Project Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Computer Science Essay

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Objective: The objective is to determine a set of nodes which can forward the incoming packets by using the routing protocols so that full coverage will be available at any time.

To compare the two routing protocols in finding the route to the destination.

What is Manet?

A MANET is a type of Ad Hoc Network

A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile wireless nodes that can dynamically form a network without necessarily using any pre-existing infrastructure

Because MANETS are mobile, they use wireless connections to connect to various networks.

This can be a standard Wi-Fi connection, or another medium, such as a cellular or satellite transmission.

Nodes must be able to relay traffic since communicating nodes might be out of range.

Some MANETs are restricted to a local area of wireless devices (such as a group of laptop computers)

while others may be connected to the Internet. For example, A VANET (Vehicular Ad Hoc Network), is a type of MANET that allows vehicles to communicate with roadside equipment.

While the vehicles may not have a direct Internet connection, the wireless roadside equipment may be connected to the Internet, allowing data from the vehicles to be sent over the Internet.

What is Broadcasting:

The broadcast refers to the sending of a message to other hosts in the network.

broadcasting refers to transmitting a packet that will be received by every device on the network.

One to many process


Adjacent sides

How broadcasting is used in MANET ?

A MANET consists of a set of mobile hosts that may communicate with one another from time to time. No base stations are supported. Each host is equipped with a CSMAICA (carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance)Transceiver.

A host may communicate with another directly or indirectly.

In the latter case, a multihop scenario occurs, where the packets originated from the source host are relayed by several intermediate hosts before reaching the destination.

Types of broadcasting Protocols used in MANET?

Broadcast protocols can be classified into deterministic and probabilistic approaches.

probabilistic approaches:

The probabilistic approach usually offers a simple solution in which each node, upon receiving a broadcast packet, forwards the broadcast message with probability p.

However, the probabilistic approach cannot guarantee full coverage.

Deterministic Approaches:

The deterministic approach guarantees full coverage

Our project is implemented based on this approach

Existing method:

Probabilistic approach cannot guarantee full coverage

Neighbor set information not accurate

Static network broadcast schemes perform poorly in terms of delivery ratio when nodes are mobile.

There are two sources that cause the failure of message delivery Collision.

The messages from nodes w and x collide at node y, node y does not receive any message.

Mobile nodes, a former neighbor moves out of the transmission range of the current node

Due to these reasons the broadcasting protocol in mobile network may not result in accurate result.

Proposed System

The proposed system based on mobility management and, in particular, neighbor set management in a mobile environment.

The broadcast protocols in MANETs based on self-pruning.

The major task is of Mobility Management where, the capacity of MANETs is constrained by the mutual interference of concurrent transmissions between nodes.

This proposed method maintains a mobility control method that addresses connectivity, link availability, and consistency issues.

Three sufficient conditions are given:

first one on the connectivity of the physical network to ensure connectivity of the virtual network,

second one on the bound of the range difference to ensure link availability,

third one on the consistent local views to ensure correct decision made at each node

Algorithms used:

Single neighbourset routing:

Each node determines its forwarding status based on its local single neighbor set information.

Dual neighbourset routing:

Each node determines its forwarding status based on its local Dual neighbor set information.


Military scenarios

Sensor networks

Rescue operations

Students on campus

Free Internet connection sharing



Simulation Environment

Single Neighbor-set Routing

Dual Neighbor-set Routing


Simulation Environment

To implement and test the algorithm simulated model is designed for mobile adhoc Network. Here the dotnet class is written to simulate the cellular network. The cellular region is created with dotnet code and the nodes are placed in various places. This is done by calling a method to place node. Number of nodes in the network is based on user input.

The user interface form gets the input from the user regarding Number nodes. According to input the method creates small circle which denotes the node and it is placed on the cellular region randomly by generating random number and this multiplied by the user screen x and y position.

This concept gives the uniqueness of the node. Thus cellular region and number of nodes according to user is created. Now this module has to give provision for calling the implemented algorithm and must display how coverage is guaranteed in the network.

For this screen has facility to invoke the algorithm. This module completes simulated version of mobile adhoc network and is ready for processing. Here the simulated model for mobile adhoc is created and the algorithm is employed on that. The separate module is invoked to perform this operation.


The mobility management and, in particular, neighbor set management in a mobile environment in this project is based Connectivity, link and availability.

