Purpose Of The Web Page Computer Science Essay

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Usability Testing: To check if the website is fully utilized based on the consistency of content and navigation of the website and check if the guided instruction satisfies the users' purpose.

Interface testing: To check that the web application connects with multiple platforms and handle appropriate errors properly.

Compatibility testing: To make sure that all application meets the expectation of the user.

Web Performance testing: To test the performance of the uptime and downtime in web hosting.

Web Security testing: To make sure the website is securely safe to conduct banking transaction online and sharing of customers' personal data to GrandfatherClocks (GFC) over the internet.

1) Functionality Testing:

Test Case

Aspect of functionality

Purpose

Input

Expected Output

Links

Image links

Make sure the right link is attached to the image

User click on the image featuring a "New Arrival"

User will be directed to a page where the website will features all products under the new arrivals category.

Internal links

Make sure each internal link is referencing to links within the main domain.

User to click on an option "Shop By Size" where it will sub categorize category based on "less than 300mm, 300-395mm, 400mm - 495mm, 500mm - 695mm, 700mm and above"

The website will direct user to "Shop By Size" followed by directing user to respective sub category that the user selects.

External links

Make sure each link is referencing to an external link outside the main domain.

User to click on an external link to 'www.paypal.com' from GFC's website

User will direct to "Paypal" website in a new window.

Broken links

Make sure the website does not consist of broken links otherwise; user will not gain any access to what interest them and lose interest in browsing GFC website.

User clicks on to a broken link

Broken link will direct user to a web page.

Orphan links

Make sure the orphan links are working and is open in a new window.

User click on an orphan link

The orphan link, open in a new window, should direct user to a valid dead end page.

Email links

Make sure all email links are valid

User to click on to the email link provided on the website

Mailbox will open with the option to send an email to sales@grandfatherclocks.com.

Forms

Optional fields

Optional fields allow user to leave the field empty.

User leaves the field blank by skipping the field.

No error is expected

Mandatory Fields

Field cannot be left empty

User leaves the field blank by skipping the field.

Empty fields will be highlighted for user to fill.

Field Level Validation

Make sure all fields are accurately filled

User input an incorrect email address

(Assuming login ID is based on email address)

User will prompt to re-enter a correct email address.

Field Level check

The server will make sure the fields are correct and store the information properly.

User to input incorrect characters in the login field

(Assuming login ID is based on email address)

user will be notified with invalid field and need to re-enter the correct information.

Edit form

Choice to add, modify, delete and view forms

User wants to modify the content of the form

Forms update users' modification.

Error Handling

When encountered with any wrong input, the site will prompt the appropriate error messages

need to ensure that server stores the right shipment details and database to make sure the transaction data is being stored properly

When user inputs incorrect characters in the login field

(Assuming login ID is based on email address)

The server is unable to interpret the information and will prompt "Invalid email address"

Web cookies

Enable cookies in browser

Cookie contains an ID that will store information about the users and its activities.

User adds multiple items in shopping cart

Keep track of all the different items put in cart based on the cookie ID

Disable cookies in browser

Cookie will not store any content of user's activities.

User adds multiple items in shopping cart

The website is unable to keep track of the user's activity and the list of selected items in the shopping cart will not be reflected.

Encrypted cookies

Prevent modification of information during data transfer of session.

User to use credit card to pay online via paypal

Information such as credit card saved in the cookies are securely encrypted with 128-bit encryption.

