Purpose And Characteristics Of System Modules Computer Science Essay

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a) Identify and report the names, purpose and characteristics of system modules such as mother board, power supply, CPU, Memory modules, storage devices, display devices, adaptor cards, ports and cases in the given machine.

Motherboard is also known as main board, that the main part of the computer to install and plug the all devices and equipments such as processor, memory devices, hardware equipments into the various kind of slots, ports including expansion slots to start the computer for work.

Basically motherboard comes with in-built systems programs such as BIOS and CMOS (Basic Input/Output System) set up with an non-volatile memory like cache memory. They help to configure the internal configurations to interact with external and internal hardware devices. As examples, when all the components and devices successfully installed to the motherboard, motherboard system set-ups can control and change the hardware devices such as CPU clock, disk types and boot sequences.

In this motherboard generation, some motherboard comes with in-built hardware devices like VGA, sounds and network cards.

Power Supply


This is the unit of supply power to all the hardware and devices that working electronically in the computer. in this modern world, power supply unit divided into 2 different type.



It is depending on the region and alternative current and direct current as well.



CPU also known as the brain of the computer, processor and central processor. CPU stands for Central Processing Unit. The main function of the CPU is doing arithmetic and logical operations on the data given.

Memory Modules


The memory modules are who the computer systems or processing items who keep in side of the computer as temporary or permanent. Such as,

01. RAM -Random access memory who keep the all the system and software application's data from the CD or hard drive drivers in the motherboard. Also known as volatile memory. in the Random access memory they keep only data as long as your computer is running and they help to access the read and write data from the Central Processing unit.

Types of memory module:


01. Dual in-line package memory

02. SIPP memory, Single In-line Pin Package memory

03. SIMM, a Single Inline Memory Module

04. DIMM, Dual Inline Memory Module

05. SO-DIMM, Small outline Dual In Line Memory Module (use for laptop computers)

Storage Devices


Storage device is a device of a hardware to store the data permanently and temporary. The types of storage devices are primary and secondary storage devices. The primary storage device is that the data temporary keep while the computer is on such as RAM and Cache and the secondary device is the data can keep permanently or long time such as hard disk drives, floppy disk drivers, zips disk drivers and USB storage drivers.

Display Devices


Display devices are the output devices to show or present the out put process done by visually and auditive. As examples for projectors and monitors,

Adaptor Cards, Ports and Cases


The adaptor card also known as expansion slots are mostly use to insert the various types of adaptors such as, VGA (Video Graphic Adaptor), Sound Card, Network Card, Modems, SCSI and RAID controllers.

The adaptors devide into several types of slots as follows,

01. ISA

02. PCI

03. VLB

04. CardBus/PC card/PCMCIA

05. AGP

b) Identify the names, purposes and performance characteristics of the standardised peripheral ports in the machine such as Serial, Parallel, USB, Firewire, DB, RJ, Din, Mini-DIN, Centronics, Associated cabling and their connectors.

Serial port:


The serial port is type of another interface that standard by RS-232 manufactured as a 9 pins connector to transfer the information and data. This is one of an old type technology specially used to connect keyboard and external modem in early 90's. The disadvantage of this port is they are transferring data by one byte at a time. This port controlled by a chip set known as Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter.

Parallel port:


Parallel port is standard by DB-25 manufactured by 25 pins connector. this port specially designed for connect with external device, such as printers. The newest technology of parallel port is Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP).



The Universal Serial Bus port, commonly known as USB port is the latest technology of the connect electronic devices such as Digital Camera, Mobile Phones and External Data Storage Devices to the computer by cable. This is faster than serial and parallel port in the computer. this device can transfer the data and as well as electric power in between connected devices and its quick and easy to get connect with each other.



The firewire is the fastest and latest technology for transfer the real time digital data from digital device to the computers. This is standard by IEEE 1394 standard connection interface. This communication system transferring their data and information by wireless, fiber optic, and coaxial using the isochronous protocols. Sony and Apple applications are currently use this communication method for transfer data.

RJ Connectors:


The Registered Jack, mostly known as Cable call RJ-45 and RJ-11, basically use for Local Area Networks to connect computers by Ethernet cabling and also connect telecommunication systems such as Telephone systems (local land phones and inter-communication systems).



