Radio Frequency Identification Describe The System Computer Science Essay


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Radio Frequency Identification describe the system which is used to transmit the identity of an object or a person wirelessly using radio waves or it is a technology that uses radio waves to endow automatic identification of objects and peoples. In RFID the data is stored and retrieved remotely by using radio waves. RFID is more preferable and efficient they do not need to focus the light of sight to access data such they have ability to communicate with multiple tags with readers that have larger read range. This technology has probable to provide automated data acquisition and analysis system, enable visibility of environment in which the tracking is not possible, it provide better utilization and in this way it optimize and improve the operational efficiency of the system. The RFID system consist a tag (active or passive) that is simple radio frequency chip coupled with a microprocessor which communicate wirelessly to RFID reader. Active tags are used for large scale operations because its range is up to 300 feet or more and they are powered by a battery and automatically broadcast their signal. But the passive tags are used for medium scale operations and their range is up to 40 feet for fixed readers and 20 feet for handled readers and they have not a power source and power is supplied by the reader. The RFID reader is a radio frequency (RF) transmitter and receiver control by a microprocessor or digital signal processor. It uses an attach antenna to capture the data from RFID tag and passes the data to a computer for processing. The RFID system consist tag, reader, reader antenna, controller, host and software system, communication infrastructure.


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Tag Reader Communication software

Fig. 1 Basic RFID system

Antenna provides the medium for the integrated circuit to transmit its information to the reader that modifies the radio waves reflected back from the RFID tag into digital information that passed on to computers which analyse the data. The controller is used to control the functionalities of RFID system. RFID is communicated through radio waves so software system is used which decipher the radio waves into logical terms. it can be separate from a reader and stored on a system. The simple working of the RFID system is a radio device (tag) is attach to the object that need to be identified when this tagged object is present in front of the RFID reader. The tag is transmitting the data to the reader via the reader antenna. And the reader read the data and has a capability to forward it over the suitable communication channel RFID tags and readers have to be familiar to the same frequency to communicate. RFID systems use many different frequencies, but the most common are low-frequency (near 125 KHz), high-frequency (near 13.56 MHz) and ultra-high-frequency or UHF (near 860-960 MHz). Microwave (near 2.45 GHz) is also used in some applications. Radio waves behave differently at different frequencies, so it is important to select the right frequency for the right application. RFID is a type of technology that has been used around since World War II. Up to now, it has been so costly it is impractical for many commercial applications. If there is a possibility of manufacturing of less costly tags, they can solve many of the problems relating to bar codes. The travelling process of radio waves is mostly done through non-metallic materials, So that they can be interpolated in packaging or imbed in protective plastic for waterproofing and greater durability. And the tags have microchips that can store a unique serial number for every product manufactured around the world. RFID is not considerably better than bar codes. These two are different technologies and have different applications, which sometimes go beyond. The big difference between the two is that bar code is a line-of-sight technology. That means a scanner has to see the bar code to read it, which means people usually have to orient the bar code toward a scanner for it to be read. Radio frequency identification, by contrast, doesn't require line of sight. RFID tags can be read as long as they are within range of a reader. Bar codes have other shortcomings as well. RFID is a section of automatic identification which applied to identify or track object, person and animal through a radio frequency. The RFID has been distributed in various applications such as supply chain visibility, asset tracking, process management, inventory management, real-time location, security, payment technology and marketing campaign access control, transportation.

Chapter 2


Aikaterini Mitrokotsa, Melanie R.Rieback and Andrew S. Tanenbaum describe all the most generic RFID attacks into RFID layers which are related but not identical to ISO layers. They discover structure of possible attacks that can affect the RFID system and defined how we can prevent these attacks with safe handling. By contemplate the point of attack, its systemic effects and countermeasures jointly they can obtain a more coherent view of the threats and what must be done to counter them. They emphasis on the existing weaknesses of RFID system so that a better understanding of RFID attacks can be helpful to achieve and subsequently more efficient and effective the algorithms techniques and procedures to face these attacks may be develop. [1]

Geethapriya Thamilarasu and Ramalingam Sridhar identify the various RFID security threats and exposures to RFID components and describe the framework of intrusion detection system for detecting malicious reader and tag deportment in RFID. They have discussed the limitations and weakness of on tag cryptographic security solutions. They evolve the security framework with an IDS module including of the reader layer and middleware layer and estimate the prevention and detection mechanisms. [2]

L.Kovavisaruch, P.Suntharasaj they both introduced the radio frequency interface to the smartcards and the contactless cards for payment and ticketing application in transportation system in Thailand. They also define the key success factors (standardization of RF spectrum, Cost of RFID tag and reader, Privacy and security issues, nation policies and human resource development) to successfully implement RFID in Thailand. They proposed that RFID will surely become a condition for transportation with both private sector and public sector due to the emerging demand of RFID market around the world. [3]