Cookies Statistic

To calculate and generate traffic counts

User re-visit the website

The cookie will recognize the entrance of a repeat customer and prompt "Hello, welcome back to GFC"

Validate your HTML

Cross-browser

Ensure syntax-free pages are displayed correct across various browsers in existence of different platforms

User to open website with Internet Explorer, Mozilla and Safari on Linux platform

Website perfectly display all contents on Internet Explorer, Mozilla and Safari on Linux platform

Future compatibility browsers

Ensure syntax-free pages are displayed correct to support future browser and platform

User to open website with Internet Explorer 20 (in the future)

Website perfectly display all contents

Search engines visibility

Using html keywords to index GFC sites and improves the search engine crawler

User can easily search for keywords of GFC such as "prestige grandfather clocks" in search engine such as www.google.com

Google will display search engines related to "prestige grandfather clocks" that includes GFC website - which will appear on the first page of the search results of each search engine

Validate Tags

JavaScript tags

Make sure website identifies script tags when encounter load errors

User request to open an JavaScript application

The application will return a 404

Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) tags

Make sure website identifies CSS tags when encounter CSS load errors

User request to open an image that is not found in GFC website

The website will return a 404

Database Connection

Data consistency

Check if using web forms is inserting data consistently into the database

User submit a web form online through GFC website

The data will be updated to the database

Data Execution

Ensure that tasks are created, edited, deleted and updated correctly

User edit a web form online through GFC website

The data will be updated to the database

Database connectivity

Data can be retrieved from database

User perform account authentication through GFC website

Connection between GFC website and database is establish

Verify data retrieval

Acknowledgement of delivering the correct data

User submit a web form online through GFC website

GFC website and database will acknowledge a connection is established before connecting website to its database

2) Usability testing

Test Case

Aspect of functionality

Purpose

Input

Expected Output

Navigation

Navigation menu

Horizontal menu provides a list of basic choices and gradually direct user to navigate through the GFC website.

User is scans the navigation menu and chooses "View All Clocks"

The navigation menu is displayed on top of the screen on every page and user will be directed to "View All Clocks".

Site maps

A one-stop navigation page provides a list of all the links available in the website.

User who is lost during navigation can directly click on links featuring "buy prestige clocks", where it is easily found on the sitemap of the main page.

Within a click, user is directed to the site featuring various set of "Grandfather clocks"

Side bar

Highlight the content of the website or to provide additional navigation

User can click and view past history item

The webpage will re-direct user to the particular item

Navigation through mouse

Ensure all features of the website are well navigated with the use of a mouse

User moves its mouse to click on last option on the navigation menu - "Track Progress" and left-click once on the option

Page will direct user to "Track Progress" site.

Navigation through touch pad

Ensure all features of the website are well navigated with the use of a touch pad

User moves its mouse to click on last option on the navigation menu - "Track Progress" and tap once on the touch pad

Page will direct user to "Track Progress" site.

Navigation through tab

Ensure all features of the website are well navigated with the use of a 'tab' button

User uses 'Tab' button to navigate to "Track Progress" option and press 'Enter'

Page will direct user to "Track Progress" site.

Search option

Help user to find content based on a search query.

User search items based on keywords

All related queries are presented for user to browse

Customized GUI icons

Provides easy interface to navigate within website

User click on an "Go to Top" icon

Once the button is clicked, user will be directed to top of the page.

Refresh button

The button will refresh the page once it is clicked.

User click on 'Refresh' button

Refresh web page

Forward button

The button will check its forward history once it is clicked.

User click on 'Forward' button

Page will reload forward loaded page

Back button

The button will check previous history refresh the page once it is clicked.

User click on 'Back' button

Page will reload previous loaded page.

Content

Spelling Errors

Ensure correctness of words is properly used

User reads the website content

User can read and fully understand the contents easily.

Broken product link

Make sure the website does not consist of broken links otherwise; user will not gain any access to what interest them and lose interest in browsing GFC website.

User clicks on to a broken product link

The website is unable to direct user to the product and prompt "Sorry, product not found" since the product link is invalid.

Anchor text links

Make sure that all hyperlink references are working

User clicks on the hyperlink

Website opens a new page that direct user to the link that they clicked

Images

Appropriate sizes (100X100 pixel image) and clear resolution should be used

User to "view all clocks" images on websites to look around of the design of the clocks available.

Each image of the clock is presented in 100x100 pixels to allow user to browse all the clocks.