Din stands for Deutsches Insitute Normunger. This is the newest version of DIM technology. Mini-DIN is an adaptor to connect keyboard to the motherboard with 6 pins and commonly named as 6 Pin Male Mini-DIN.



This Centronics interface designed by Epson Company for specially connect printers with other parallel devices.

Associated Cabling:

Task 2

a) List the 3 most popular types of mother boards, their components and their architecture.

There are three types of mother boards in the computer industry known as

01. Full AT


Full at is the oldest type of the mother board in history. They have several internal hardware problems like ventilation problem due to the expansion slot and the huge of the size of motherboard.

02. Baby AT


this is the latest motherboard technology came after the full at motherboard. This is 3 times of

smaller than the full at and it has a plug and play technology and all the slots are perfectly built

without bothering to the motherboard.

03. ATX


the newest technology of the motherboard is AT. This motherboard comes with the PII processor

and the AGP slots and improved by the lot of new technologies.

b) Identify the purpose of CMOS memory in your PC and list out what it contains. Describe how and when it is necessary to change the CMOS parameters.

The CMOS stands for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor and configuration of the computer's initial instructions of hardware devices and start-up bootable functions such as Basic Input and Output settings called BIOS and also functioning up the Power On Self Test called POST including the Random Access Memory functions.

If user wants to re-edit the CMOS set-up, user must have a password. If the changes done the newest settings, then it will start-up with latest CMOS settings, that exit by saving the configurations. Also you can check the manufacturing original settings, can change the bootable device and can change some CMOS parameters for hardware devices like fan and temperature.

c) You are required to use two different types of Printers and list the following information derived from each printer:

i) What are the printer technologies, interfaces and options for upgrades available for your printers

Toner-based printers

This technology use by laser printers to give the high capacity of quality, scanning by the original source. The cost of maintenance and usage is too high and very expensive to use this type of printers, but the printer toner can use few more times without recycling the toner. This technology is faster than the old versions of printing such as dot-matrix and liquid ink-jet printers. This is available by color and black and white.

Liquid inkjet printers

This is most common printing technology using these days to printing technology. This is digitally creating the image as dropping the color ink from the ink panel and drying quickly. The disadvantage of this technology is easy to dry the ink box if the printer does not use eventually. This is available by color and black and white.

Dot-matrix printers

These type of printers specially use for the graphical and text base documents that needed to get the print outs by black and white. Basically this printers printing by putting dots and pixels into the paper. The advantage of this printer is easy to print the graphical items and the disadvantage is taking much of time to get the work done.

ii) What are the 2 common printer problems which you can expect from our printers, list out

remedies for the problems using appropriate references?

Jamming the paper inside of the printer.


This is one of a major problem while the user trying to print. The main solution for this matter, user musty always use to correct size of paper such as A4 or A3 and make sure that what is the paper size user going to get the printouts. And use the proper quality of the paper quality and the manufacturer of the paper. Because if the user always changing the manufacturer of the paper, printer's rubber rollers those who transfer the papers from the paper tray printing panel, going to waist as much faster than ordinary usage.

Some printouts getting fade.


The solutions for these problems, you might have to check the previous original printer set up configurations that they are properly configured as per the instructions. Because original manufacturer's instructions always useful to get the printout correctly. If not have top check the toner or cartridge that it is empty or getting empty. If so, user has to replace the toner or cartridge.

priner driver

Task 3

a) Identify the types of network cables their characteristics and the connectors which you will use for the network.

In the computer network field there are various types of network cables and connectors use for networking. They are,

Copper Cables (Twisted Pair Cable [STP and UTP] and Co-Axial Cable)

Fiber Optic Cable

The Copper Cables are basically divided into two types such as Twisted Pair Cables and Co-Axial Cables. Twisted Pair Cable also divided into two types know as Shield Twisted Pair Cable and Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable. Shielded Twisted Pair Cable use for transfer the electricity power and Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable use for the general computer networking known as CAT 5 Patch Cable standard by RJ-45 (IEEE).

And the Connectors also the connectors for the said network cables are RJ-45 Connectors that standard by (IEEE) the given name. These are the most common and basic connectors and cable which are using computer networking.