The broadcast protocols in MANETs based on self-pruning. The major task is of Mobility Management where, the capacity of MANETs is constrained by the mutual interference of concurrent transmissions between nodes. The mobility of nodes adds another dimension of complexity in the mutual interference.

Broadcast Protocols Based on Self-Pruning, which helps in a MANETS. This is modeled as an undirected graph G = (V, E) where V is a set of mobile nodes and E is a set

of wireless links. A link exists between two nodes u and v if and only if their physical distance is less than a transmission range r.

The proposed efficient broadcast protocol based on self-pruning. In a self-pruning protocol, each node determines its forwarding status based on its local k-hop information, where k = 2 or 3.

This proposed method maintains a mobility control method that addresses connectivity, link availability, and consistency issues.

Single Neighbor-set Routing

Here dot net class is written to implement the above mentioned sufficient condition based on each node determines its forwarding status based on its local single neighbor set information.

Based on next single neighbor set information is forwarded to link the virtual network based on link availability.

Dual Neighbor-set Routing

Here dot net class is written to implement the above mentioned sufficient condition based on each node determines its forwarding status based on its local Dual neighbor set information.

Based on next two different neighbor set information is forwarded to link the virtual network based on link availability.


The result of the above mentioned algorithm is compared in the following three properties



And Availability

Software Requirement

Operating System - Windows XP/2000

Language used - VB .Net

Database: SQL Server 2005

Design Analysis

Single neighbor set:

The union of the sets of nodes that can be visited from a source in the required no of hops.

This is also referenced as a single neighbor set or k-hop neighbor set.

Dual neighbor set:

We maintain two sets to ensure full coverage:

The first set is the set of nodes in the transmission range r1. This set is the set that is broadcast in hello messages. It called the advertised neighbor set.

The second set is the set of nodes that are in the coverage range r2 of a node. It is called the effective neighbor set. This is not sent in the hello packets.

Black nodes are forwarded nodes

White nodes are non forwarded nodes

Using a small "Hello" transmission range may gives partition in the logical Network. As shown in Figure (a),

When the "Hello" transmission range is r1, neither node u nor v view node w as a neighbor,

Because they cannot receive "Hello" messages from node w.

Therefore, both nodes u and v are non-forward nodes, and no one will forward the broadcast packet to node w.

Using a larger r1 violates the link availability condition

The broadcast process may fail due to the lack of a buffer zone. Figure (b) shows the situation when r1 = r2 is used.

Analysis design

Adding mobile users

Selecting source and destination to establish connection

Choosing hoping

Single,checking one neighbour node

Dual,checking two neighbour nodes

Comparison of single and dual method

Administrator -



nodesAd-Hoc Network Sequence



Add mobile nodes

Enter mobility count


Enter Source node

Single Neighbor set Routing algorithm

Duel neighbor set routing algorithm

Display Ratio


Enter destination node

Administrator -




Username & password

Change username



Invalid login

Use case Diagram for Ad hoc

Start Mobility

Source node & destination for simulation

Add Nodes

Apply Single neighbor set routing


Apply Duel neighbor set routing

Comparison Result


The project is designed with Visual Basic. Net. The user screen designed to get Node count and provisions were given to invoke the Single Neighbor set Routing and Dual Neighbor set Routing algorithm. Finally with help of simulation comparisons results were displayed on the frame.


The .NET Framework is a new computing platform that simplifies application development in the highly distributed environment of the Internet.

Objectives of. NET FRAMEWORK:

1. To provide a consistent object-oriented programming environment whether object codes is stored and executed locally on Internet-distributed, or executed remotely.

2. To provide a code-execution environment to minimizes software deployment and guarantees safe execution of code.

3. Eliminates the performance problems.

There are different types of application, such as Windows-based applications and Web-based applications.

To make communication on distributed environment to ensure that code be accessed by the .NET Framework can integrate with any other code.



The common language runtime is the foundation of the .NET Framework. It manages code at execution time, providing important services such as memory management, thread management, and remoting and also ensures more security and robustness. The concept of code management is a fundamental principle of the runtime. Code that targets the runtime is known as managed code, while code that does not target the runtime is known as unmanaged code.

Front end used :

Microsoft Visual Basic . Net used as front end tool. The reason for selecting Visual Basic dot Net as front end tool as follows:

Visual Basic . Net has flexibility , allowing one or more language to interoperate to provide the solution. This Cross Language Compatibility allows to do project

Visual Basic . Net has Common Language Runtime , that allows all the component to converge into one intermediate format and then can interact.