Popup image viewer

Zoom images quickly and display higher quality images at bigger dimensions.

User click on the 100x100 pixel image that features a round clock

A clearer resolution image will pop up with a 500x500 pixel image of a round clock

Font theme

Ensure theme, bold, italics and underline fonts are not overuse. Use appropriate font effects that clearly present itself (Typical font theme used on website is sans-serif font)

User reads the header of Lucida console fonts while the contents are in sans-serif font

User can read contents clearly.

Font colors

Make sure the appropriate color combination is used carefully without distracting the user from browsing.

User reads the fonts in black while the background of the website is in white.

User can distinguish between the background and the colours of the content with the sufficient foreground-background contrast

Font sizes

Use the appropriate font sizes

User reads the website content with a font size of 12 pixels

User can read contents clearly. In addition, user can manually adjust the font size based on the standard browser commands

Wrapping text around image

Make sure that the text layout are orderly aligned according to the images

Displaying Wrapping text and orphan text

Wrapping text is aligned properly with the images where orphan texts are properly aligned on its own.

Use Cascading Style Sheet (CSS)

Make sure all presentation contents (such as fonts, margins, headers, and line heights) are consistently maintained.

User view the website

The presentation of the website is organized and neatly display within the windows

3) Interface testing 

Test Case

Aspect of functionality

Purpose

Input

Expected Output

Handle Server's Error

Server' error check

Ensure internet connection between the GFC server to Paypal server handles proper error recovery

User lose internet connection from the Paypal credit card verification server

Transaction will not be charge if interruption exists during session

Error Handling

Ensure server acknowledge and display appropriate error message to users

User lose internet connection from the Paypal credit card verification server

Error message such as "Incomplete transaction, transaction is canceled" will be catch and display to the user

External interfaces

Web interface

Paypal will include web interface to verify user's identity before processing real-time transactions.

User wants to make an online transaction via Paypal.

PayPal's external servers will ask user for additional data to verify user's identity before fulfillment of orders.

4) Compatibility testing

Test Case

Aspect of functionality

Purpose

Input

Expected Output

Browser

Browser design

Make sure the web design works on different browsers and platform (such as operating system and mobile platform)

User to open website with Internet Explorer, Mozilla and Safari

The website loads properly on the browser.

Version of browser

Make sure application works on different browser versions

User to open website with Internet Explorer 6, 7, 8

The website loads properly.

Operating system

Operating system

Ensure that web application is compatible to different operating system (Windows, Unix, MAC, Linux, and IBM).

User to open website with Windows and MAC

The website loads properly.

Mobile browsing

Mobile Browser

Make sure the webpage is compatible on mobile browser

User to open website with Safari on iPhone

The website loads properly

Mobile device screen sizes

Check website is compatible with different screen landscape or portrait modes.

User browse website with a screen rotation option

The website loads properly

Printing

Printer

Make sure the printing formats are aligned properly with what users expect.

User wants to print the webpage in A4

Prints user's expected print size.

Modem/connection speeds

Modem Speed

Make sure different modem speed can support and connect the website loading time.

User to open the website using a cable modem and DSL modem

Make sure both modem can support and load the website at a relatively short time.

5) Web Performance testing

Test Case

Aspect of functionality

Purpose

Input

Expected Output

Web Load Testing

Web Load Testing

Ensure that large number of users (accessing/requesting same page) at a time can keep up with the website load.

Multiple users to access website at a particular timing

Each user can still load and access the web page without much delays

Mobile Load Testing

Ensure that large number of users (accessing/requesting same page) at a time can keep up with mobile application (Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Blackberry)

Multiple users to access website at a particular timing

Each user can still load and access the web page without much delays from the mobile application

Cloud Load Testing

Ensure large number of users at remote areas can keep up with the cloud application.

User are located at remote location wanting to access website

Each user can still load and access the web page without much delays

Web Stress Testing

Web Stress Testing

Ensure website responds and recovers from stress

Multiple users to access website at a particular timing

Each user can run the website smoothly for continuous use without any down time.