Samer S. Saab, Zahi S. Nakad, describe indoor poisoning systems (IPSs) using passive tags. They presented mathematical modelling of distance and position errors taken from RFID tag RSSI (received signal strength information) measurement, incorporating an angle-dependent loss factor. Their proposed work is based on an object which carries an RFID reader module, this module reads low-cost passive tags installed next to the object path. A positioning system using a Kalman filter is proposed by them. The inputs of the proposed algorithm are the measurements of the backscattered signal power propagated from nearby RFID tags and a tagâ€"path position database. [4]

Lars Kulseng, Zhen yu, Yawen Wei, and Young Guan described secure tag search problem in low-cost RFID systems. They proposed number of lightweight protocols based on LFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register) and PUF (Physical Unclonable Function). The protocol proposed by them can prevent adversaries from learning tag identity and from impersonating RFID reader and tag. In their work, they were able to confirm the feasibility of the design presented by them. Although their tests were conducted in a FGPA (field programmable gate array) environment, an ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) implementation would perform similarly, as they have confirmed. [5]

Smart transportation system is the concept of intelligent transportation which hold a huge range of systems and applications. Smart electric vehicle (EV) charging, real-time traveller information, city wide traffic monitoring, transit signal priority, and centralized fleet vehicle management can all be categorize as forms of intelligent transportation systems or smart transport. What makes them prudent is the use of embedded intelligence to connect vehicles to each other and connect them to infrastructure and with central operational sites too. Transportation systems are also contemplate smart when they are applied to obtain smart policy goals in the urban environment, such as enhanced mobility, reduced fuel consumption, and improved safety, economic competitiveness. [6]

Jichang CAO, Lin SHU, Zhengding LU defined the anti collision algorithms for a radio frequency U-card system. The RF-UCard system is a contactless smartcard system which has multiple chip operating systems and multiple applications. A multi-card collision may occur when more than one card within the reader’s read field and thus it lowers the efficiency of the system. They presented a novel and enhanced algorithm to solve the multi-card collision problems in an RF-UCard system. The proposed SDA algorithm assigns a synchronous dynamic coordinative scheme that dynamically adjusts the frame size in the reader and the respond probability in cards to maximize the efficiency to identify the card and processing. [7]

Kurra Mallaiah defines the mini DES (digital encryption standard) algorithm for RFID security. The MiniDES symmetric key algorithm is appropriate for RFID tag security. It considers the type of security attainable in RFID based devices with a small amount of rewritable memory, but it has very limited computing capability. The writer aim is to show that miniDES algorithm is efficient and sufficient to provide the security for the RFID based systems, there is no need for very complex cryptography algorithms which requires very high power of computational power. In RFID system miniDES providing the authentication and provide the validity of tag is done in the microcontroller itself. Lower complex and light weight cryptography algorithms like miniDES are more applicable for low power RFID based embedded systems. [8]

Vinay Deolalikar, Malena Mesarina, John Recker, Salil Pradhan defined the clustering algorithms for RFID based system. They suggest two main algorithms which solve the clustering problem of RFID systems these are min max algorithm and Eigen-analysis based algorithm for clustering that are simple and do not need extensive computation. The accent suggested by them is based on simplicity. The algorithms can be implemented without the assistance of any sophisticated software, and in smaller network scan even be implemented by hand. [9]

Sindhu Karthikeyan and Mikhail Nesterenko describe the RFID security ways without extensive cryptography. They define the secure tag identification and tag sequencing algorithms for secure against known cipher text attacks. The secure tag identification algorithm is used to safe the tag and reader communication from the intruders and the tag sequencing algorithm is used for in multiple-tag version, the reader find out the keys of all the tags present. Over and above, each tag learns the position of its key in the order in which the keys of the tags participating in the identification session. This scheme can be called multiple tag sequencing. Once the tag comes to know about its position, after that the second phase of the identification algorithm can be proceeding in sequence. The reader broadcasts the messages for the tags in the order of their keys. Each tag receives the message sent particularly to it and ignores the rest. [10]

GENG Shu-qin, WU Wu-chen, HOU Li-gang and ZHANG Wang introduced the anti collision algorithms for multi-tag RFID. They defined the tree based protocols in which the collision occurs within a timeslot, the colliding tags are randomly separate into two subgroups by freely selecting 0 or 1, until all tags are identified. Those tags which select 0 transmit their IDs to a interrogator right away. Suppose a collision occurs again, then the collided tags are spited again by selecting 0 or 1. The tags that select 1 wait until all the tags that select 0 are successfully identified by the interrogator. Or in case if all the tags those select 0 are resolved, the tags those select 1 send their IDs to the interrogator. That procedure is repeated again and again until there is no further collision. They also defined the slotted aloha algorithms which are used to reduced the collision in RFID system. [11]

Christy Chatmon, Tri van Le and Mike Burmester describe the secure anonymous RFID authentication protocols. They proposed the three anonymous authentication protocols (YA-TRAP, A 1-pass and2-Pass optimistic anonymous RFID authentication protocol, which are used to prevent the RFID system from unauthorized tracking and monitoring, impersonation or cloning, and information leakage. these algorithms are based on security schemes like hash functions and pseudorandom functions because of that schemes these protocols are more efficient and scalable. [12]

