scheme of creating directional link is proposed to extend the life of link that is about to break.

In this paper [21] authors compare the performance of three routing protocols for mobile Ad hoc networks: DSR & AODV. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network load, mobility, and network size. Authors simulate protocols with GLOMOSIM simulator. Based on the observations, authors make recommendations about when the performance of either protocol can be best.

In this paper [22] try has been made to evaluate performance of AODV & possible improvement of AODV prominent on demand reactive routing protocols for MANETs. The performance differentials are analyzed by means of variation of simulation time. These simulations are performed using the NS2.27 network simulator. The research outcomes of this work show the importance of carefully evaluating & implementing routing protocols in an Ad hoc scenario.

In this paper [23] authors present AODV-AP, a scheme to make AODV nodes aware of the accessibility of the neighboring nodes in the network. One possible use of this accessibility information, restrict the route discoveries for inaccessible nodes, is also evaluated in this paper. Simulation results show that the use of accessibility knowledge in the route discovery process largely reduces the MAC and Routing overhead. Similarly, the Normalized Throughput with respect to MAC overhead is up to 3 times higher than that in standard AODV which reflects the effective use of network resources.

The aim of this paper [24] is an optimization of routing decision & path quality. The mobility of nodes is estimated in the form of parameter Signal Fading Degree (SFD). Performance evaluation of AODV in legacy 802.11 and CMRP in IEEE 802.11e shows that, as a function of speed of node mobility, a tremendous reduction achieved, in metrics such as the average delay, route overhead, frequency of route discovery, normalized routing load are approximately 80%, 40%, 40% & 40% respectively.

This paper [25] aims at enhancement of AODV protocol in wireless networks by means of finding hidden terminals in the mobile network. The author also concentrates on improvement in bandwidth usage by employing philosophy of Fair share algorithm. These hidden terminals reduce performance of Ad hoc networks achieved by sharing resources on same bandwidth. Authors employ fair share algorithm for simulations using simulator (NS2). A number of scenarios are considered for evaluation of Ad Hoc networks performance over 802.11 networks by means of simulator NS2.

Paper [26] presents QoS enabled Routing protocol in Ad hoc networks & compare it with normal routing protocol. The performance of both routing & QoS routing protocols evaluated on the presence of information achieved from link layer. The notion of QoS is a guaranteed performance given by the network which satisfy a set of pre-determined service performance constraints for the user in terms of the end-to-end delay statistics, available bandwidth and probability of packet loss.

The paper [27] explores the feasibility of using Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) for rural public safety. First, authors discuss a QoS enhancement to a standard routing protocol, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). By incorporating a new routing metric and the available bandwidth and delay estimation algorithms with DSR, authors design a new routing protocol, QoS Aware Source Routing (QASR), to meet the QoS requirements specified by Statement of Requirements (SoR) for public safety communications.

This paper [28] describes power management two schemes namely Dynamic Power Management (DPM) and Directional Local Recovery (DLR) performance evaluated and AODV used as the underlying protocol in both the schemes. The simulation results verify that the extended schemes which use AODV as the underlying protocol provides substantial energy savings thus prolonging the battery life of mobile nodes. Simulation is performed using NS2 simulator.

In this paper [29] message swapping mechanism for invalid route reconstruction is used. Two protocols AODV & DSDV are simulated using NS-2 simulation software. Performance comparison is made in terms throughput, delay and packet delivery for different number of nodes, speed & time. Simulation results show that DSDV routing protocol uses more bandwidth, due to frequent broadcasting of routing updates. AODV also performs more competently under high mobility simulations as compared to DSDV.

A novel MANET routing protocol, Type of Service, Power and Bandwidth Aware AODV (TSPBA-AODV), which overcomes resource constraints and simultaneously provides QoS guarantees using a cross-layer approach, is proposed in this paper [30]. In addition the effect of variation in nodes’ mobility on performance of TSPBA-AODV is compared with that of CPACL-AODV for two different types of network traffic. In addition the effect of variation in data sending rate of nodes on performance of the protocols is also studied.

In this paper [31], authors have evaluated some of the widely used efficient routing protocols with varying transmission range of the node. Data transmitted by a node is received by all the nodes within its communication range. Authors focus on the analysis of varying a range of the transmission in terms of distance. The proposed evaluation was made on routing protocols such as AODV and DSR, which are simulated in Network Simulator (NS2) .The performance of these protocols, is analysed with selected metrics.

In this paper [32] authors propose a reliable QoS routing protocol which bases on the route life time that is obtained using mobility information, the residue energy and hop count. Simulation results show that the SQR-AODV protocol achieves high reliability and stability and also long life time of the network, with high packet delivery ratio, high throughput, low energy consumption and considerable load balancing as compared to best-known on-demand protocol, AODV.