Mobile Stress Testing

Ensure website responds and recover from stress via mobile application (Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Blackberry)

Multiple users to access website at a particular timing

The website will be able to run for continuous use without any down time from the mobile application.

Cloud Stress Testing

Ensure cloud application responds and recovers from stress

User are located at remote location wanting to access website

Each user can still load and access the web page without much delays

6) Web Security testing

Test Case

Aspect of functionality

Purpose

Input

Expected Output

Security

Login check

Ensure all fields are not empty

User leaves the username field empty

User will be prompted with " Invalid username/ password"

Login validity

Without proper authorization, access is denied.

User accidentally place an incorrect field during login

The login will not allow user to gain access to their account

Login timeout

Has time out policy during sign in that allows a maximum tries of three

User sign in on the fourth time

Login Time out is reflected

Captcha Technology

Identify the identity of a human in order to avoid spam.

User completes filling up a form and hit the submit button

User is prompt to enter a captcha before the form is submitted successfully.

Open internal url

without logging in

Ensure that internal url will not allow unauthorized access

User to log in account and copy and paste the address link on another browser

The website should not display information (Eg Paypal details) and access is denied.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

Ensure proper implementation of SSL to encrypt and secure data transmitted over the network

User make a transaction online

User will be prompt to switch from a non-secure http:// pages to secure https:// pages

Task 2

Suppose you can only retain 25% of your test cases, because it is too expensive to run all of them. Explain which 25% you would choose and why they are worth keeping compared to the 75% you decide to drop, under this tough cost constraint.

17 test cases are retained: 17/68 X 100% = 25%

1) Functionality Testing:

Test Case

Aspect of functionality

Purpose

Keep/ Drop

Reason

Links

Image links

Make sure the right link is attached to the image

DROP

Similar to broken links (test case 41).

Internal links

Make sure each internal link is referencing to links within the main domain.

DROP

Similar to broken links (test case 4).

External links

Make sure each link is referencing to an external link outside the main domain.

DROP

Similar to broken links (test case 4).

Broken links

Make sure the website does not consist of broken links otherwise; user will not gain any access to what interest them and lose interest in browsing GFC website.

KEEP

Unbroken links are the most important link to navigate through the website to browse, order and purchase an item online. Without proper links, the website is useless.

Orphan links

Make sure the orphan links are working in a new window.

DROP

User can simply redirect the GFC website by re-visiting the website.

Email links

Make sure all email links are valid

DROP

User can alternatively drop an email through forms available on the GFC website.

Forms

Optional fields

Optional fields allow user to leave the field empty.

DROP

Similar to test case 12

Mandatory Fields

Field cannot be left empty

DROP

Similar to test case 12

Field Level Validation

Make sure all fields are accurately filled

DROP

Similar to test case 12

Field Level check

The server will make sure the fields are correct and store the information properly.

DROP

Similar to test case 12

Edit form

Choice to add, modify, delete and view forms

DROP

Similar to test case 12

Error Handling

When encountered with any wrong input, the site will prompt the appropriate error messages

need to ensure that server stores the right shipment details and database to make sure the transaction data is being stored properly

KEEP

There will be error handling to acknowledge the user of the right data to be stored properly in the database, hence all form will ensure field validity after it is checked and verified.

Web cookies

Enable cookies in browser

Cookie contains an ID that will store information about the users and its activities.

KEEP

Enabling cookies will allow user to add item to cart as well as keeping track of statistic and encrypting information stored during session.

Disable cookies in browser

Cookie will not store any content of user's activities.

DROP

Similar to test case 13

Encrypted cookies

Prevent modification of information during data transfer of session.

DROP

Similar to test case 13

Cookies Statistic

To calculate and generate traffic counts

DROP

Similar to test case 13

Validate your HTML

Cross-browser

Ensure syntax-free pages are displayed correct across various browsers in existence of different platforms

KEEP

Valid HTML syntax-free website will ensure positive professionalism across browsers.

