Programme Of Advanced Networking Computer Science Essay

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A company is developing a new technology that allows lithium-ion battery to be recharge to 80 in 5 minutes and enable the battery life for a laptop to extend from 3 to 20 hours. In addition to this, using the same technology to develop new battery that will provide power to family car for 500 miles and recharged in less than 10 minute.

The company in primary stage and this report gives the information of technology plan and different approaches to achieve the desire battery technology. This report discusses the improvement in battery power management and discuss on different innovations, detail information of Product Lifecycle Management, manufacturing models and analytical techniques which we adopt during the batteries production phase. Moreover, this report gives the deep information about the environmental plans, they play very important role in maintaining the greenery in environment with the help of recommended ISO standards. Finally, we should have to protect the innovation, inventions and intellectual resources of our products by different ways. This report gives in-depth knowledge on protection of intellectual property.


1. Technology Plans

Technology plan is guideline of proper management of resources. It provides predictable results to the organization. Creating something new in any field is called innovation. "Innovation is an invention that has socioeconomic effect; innovation changes the way of people live"(Chayutsahakij and Poggenpohl, 2002). In organizational perspective, innovation may be related to performance and growth through improvements in efficiency, market share and productivity. Moreover, innovation can be described as result of some amount of time and struggle into researching, developing and commercializing the idea in the market with customers. Innovation is complex process. It's divided into two processes. For instance if new opportunities are coming out from research work we called "Technology Plan". Secondly, if market will demand something new we called "Need Pull". Both innovation processes are important but "Need Pull" play significant role in innovation.

There are different types of innovation models. These all models play vital role in development of technology plan.

  • Disruptive Innovation.

  • Open Innovation.

  • Close Innovation.

1.1 Disruptive Innovation

Disruptive information model defines how to improve the products or services in market by lowering price. It defines the market strategy or plans. The term disruptive innovation defined by Harvard professor Clayton M. Christensen. He said disruptive innovation "Describes a process by which a product or service takes root initially in simple application at the bottom of a market and then relentlessly moves up market, eventually displacing established competitors". Moreover, disruptive innovation expands our ideas and knowledge to solve different society and individual problems.

In disruptive innovation model we always target the non- customers for new market. In this model we always design the products according to customer behaviour not for customer requirement. This innovation model is slow process it expands the business and gives profit very slowly because in this model we study current or future market situation. This innovation always drives new developments, the disruptive innovation offers the forecast and fast exponential developments.

Examples

  • Online Gaming (disrupted traditional gaming).

  • Satellite Communications (disrupted radio communication market).

  • Google (disrupted marketers globally).

  • Amazon (disrupted traditional retailers).

  • Telephone (disrupted the telegraph).

1.2 Open Innovation

"Open innovation is the use of purposive inflow and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal innovation and to expand the markets for external use of innovation" (Jeron P.J de Jong, 2008). Open innovation model is described as combination of internal and external ideas as well as these ideas leads to advance the development of new technologies. In this innovation model you create something and then licence it to others or you buy the other people or company ideas. The logic of this innovation model is to distribute the knowledge and new ideas globally. The every company not afford his own research because this is expensive method so with the help of this innovation model we buy the knowledge or inventions (Patent) from other companies. There are few principles of open innovation by (Chesbrough, 2003) describes.

  • We need smart and intelligent people for inside or outside of company.

  • If we utilize our internal or external ideas in efficient manners then we will win the market.

  • Always focus on business model. It is better than to come in market first.

Examples

  • Orange.

  • Cancer Research UK.

  • Presans company in france.

  • IT Hardware (Sun Microsystem).

  • Computers (Dell).

1.3 Closed Innovation

The closed innovation performs by employee, scientist or any individual in closed environment. In this innovation, creativity made by the company R&D and channelled into final product without the ideas from other external sources. This closed innovation model develop and commercialize his own ideas and innovation. Moreover in this innovation model companies develop and manage the finance and then market the product by their own effort. But the disadvantage of this innovation model is if information about innovative ideas is shared indirectly when staffs leave the companies implement this innovative idea to future companies. There are few principles of open innovation by (Chesbrough, H. (2003).

  • We need smart people in our work field.

  • If we produce the product then we will introduce the product in market first.

  • If our ideas are best in industry, its mean we win.

1.4 User Innovation

User innovation is innovation by end users rather than manufacturers. When end users or consumers face problems and they have no choice then they modify the existing products to solve their issues. "Users motivated by their own impetus and performing their problem solving activities autonomously and without any involvement of a manufacturer."(Frank T. Piller and Dominik Walcher, 2006).

