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The science and practices of radio communications has become one of the most used systems in our global world today and it is important to most of the industries, especially in the military organisation, they have been using High Frequency (HF) radios for over 80 years in fact in the year 1909 the first man who saved one thousand and six hundred lives in the sea was a radio operator. Also radio stations are one of the most popular ways of communicating to the rest of the world with the latest news and music; it's very reliable and cheap to the listeners.
The way radio communication works is, a sound is transformed into an electronic signal and then the information gets transmitted to space in a magnetic wave which is also known as radio wave, than the receiver intercepts the radio wave and extracts the electronic signal, which then transforms back to its normal form by a transducer which is known as a speaker.
This report discusses what radio communications are and how it was introduced, as well as their uses. It gave a brief description of the operating principles of a radio communication system that uses the electromagnetic waves and also their methods. It's also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of radio communication.
Today, radio communications system has entered our daily lives in so many ways that it is very easy to overlook the multitude of its facets. Before the name radio was introduced, it was known as "wireless telegraph," which only had involvement with telegraph and telephone machines. In the year 1887, the existence of radio wave was first discovered by a German physicist called Heinrich Hertz. However his work was so inspiring to an Italian inventor called Guglielmo Marconi. Marconi took it further with the help of his assistants and was able to transmit waves across the Atlantic without any use of electrical wires, at that time this was not possible but this didn't discourage Marconi but instead he broke through to the technology of radio communication were it allowed people to communicate from a far distance. This then progressed year by year, and now we got the modern radio communication technology were we are able to pass messages instantly anywhere around the world by a push of a button.
Initially in this report, the explanation of radio communication will be given. Also, the functions, applications and mode of operations or operating principles will be considered, as well as brief designs of some radios use in communications system and ends in discussing a possible future use of radio communication.
How does Radio work
In today's world, radio is one of the important ways of communication because this allows people to listen to music and keeps you up to date with the latest news; this was a great achievement for the 20th century. The way radio work is every time you change stations the radio waves are changing, theses radio waves are invisible can only extract with electromagnetic waves. They can travel in speed through any kind of atmosphere and when they reach a radio receiver the transducer will transform it back to its original form of sound. The only way radio station can send information is through a transmitter. Sine wave is used for radios but it will not hold any information unless pulse modulation, amplitude modulation or frequency modulation encodes information in it.
Pulse modulation (PM) is simply used to switch the swine wave on and off, by doing this it will allow it to create sounds and this method is called Morse code.
Amplitude modulation world of radio, it is AM frequencies which can be heard from up to 1,000 miles on a clear night, but has a slight disadvantage to FM frequencies do to its mono state and poorer wave reception which is why television uses AM instead of FM frequencies.
In frequency modulation, wireless technology is a user of this type of sine wave. It is also the audio part of television broadcasting because of the stereophonic signals which can be added to FM rather than AM.
PRINCIPLES OF RADIO COMMUNICATIONS
The modern radio communication has been invented in the early 20th century where basic broadcasting had appeared like music and use of voice, and slowly over the years stuff like text in the form of telegrams passed through radio waves.
Frequencies of a signal is measured in hertz (HZ), for a average humans minimum range of tone which can be at least heard from 30 hertz(HZ) and the maximum would be about 12000 hertz(HZ) which is very loud tone, this is where audio spectrum range gets involved. In signals audio range holds a low frequency and this won't trigger the antenna, for an antenna to radiate you will need a high frequency signal known as the carrier signal to deliver the information through.
The Radio Frequency Spectrum
The Radio signal is too big that the units are used in kilo hertz, mega hertz and also giga hertz but for the frequency of signal are expressed in Hertz.
The antenna has to get great range of frequencies to radiate efficiently and this can be done by the frequency of signals, because its long range distance the radio frequency is divided into different types of bands.
its main use is for aircraft beacons, navigation (LORAN), information, and weather systems
3 000 kHz
Navtex uses 518 kHz and 490 kHz for important digital text broadcasts
30 000 kHz
this range is extensively used for medium and long range terrestrial radio communication
300 000 kHz
VHF is commonly used for terrestrial radio broadcast and for marine communications and aircraft communications
3 000 000 kHz
satellite-based positioning systems as well as mobile phones use the UHF spectrum
Microwave frequency bands:
1 450 MHz
The carriers of the GPS, Glonas and Galileo positioning systems are in the L band
5 200 MHz
The S band is used by weather radar and some communications satellites (e.g. Inmarsat)
6 200 MHz
The C band is primarily used for open satellite communications
10 900 MHz
The X band is used by some communications satellites and for radars systems
Radio Wave Propagation
Radio wave propagation is how the waves travel from a point to another, if there is any problem occurring in the transmission between two stations then that will affect the communication.
Electromagnetic waves (EM waves) are formed when the antenna wire are made to oscillate back and forward. These waves trigger upwards starting from the source with the rapid speed of light, basically every second is three hundred meters. Electromagnetic waves always travel in a straight line and they travel quicker through a vacuum than anything else. When an electromagnet (EM) waves stretches from a point it loses its strength and this is known as "inverse square relationship".
BENEFITS OF RADIO COMMUNICATION
Listed below are some benefits of a radio communication has to offer in the 21st century.
It can deliver an individual calls or group calls to multiple users
They can offer the ability to provide instant communication over a given distances without changeable call costs.
For security purposes it can run a safe passage of highly sensitive information securely, without the risk of being compromised by use of voice encryption.
Emergency calls can be made which means it can be prioritised.
Digital voice recorder can be used as well which enables the storage of all communications on channels with simple searches of time and date to locate incidents.