As a result, this test case also tests the compatibility testing of the browser design (test case 50) and operating system (test case 52).

Future compatibility browsers

Ensure syntax-free pages are displayed correct to support future browser and platform

DROP

Similar to test case 17

Search engines visibility

Using html keywords to index GFC sites and improves the search engine crawler

DROP

Similar to test case 17

Validate Tags

JavaScript tags

Make sure website identifies script tags when encounter load errors

DROP

Similar to test case 21

Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) tags

Make sure website identifies CSS tags when encounter CSS load errors

KEEP

Important to identify load errors, assuming GFC adopts the CSS style in test case 46.

Database Connection

Data consistency

Check if using web forms is inserting data consistently into the database

DROP

Similar to test case 23

Data Execution

Ensure that tasks are created, edited, deleted and updated correctly

KEEP

Make sure that the data are correctly saved in the database and the correct data is being extracted from the database

Database connectivity

Data can be retrieved from database

DROP

Similar to test case 23

Verify data retrieval

Acknowledgement of delivering the correct data

DROP

Similar to test case 23

2) Usability testing

Test Case

Aspect of functionality

Purpose

Keep/ Drop

Reason

Navigation

Navigation menu

Horizontal menu provides a list of basic choices and gradually direct user to navigate through the GFC website.

KEEP

Require to guide user through the website

Site maps

A one-stop navigation page provides a list of all the links available in the website.

DROP

Similar to test case 26

Side bar

Highlight the content of the website or to provide additional navigation

DROP

Similar to test case 26

Navigation through mouse

Ensure all features of the website are well navigated with the use of a mouse

DROP

Similar to test case 26

Navigation through touch pad

Ensure all features of the website are well navigated with the use of a touch pad

DROP

Similar to test case 26

Navigation through tab

Ensure all features of the website are well navigated with the use of a 'tab' button

DROP

Similar to test case 26

Search option

Help user to find content based on a search query.

DROP

User can navigate the website through guided navigation menu provided. Hence, search option is an alternate option.

Customized GUI icons

Provides easy interface to navigate within website

DROP

GUI provides value-added service by providing better graphical interface for user to easy access, however it test case is similar to test case 26

Refresh button

The button will refresh the page once it is clicked.

DROP

Similar to test case 34

Forward button

The button will check its forward history once it is clicked.

DROP

Similar to test case 34

Back button

The button will check previous history refresh the page once it is clicked.

DROP

Similar to test case 34

Content

Spelling Errors

Ensure correctness of words is properly used

KEEP

It is important to have good English command, as the website is the 'promoter' to promote the items GFC is selling in terms of content as well as image.

Broken product link

Make sure the website does not consist of broken links otherwise; user will not gain any access to what interest them and lose interest in browsing GFC website.

DROP

Similar to test case 4

Anchor text links

Make sure that all hyperlink references are working

DROP

Similar to test case 4

Images

Appropriate sizes (100X100 pixel image) and clear resolution should be used

DROP

Similar to test case 41

Popup image viewer

Zoom images quickly and display higher quality images at bigger dimensions.

KEEP

Hence, a clearer view of the image will add value to the selling of product.

Font theme

Ensure theme, bold, italics and underline fonts are not overuse. Use appropriate font effects that clearly present itself (Typical font theme used on website is sans-serif font)

DROP

Similar to test case 46

Font colors

Make sure the appropriate color combination is used carefully without distracting the user from browsing.

DROP

Similar to test case 46

Font sizes

Use the appropriate font sizes

DROP

Similar to test case 46

Wrapping text around image

Make sure that the text layout are orderly aligned according to the images

DROP

Similar to test case 46

Use Cascading Style Sheet (CSS)

Make sure all presentation contents (such as fonts, margins, headers, and line heights) are consistently maintained.