Visual Basic . Net has provide excellent security when your application is executed in the system

Visual Basic .Net has flexibility, allowing us to configure the working environment to best suit our individual style. We can choose between a single and multiple document interfaces, and we can adjust the size and positioning of the various IDE elements.

Visual Basic . Net has Intelligence feature that make the coding easy and also Dynamic help provides very less coding time.

The working environment in Visual Basic .Net is often referred to as Integrated Development Environment because it integrates many different functions such as design, editing, compiling and debugging within a common environment. In most traditional development tools, each of separate program, each with its own interface.

The Visual Basic .Net language is quite powerful - if we can imagine a programming task and accomplished using Visual Basic .Net.

After creating a Visual Basic. Net application, if we want to distribute it to others we can freely distribute any application to anyone who uses Microsoft windows. We can distribute our applications on disk, on CDs, across networks, or over an intranet


It is a database server. This is used to store the data preeminently. In this project we are stored the user information and verify the user information from database.



Testing plays a critical role for quality assurance and for ensuring the reliability of the software. Its basic function is to detect the errors. After the coding phase, testing is done to test the proper working of the new system. Testing is the process of executing a program with the intention of finding errors. Thus, a series of testing is performed on the system before it is ready for coding. Since code is the only product that can be executed frequently whose actual behavior can be observed, this phase is so important for the successful implementation of the software product. Thus, the goal of testing is to uncover the requirements, design and coding errors in the program

Unit Testing

The first step in the testing is the unit testing. Unit test is normally considered as an adjunct to the coding step. After the coding has been developed, received and verified for correct syntax, unit testing begins. The standalone modules were tested individually for their correct functionality, with the corresponding data. Each and every module is tested independently with sample data and it was found that all modules are properly functioning.

Integration Testing

The second step in the testing process is the Integration testing. it is a systematic technique for constructing the program structure while conducting tests to uncover errors associated with interfacing. All the modules when unit testing will work properly but after interfacing the data can be lost across an interface, one module can have an inadvertent, adverse effect on other, sub functions

Integration testing was performed by integrating all the individual modules Hence, the objective of integration testing is to take unit tested modules and build a final program structure.

Functional Testing

This test involves testing the system under typical operating conditions with sample input values. Functional testing was performed on the system



Forgot Password

Our form input is designed to accept the following details

The simulated model creates the cellular region as follows

According to the Node count the nodes are placed in the cellular region for proposed system study. Enter the number of node to be created

The static neighbor set algorithm is invoked by selecting the source and destination. This draws the routing as follows in green line

Start mobility


Destination node

Single neighbor set

Next the dual neighbor set is invoked for the same that draws the routing in blue line as flows

Now the form input design has got the provision for comparison which is cliked to see the comparative study

which gives the result that is displayed on the left side frame with Delivery Ratio by means of Simulation method

EX2: Source:50 Destination:120


7. Implementation

Implementation includes all those activities that take place to convert from the old system to the new. The new system may be totally new, replacing an existing system or it may be major modification to the system currently put into use. This system "Efficient Broadcasting With Guaranteed Coverage in Mobile adhoc Network " is a new system. Implementation as a whole involves all those tasks that we do for successfully replacing the existing or introduce new software to satisfy the requirement.

The test case has performed in all aspect and the system has given correct result in all the cases.

8. Conclusion

This project describes the proposed a mobility management method based on the use of two transmission ranges. Using this mechanism, we have also extended Wu and Dai's coverage condition to a dynamic environment where network topology is allowed to change, even during the broadcast process. In addition, connectivity, link availability,

and consistency issues related to neighborhood information of different nodes have also been addressed. The proposed scheme can also be extended to provide mobility

management for other activities, such as topology control in MANETs.

The constraint used on r2 - r1 in this paper is conservative. Our probabilistic analysis suggests that high delivery ratio can still be achieved with a larger r1. Simulation results

show that the proposed method and the dual neighbor set enhancement achieve good balance between delivery ratio and broadcast redundancy by adjusting the value of r1

based on the network mobility level. A future extension would be automatic buffer zone width adjustment that adapts to the neighborhood mobility level.


1 Steven Holzner , "Visual Basic .Net Programming " Black Book - Dream Tech Press, New Delhi

2. Visual Basic Programmer's Cook Book

3. Software Engineering By Roger Pressman

4. Lee "Introduction to System Analysis and Design" Galgotia Book Source Publications