In this paper [33] ENFAT-AODV routing protocol is proposed, which improves the reliability and robustness of the network by creating a backup path for every node on a main path of data delivery. The simulation results prove that the proposed ENFAT-AODV routing protocol enhances the original AODV in term of the reliability, availability and fault-tolerant ability of the network.

One of paper [34] presents, QoS enabled Routing protocol in Ad hoc networks & compare it with normal routing protocol. The performance of both routing & QoS routing protocols evaluated on the presence of information achieved from link layer. The notion of QoS is performance assurance given by a network to fulfill a set of predetermined service performance requirements for the user in terms of delay statistics, available bandwidth and probability of packet loss. QoS enabled routing protocol shows a significant improvement in protocol performance metrics such as bandwidth efficiency ratio(BWER), packet delay, normalized overhead load (NOL). This paper focuses about bandwidth utilization parameter. But doesn’t provide the detailing about how the parameters are to be read from link layer & where to store & how they are used for QoS improvement.

Another approach [35] explores that AODV is a representative among the most widely studied on-demand Ad hoc routing protocols. Previous protocols have shown some shortcomings on performance. Most of on demand routing protocols including AODV single route reply along reverse path. Rapid change of topology causes that the route reply could not arrive to the source node, i.e. after a source node sends several route request message, the node obtains a reply message, especially on high speed mobility. This increases both in communication delay and power consumption as well as decrease in packet delivery ratio. To avoid these problems, this paper proposed a reverse AODV which tries multiple route replies. The extended AODV is called reverse AODV (R-AODV), which has a novel aspect compared to other on-demand routing protocols on Ad hoc Networks: it reduces path fail correction messages and obtains better performance than the AODV and other protocols have. The design the R-AODV protocol and implementation simulation models is carried out using NS-2. Simulation results show that the reverse AODV provides good experimental results on packet delivery ratio, power consumption and communication delay.

Another paper [36] explores the feasibility of using Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) for rural public safety. First, authors discuss a QoS enhancement to a standard routing protocol, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). By incorporating a new routing metric and the available bandwidth and delay estimation algorithms with DSR, authors design a new routing protocol, QoS Aware Source Routing (QASR), to meet the QoS requirements specified by Statement of Requirements (SoR) for public safety communications. It also evaluates the performance of QASR and the well-known standard routing protocols including Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) and DSR based on real public safety scenarios using the OPNET modeler at the 4.9GHz public safety spectrum band. Simulation results show that QASR significantly outperforms DSR and AODV in terms of various performance metrics.

In one of the papers [37], Ad hoc networks are described by multi-hop wireless connectivity, recurrently changing network topology. The authors make comparison of performance of three routing protocols for mobile Ad hoc networks: DSR, AODV and location-aided routing (LAR1). The performance parameters are evaluated using different values of network load, mobility & network size. The paper simulates protocols with GLOMOSIM simulator. Based on the observations, they have make recommendations about when the performance of either protocol can be best by plotting different graphs.

The paper [38] describe wireless Ad hoc network consisting of wireless nodes that communicate without any need for well organized administration, in which all nodes substantially contribute to the routing mechanisms. Such a network require routing protocols that can accommodate dynamic changes in network topology. In order to achieve this many Ad hoc routing protocols are proposed 7 implemented. In this paper, authors researched on performance differentials for comparison of contemporary Ad hoc network routing protocols. Authors used Ad hoc network with 30 nodes for simulation and performance evaluation. For performance evaluation of proposed networks with respect to throughput, number of retransmission attempts, Control traffic sent and received Data Traffic sent & received with the help of OPNET simulator. Data transmission rate 2 Mbps used. Simulation was performed for 20minutes. Finally, authors observed that AODV performs better as compared to other protocols i.e. DSR and DSDV.

In this approach [39], the MANETs are researched. As MANETs becomes popular, their responsibility to support real time applications is growing as well. Quality of service (QoS) provisioning is becoming a critical issue in designing mobile Ad hoc networks due to the necessity of providing multimedia applications. These applications have stringent QoS requirements such as throughput, end-to-end delay, and energy. Due to dynamic topology and bandwidth constraint supporting QoS is a challenging task. QoS aware routing is an important building block for QoS support. The primary goal of the QoS aware protocol is to determine the path from source to destination that satisfies the QoS requirements. This article proposes a new energy and delay aware protocols called, energy and delay aware Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector Routing (EDAODV) and energy and delay aware Dynamic Source Routing (EDDSR) based on extension of AODV and DSR. Simulation results show that the proposed protocols have a better performance than AODV and DSR in terms of energy, packet delivery ratio and delay.

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