KEEP

Overall, the website presentation will add value to user's attention to browse through all the products in the website. The CSS will do the trick.

3) Interface testing 

Test Case

Aspect of functionality

Purpose

Keep/ Drop

Reason

Handle Server's Error

Server' error check

Ensure internet connection between the GFC server to Paypal server handles proper error recovery

KEEP

As far as online transaction is involved, error handling is important to ensure customers and seller that transaction is securely safe to conduct. In the presence of unforeseen circumstances, error handling is responsible in checking and verifying with server interface.

Error Handling

Ensure server acknowledge and display appropriate error message to users

DROP

Similar to test case 47

External interfaces

Web interface

Paypal will include web interface to verify user's identity before processing real-time transactions.

KEEP

Important to check that interaction between human and computer machines are effective as this is the only channel for user to communicate with GFC

4) Compatibility testing

Test Case

Aspect of functionality

Purpose

Keep/ Drop

Reason

Browser

Browser design

Make sure the web design works on different browsers and platform (such as operating system and mobile platform)

KEEP

It is important to check the browser is compatible to browse GFC website as well as the compatibility on operating system and mobile platforms.

Version of browser

Make sure application works on different browser versions

DROP

Similar to test case 50

Operating system

Operating system

Ensure that web application is compatible to different operating system (Windows, Unix, MAC, Linux, and IBM).

DROP

Similar to test case 17

Mobile browsing

Mobile Browser

Make sure the webpage is compatible on mobile browser

DROP

Similar to test case 50

Mobile device screen sizes

Check website is compatible with different screen landscape or portrait modes.

DROP

Similar to test case 50

Printing

Printer

Make sure the printing formats are aligned properly with what users expect.

DROP

User can reformat by manual adjust the appropriate sizes they expect.

Modem/connection speeds

Modem Speed

Make sure different modem speed can support and connect the website loading time.

KEEP

It is important to make sure that different types of modem speed can support and load the website at a relatively short time.

5) Web Performance testing

Test Case

Aspect of functionality

Purpose

Keep/ Drop

Reason

Web Load Testing

Web Load Testing

Ensure that large number of users (accessing/requesting same page) at a time can keep up with the website load.

KEEP

Important to check the web load to determine the performance of the website performance and its ability to cope and keep up with traffic demands

Mobile Load Testing

Ensure that large number of users (accessing/requesting same page) at a time can keep up with mobile application (Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Blackberry)

DROP

Similar to test case 57

Cloud Load Testing

Ensure large number of users at remote areas can keep up with the cloud application.

DROP

Similar to test case 57

Web Stress Testing

Web Stress Testing

Ensure website responds and recovers from stress

DROP

Similar to test case 57

Mobile Stress Testing

Ensure website responds and recover from stress via mobile application (Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Blackberry)

DROP

Similar to test case 57

Cloud Stress Testing

Ensure cloud application responds and recovers from stress

DROP

Similar to test case 57

6) Web Security testing

Test Case

Aspect of functionality

Purpose

Keep/ Drop

Reason

Security

Login check

Ensure all fields are not empty

KEEP

As far as security is of concerned, the main purpose of security is to avoid theft in terms of account and information. With proper validation of to ensure sufficient authorization and proper implementation of security over the network are in place to avoid security breaches.

Login validity

Without proper authorization, access is denied.

DROP

Similar to test case 63

Login timeout

Has time out policy during sign in that allows a maximum tries of three

DROP

Similar to test case 63

Captcha Technology

Identify the identity of a human in order to avoid spam.

DROP

Similar to test case 68

Open internal url

without logging in

Ensure that internal url will not allow unauthorized access

DROP

Similar to test case 68

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

Ensure proper implementation of SSL to encrypt and secure data transmitted over the network.

KEEP

It is important to conduct safety security measures and protect against user privacy to gain users' trust on making transaction online.