For a small house or connect two to three computers, i suggest the standard size 0RJ-45 twisted pair cable and standard size RJ-45 Ethernet connectors required.

b) Research and list five different technologies available for Internet connectivity for your network and list their strengths and weaknesses.

Nowadays there are so many common ways to get connect with internet. They are in order to assenting,


Dial-up internet connection was the easiest way to connect to the internet in the late 80's allowed by the Internet Service Provider. This is the easiest way to connect to the internet by using a normal telephone and with a 56kilobite modem also this connection has the lowest download and uploads speed than the other connections such as ADSL, DSL and Satellite. When the telephone line connected to the modem unit, the data will be converted from digital to analog. This is the process that the modem does.

Digital Subscriber Link (DSL)

Digital subscriber link is another high speed connectivity to connect with internet through a Internet Service Provider. When you are in a local area network that usually connects by the telephone line, DSL will speed up your connection multiple times that the actual speed. The advantages of the DSL are this DSL modem can use for the same telephone line and no need to install for new wiring also you can use the phone and in the same time you can transfer the data without traffic and blocking the connection. The disadvantages of the digital subscriber lines are you always have to stay closer to the service provider. Otherwise you are losing the connection or will low down the connection speed.

Advanced Digital Subscriber Link

Advanced Digital Subscriber Link known as ADSL or broadband is the most popular high speed internet connectivity in the world in these days. You can easily connect to the internet through an ADSL modem or a router if you have the internet facility in your telephone. This service can stay 24/7 online until you disconnect the line. The advantages of these services are its much high speed internet started the speed rate from 100 Kb up to 500KB per second. And also you can use the telephone while you are connecting to the internet. And the disadvantages are line will be faster when you are closer to the telephone line and also internet connection will be poor when the line sharing many people at the same time.

Cable Modem Broadband

Cable Modem Broad band is originally use for connect with radio frequency platforms. This is one of a world's high bandwidth speed connection that transferring and communicating data through the Hybrid Fiber Coaxial cables as a digital data packets. the advantages of the cable modem broad bands are they can transfer the data from 30 megabyte per second and above. That means it's hundred times faster than the ADSL and DSL internet connections. And cable modem broadband also always connected to the internet unless you turn off manually. This will be the disadvantage because it is threaten by the hackers to hack the computer system via cable modem broadband connection.


Satellite is the most expensive and high speed connection platform to get connect to the internet. The speed is averagely 600k per second and its depend on the service of the satellite service that they support. The most common advantage is Satellite . service is available in anywhere of the world. This service mostly using where the places of the ADSL, internet connection or telephone services that not available. The common disadvantages are Satellite (HST) is quite expensive than the other connections and equipment and installation cost also too expensive.

c) List the 5 networking capabilities of Windows XP

01. Wireless networking

02. Windows firewall

03. Network set up wizard

04. Web browser

05. Email and Instant Messenger

Task 4

a) List out the names, locations, purposes and contents of any 10 Windows XP (or later versions permitted) system files.

01. Kernel32.dll

This is the most important system file in the windows operating system. It is stored in the C:\WINDOWS\system32 for the operations such as control the memory operations and management, run the operating system and input and out put operations.

02. Ntdll.dll

This is another important windows xp operating system file allow to do the functions for the NT Kernal. This system file is located in the windows system's c:\windows\system32.

03. Hal.dll

The Hal.dll windows xp operating system file stands for Hardware Abstraction Layer Dynamic Link Libraries. This system file also located in the C:\WINDOWS\system32 connects with Kernal to perform the hardware platforms, specially for the ChipSet.

04. Boot.ini

This windows xp operating system file is running the main part of the operating system in the booting up process. This can adjudge to startup the operating system.

05. Ntldr

This system file is the newest technology of the boot loader specially for the windows xp, windows server operating systems. it helps for the system boot drive and run the hard disk drive. This system file located in C:\WINDOWS\SoftwareDistribution\Download\9866fb57abdc0ea2f5d4e132d055ba4e

06. Ntbootdd.sys

This system file strongly helps for the start up process as a copy of the SCSI device driver.

07. User32.dll

This is the 32nd version of windows Dynamic Link Library file and this is the processing system file of windows message known as GetMessage, TranslateMessage and DispatchMessage.