Example

The OPAC manufacturers judge many of these user modifications to be commercial interest (Pamela D.Morisson, Dec 2000).

Open innovation is appropriate in all above stated innovation because disrupt innovation gives very remarkable results but expands business very slowly. Similarly, in close innovation we work out on internal ideas only and this is not sufficient to promote the business globally. I recommend open innovation because this model expands business very fast.


2. Product LifeCycle Management

Product lifecycle management (PLM) is the process of managing a product from beginning to end. It gives better awareness and realisation to the product. In PLM we make the entire lifecycle and phases of product production such as conception, design, manufacture and disposal. With the help of PLM we can increase our company profitability. It is "cradle to grave" approach, which ensures that the product production is proper in each stage. PLM also describes the engineering characteristics and properties of a product. PLM enables different functions, like companies to make more new products, drive innovation, increase revenue, Shorten time to product production, Reduce costs, increase productivity and efficiency. There are different phases involved in PLM. Such as

  • Conceive.

  • Design / Develop.

  • Realise.

  • Service.

  • End of life.

2.1 Phase 1: Conceive

In this stage, idea is the description of data requirement based on customers, company, market or regulatory bodies. We identify the success factors, objectives and performance measures. We evaluate the cost on product. What risks are involved in batteries productions. The data models and concepts of operations involved in this stage.

2.2 Phase 2: Design/Develop

In this stage, we design the batteries and tested before launched. We use different specific software to design and simulate the performance of batteries. With the help of software we measure the performance of batteries and then documented. We used Computer Aided Manufacturing tool and experienced staff. There is different design methodologies used. Like Design for Environment (DFE) and Design for Manufacture (DFM).

  • DFE ensures that the design the batteries that are easily recyclable, safe for the end users and provides friendly or green environment.

  • DFM ensures the manufacturing process, marketable costs, product quality and customer satisfaction.

2.3 Phase 3: Realize

In this stage battery manufacturing method is determined (Lean, Six Sigma etc.).

The machine instructions for producing the battery are developed including tools to be used which are then compared in detail to CAD data to ensure uniformity.

In this stage company design the batteries instruction and training manuals and these manuals are distributed among the retailers and agent.

2.4 Phase 4: Service

In phase 4 companies usually provides information to clients about the usage of battery, recycle and disposal safely. The company staffs are proper trained about how to maintain the new technology and they gives good customer service to clients. Moreover, in this stage we take feedback from the client and any problem in product should be taken into consideration for the 1st phase of lifecycle which will help in design reviews of battery.

2.5 Phase 5: End of Life

According to phase 5 when batteries efficiency go down either we recycle or reuse the batteries again or we dispose the batteries for green environment.


3. Manufacturing Plans

In manufacturing plans we examine which manufacturing model, analytical technique and ISO standard is appropriate for batteries.

3.1 Manufacturing Model

There are different manufacturing models these all models concentrate on productivity, quality of service improvement and client satisfaction. They are followings.

  • Fordism.

  • Post-Fordism.

  • Toyota Protection System.

  • Total Quality Management.

  • Lean Manufacturing.

  • Six Sigma.

  • Lean Six Sigma.

3.1.1 Fordism

This method is concerned with mass production and auto industry it is used to improve productivity and make it affordable. It was name after its promoter "Henry Fordism". In fordism manufacturing model (components and manufacturing process) everything was standardized. The primary meaning of fordism is that all workers must be paid high wages to afford the industrialist products.

Moreover, fordism faces the different problems such as

  • Boring
  • In fordism manufacturing model high concentration of level required from the employees. They feel very bore after doing same job each day.

  • Salary Inflation
  • In fordism manufacturing model there is high chances of salary inflation happened because increased salaries to reduce labour turnover.

  • Small Industry
  • The small industries cannot afford fordism manufacturing model.

    These all above reasons play very important role to work on a more flexible manufacturing model.

    3.1.2 Post-Fordism

    Post-Fordism is opposite to fordism system. Post-Fordism is characterised by the following attributes.

  • Batch Production
  • The batch production should be small in post-fordism as compared to fordism.

  • Specialized products and jobs
  • We use our skills or jobs on specialization of products rather than creation of new products. In post-fordism the work is divided among teams.

  • New Information Technology
  • The post-fordism is very much influenced by information technology.

    3.1.3 Toyota Protection System

    This system developed by Toyota Motor Corporation to provide better quality, cheap cost and shortest lead time. TPS basically consist of two manufacture ideology.