Tao Cheng, Li Jin describes the Analysis and Simulation of RFID Anti-collision Algorithms. They introduced the binary tree algorithms and ALOHA algorithms, are based on simple anti-collision method of TDMA (Time division multiplexing).ALOHA algorithms have many advantages versions like Slotted ALOHA, Framed Slotted ALOHA and Dynamic Framed Slotted ALOHA. They defined the simulation of anti-collision algorithms and their results, in the simulation different parameters of the algorithms are used to examine the performance of the algorithm and several results are presented. And they proposed the advanced DFSA (Depth First Search Algorithm) algorithm which is better than the DFSA and binary tree algorithms. [13]

Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi, Ivan Visconti, and Christian Wachsmann describes User Privacy in Transport Systems Based on RFID E-Tickets. They analyzed the vitality of current proposals for privacy protection of e-tickets and examine the applicability of privacy improving RFID-based protocols. They introduced the anonymize and issued protocols which provide the authentication and privacy of E- ticketing system. They also discussed suitable security and privacy requirements for e-tickets and point out the shortcomings of existing proposals. Then propose solutions for practical privacy-preserving e-tickets based on cryptographic techniques and RFID technology. [14]

The problem on toll road RFID tags is Privacy, Anonymity and Individual Liberty. Toll road is a built road for which the user of the road is required to pay a fee or toll. TO solve these problems we use smart sensors which Smart Sensors are used digital wave radar for vehicle detection. Smart Sensor measures the vehicle volume, occupancy, speed and classification. The collected information is NOT used for law enforcement purposes. We use this information to produce the speed map and to produce travel times displayed on the dynamic message signs on the freeways. [15]

Chapter 3

Present Work

Presently huge work is going on in RFID. It is a vast technology. There are many algorithms for security but less work has been done on the security on the transport system with light weight cryptography.

3.1 Scope of Study

The study will deal with the implementation of communication system for better efficiency and effective control of the Punjab transportation system. In this system RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technique is used which will lead to improve the quality, reliability, efficiency and security of system. Already RFID is used for commercial applications like e-passports, toll plaza, inventory checking, supply chain management etc.

3.2 Problem Formulation

After reading many papers on RFID then it was found that there is less work done on the security of transportation system. There are number of security attacks like spoofing, cloning, eavesdropping etc. that can affect RFID applications. So an OBTS (Optimise Bus Transport System) application will be made for the transportation system using RFID to provide the security to the data base and tags and readers. Light weight security algorithm will be used on OBTS.

3.3 Objective

Bus transport system is the most used transportation system in Punjab. In this research we would apply RFID technology on transportation system which will result in improved quality of service that present the attractive image of the transportation system. For security purpose RFID technology is enhanced with Anti collision algorithms like binary tree algorithm and ALOHA and light weight authentication protocol like Mini DES, playfair cipher. Some of other security protocols/algorithms that will be considered necessary for the implementation of such a system would also be used. The study of current status of transportation system and necessary steps and issues concerned in implementing the OBTS (Optimised bus transportation system) and its cost in transportation system would also be discovered. This study also includes the technologies and changes needed that aim to increase the efficiency and quality of services.

3.4 Research Methodology

In OBTS (Optimised Bus Transport System) application the transponders are attached on the buses, RFID readers are placed on counters in bus stations and controller, host and software system, communication infrastructure, enterprise data store are placed on back end. When the bus comes to counter, tag and reader communication starts. Tag sends the information through radio waves to reader. Reader collects the information and sends it to the RFID software system. The software system receives this information and sends it to the database and the admin pick this information from database and decide whether to issue fine or not


Fig. 3.1 OBTS concept diagram

Further the security of the application is the main issue because this application prone to cloning, spoofing, eavesdropping attacks. So light weight crypto protocols will be used which will secure the communication and the overall system. We will apply this on tags because tag send information to the reader the attacker can attack that information so tag security is the main focus. Implement light weight protocols like MiniDES or secure tag identification, Play-fair cipher on transponder, the information that transponder will send will be in encrypted form. So no one can read this information without authorised reader. In this key concept is used that will enhanced the security of the application. They key concept will further used when the reader will send the information to the local server. When the reader receives the information from tag which is in encrypted from then it will decrypt the information with its private key and again encrypt it with his public key and send it to the local server. The local server will save this information into the database. Then admin pick the information from database which is in encrypted from and decrypt it with his private key and check the information if the bus is on time then there will be no fine and if it miss its time then issue the fine to that bus and store this information into database. This application will be implemented in MATLAB.





Local software


Pay fine

Admin Late

Don’t pay fine Within time

Fig.3.2 flowchart diagram of OBTS

4. Work Plan with Timelines



Searching for problem.

8 August 2012 To 10 September 2012.

Research on the problem

11 September 2012 To 25 September 2012.

Current research going on the problem.

26 September 2012 To 20 October 2012.

Identifying Scope of problem and problem definition.

22 October 2012.

Check for implementation weather solution can be implemented or not .

25th October 2012.

Reading more papers related to problem.

Up to 16th November 2012.

Report writing.

Up to 25th November.

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