Task 3

Regression Test Prioritization

Regression testing is a software testing that constitutes several test cases. The selection of regression test is important as each test case is carefully select and execute on a retest-all approach. The retest-all approach is where each test case are tested, improvised, and retested frequently. However, with the growing demands of test cases, retest-all approach is unable to cope with current regression testing demands and it is not efficient and practical to re-execute program each time a change arises. Therefore, the problem is to solve with Regression Test Prioritization (RTP) where it seeks to achieve adequate measures in the early phase of testing.

With earlier detection of regression faults, RTP can make priority on fault cases by allowing the execution of the defect cases to the prioritized and are to be released earlier in the test execution phase. RTP is achievable with using search Based Software Engineering (SBSE) to maximize fault coverage.

What is SBSE

SBSE seeks to resolve search problems with optimized search based algorithms. SBSE adopts search based optimization techniques to solve search problems by achieving optimization in regression testing based on the (2) representation of solution and guided by a (1) fitness function, with reference to Figure 1.

SBSE.png

Figure 1: Architecture of SBSE Approach

(1) Achieve high fitness function

The fitness function is used to guide with the selected representation and monitor the output of each test case, as shown in the diagram of Figure 2.

Figure 2: Diagram [1] of how search based progress with fitness function and representation (search based optimization algorithms) SBSE.png

As mentioned earlier, fitness function is a guide that determines the degree of optimal representation to search problem of each regression test cases. In order to design the fitness function, a metric known as Average Percentage of Faults Detected (APFD) measures the quality of each test representation. The higher the APFD values, the test cases have higher priority in terms of detection faults where faults are more likely to be revealed earlier in the testing process.

(2) REPRESENTATION

Representation is solution to the possible set of regression test cases derived from its raw data. Suppose a regression test suite contains a total of n test cases, {T1, T2, ... Tn }, Figure 3. SBSE approach will select representation based on the available choice of search algorithm that will be best optimized the regression test cases.SBSE2.png

Figure 3: the regression test cases are arranged based on its priority

With SBSE, there are three approaches to solve search problems: random search, local search algorithm, and global search algorithm. These approaches help software engineers to solve search problem to use optimize solutions to modification data based on fitness function.

Random search, Figure 4, is the easiest search algorithm but it does not guarantee the optimal result as solution is randomly selected. Hence, random search approach is not recommended for regression test prioritization.

Figure 4: Shows the gap between the selected solutions and its optimal result.

With reference to Figure 5, Local Search Algorithm (LSA) is suitable for problem that requires smallest changes. Hill climbing and Simulated Annealing are examples of LSA. Basically, LSA selects a representation randomly, evaluate its surrounding fitness, and swap with a stronger fitness representation. Eventually, LSA will climb towards the most optimize point of the fitness function.

Figure 5: Local search algorithm with reference to the use of fitness function

Global Search Algorithm (GSA), Figure 6, is a genetic algorithm that is largely recommended for permutation-based representations (such as regression test cases that contain large volume of test cases). GSA consists of three genetic operators: selection, crossover, and mutation. Each operator will ensure that all representation will be optimized.

Figure 6: GSA will adjust to ensure fitness optimization.

Advantage of SBSE[2]:

Scalability: the algorithm of fitness is a 'natural parallel' [1] that provides minimal overheads.

Applicability: Arrays of SBSE techniques available for software engineers to identify and resolve search problem using the right solution and the aid of fitness function.

Robust: Optimization algorithms have the ability to handle noise, inaccurate data, and fitness anomalies. [http://www0.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/mharman/fase10.pdf]

Feedback: SBSE has the ability to re-addresses problems by providing acknowledgement of alternate solutions.

Realistic: SBSE approach is cost-effective on providing suitable techniques for solving conflicting engineering objectives.

In conclusion, SBSE is strongly recommend to be adopted as Dr. Kirkoti is able to use the optimization algorithms from SBSE, guided by fitness function, to improve the problem of regression test cases. Therefore, regression testing can certainly optimize problems by using Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE).

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