08. Ntkrnlpa.exe

You can easily find this system file in C:\WINDOWS\system32 use for the windows operating system.

09. Advapi32.dll

This system file is also known as Advance Application Program Interface. it is use for the windows registry files and for the solving errors on the operating system.

10. Gdi32.dll

This system file is use to perform the Graphical Device Interface to support for two dimensional functions.

b) Use the following tools in Windows such as Microsoft Management Console (MMC), Event Viewer and Task Manager on the system. List out the practical uses of these tools.

Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is an in-build system application comes alone with windows operating system. this application specially designed for do the advanced administrations functions, configurations and operations functions in the windows system included to manage and host Device Manager (to control the hardware parts like modems, cards, ports and USB ports that attached to the mother board), Disk Defragments (to sequence the free space, used space and effected bad sectors file keep in an order.) and shared folder (the folders that shared to use the information and data in the other work stations).

Event Viewer is a program to monitor and track the computer's main activities, such as,

I. Application log (tracking the data base updates and program execute times)

II. Internet Explorer log (tracking internet history and temporary internet files)

III. Security log (Tracking log on time and log off times, creating, editing and deleting of computer


IV. System.log.(Tracking system file updates, error checking, windows system and program updates)

Through the Event Viewer also you can see and monitor the system and as well as software and hardware updates and installations logs.

Task Manager is an utility software in the windows xp operating system that easily open by pressing CTRL+ALT+Del keys and find as a C:\Winnt\System32. you can check and see the how application and programs running on the computer clicking by Application tab, how the computer perform in the system clicking by Process tab, how the usage of Central Processing Unit and Page File History, how the network performance and status of the network clicking by the Networking tab and how the users are working in the system clicking by Users tab. this program can also help to solving system and network errors and for the maintenance.

c) Install two new devices after you have installed the Operating system and list out the procedures which you used for adding and configuring the device drivers.

Installing of a Web Cam

When you install an USB web cam, after you successfully installed of the windows operating system, most of the USB adaptors and devices automatically detecting that you have to plug. But some of devices and adaptors are need to install the software drivers by manually. In this case, you have to go to the control panel and click on the Add Hardware link.

Then go to the Add Hardware Wizard

Go next and select the device that you wanted to configure

Then you can give the drivers file path by selecting the source that you are going to install. And when you are restart the machine the device will perform as usual.

Installing of a USB Mouse

when you plugged the USB mouse, basically the devices like USB mouse, USB keyboard, USB Memory Storages are made as plug and play devices. That mean you don't have to configure or install the hardware and it will be automatically detecting by the operating system. That means those devices are recognizing by the operating system.

Task 5

a) Listing the meaning of common error codes and start-up messages from the boot sequence.

The meaning of the common error codes are basically known as the errors that you are facing ordinary while operating the computer. There are many common errors in the computer system that coming up when the computer starts such as,

01. One short beep - this will notice to show that the problem in the Random Access memory.

02. Double beep sound - when this sound comes, first you have to check the Video Graphic adaptor that properly plugged into the motherboard and if not, you have to remove the adaptor and again plug into the exact socket in the motherboard.

And when you switch on your compute, you can easily find out the start up massages such as,

power good system. from the beginning. And then it will check and finalize the set up of your BIOS boot systems.

keybbord missing

hard disk failer

misiing operation system

b) List the common Windows XP diagnostic utilities and tools, describing the usage of each of these.

The common windows diagnostic tools in the given operating system is such as,

01. Defragmenter

The disk defragmenter is how the computer allocates and keeps the free space, used space and damaged partitions separately in the hard disk drive. And also it will be speed up your computer speed. This diagnostic tool you can find through (c:\windows\defrag.exe).

disk cleanup

02. Scandisk

The Scadisk is one of the most common diagnostic tool that you can find in the windows file in (c:\windows\command\scandisk.exe). This diagnostic toll useful to check and fix the errors in the Hard Disk Drive.

03. Backup

this diagnostic tool helps you to get the copy of a data that you have saved n the hard disk or a copy of the system. It will really helpful to restart the system or data when you loss the data by deleting accidentally or when the computer system corrupted. You can get this tool by visiting (c:\program files\accessoires\backup.exe).