  • Just in Time
  • "Just in Time" means TPS offers to develop the right amount of product (battery) in right amount of time according to requirement.

  • Jidoka
  • Jidoka is the concept of "continuous improvement". Jidoka can be explained as

    • Stop and report the abnormalities.

    • Divide human work and machine work.

    3.1.4 Total Quality Management

    It is set of practice in organization to ensure product (battery) is meeting with the customer requirements. TQM primary objective is to concentrate on process management and controls according to continuous improvement.

    3.1.5 Lean Manufacturing

    The primary objective of this model is meets the demands of customers, reduce the production time and increase efficiency and same time eliminate the anything which customers not interested.

    3.1.6 Six Sigma

    The manufacturing model focuses on reducing the problems or defects in product and increases the product (battery) qualities. Six sigma model is preferable model in production of batteries.

    3.2 Analytical Technique

    There are different analytical techniques are used for the continuous improvement and make sure the better quality of product There are two analytical techniques are very important.

    3.2.1 Six Sigma

    We use six sigma approaches because it uses various tools like statistical and non-statistical tools, project management skills, teamwork skills and gives road map to company to maximize the business profit by removing the defects from product. There are so many benefits of six sigma approach.

    • Enhanced understanding of customer demands.

    • Maximize the profit of company by giving high quality products and efficient customer service.

    • Trained the employees properly to handle the various problems of products with the help of different tools and techniques.

    • Try to improve organization standing in market as compared to other competitors.

    Six Sigma can be defined at three stages

    • As a metric.

    • As a methodology.

    • As a management system.

    Six Sigma As a Metric

    The term "sigma" is used to judge the level of quality. Six Sigma equates 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO). This is the methodology for general business improvement.

    Six Sigma As a Management System

    In management system it is considered as high performance system to run business strategies and policies. It solves the problem for top to bottom. It gives structure to prioritize the resources of project and motivate the leaders to produce the project very efficiently and rapidly.

    Six Sigma As a Methdology

    In six sigma as a methodology, DMAIC is core to implement.

    Define the Opportunity

    In first step, we mention the scope and benefits of projects.

  • Measure the Performance
  • In this stage we measure the current state of product. In this stage we use Fish Bone diagram to identify and measure the defects of product.

  • Analyze the opportunity
  • In this stage we predict where the changes will made. Moreover, we identify the root cause problems in product and their impact on business. In this stage, we use different techniques such as Design of Experiment (DOE).

  • Improve performance
  • We reduced the defects and process is simplified.

  • Control performance
  • This stage includes the ongoing measurements. In this stage we ensure the process performance in all levels.

    In six sigma there are several analytical tools are used to ensure the improvement in process such as

    • Cause and Effect Matrix.

    • Quality Function Deployment.

    • Failure Mode and Effect Analysis.

    • Control Charts.

    • Pareto Charts.

    • Design of Experiments.
  • Cause and Effect Matrix
  • C&E matrix analytical tool select one or more product properties and maps them to particular process which enables the measurement of the process performance. In C&E matrix maps the key process input variables (KPIV) to output variables (KPOV).

  • Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
  • FMEA tools identify the problems and failure comes in initial stages of development. This tool gives the comprehensive list of maximum possible failure occur in during production. This analysis occurs at start of product lifecycle. We indentify the errors as well as consequences of errors.

    3.2.2 Business Process Engineering

    According to Business Process Engineering if we rethink or redesign the business process we can increase product quality and efficiency. There are five steps in Business Process Engineering such as

    • Define the objectives and vision of business.

    • Define business process to be redesign.

    • Familiar with the existing process.

    • Build sample of new processes.

    • Define the IT levels.

    3.3 ISO Standards

    To make sure the continuous improvement, we have to take the certification from International organization for standardization (ISO). The ISO take feedback from the public. In big organizations we have to care the utilization of resources, money and time. The ISO verify that can we meet the following requirement such as

    • A quality manual which keeps the information about how company maintains the quality performance requirement.

    • We identify the staff in charge of quality management.

    • A Quality records manual this indicates customer requirement, records and shows the source of raw materials and product test results.

    • We document these all procedures according to ISO 9001.

    There are two ISO standards are very well known.

    • ISO 9000 (Quality Management).

      • ISO 9001.

      • ISO 9002.

      • ISO 9003.

    • ISO14000 (Environmental Management).

      • ISO 14001.

    ISO 9001

    There are number of benefits if we will receive In ISO 9001 certification. Such as

    • ISO 9001 standard gives satisfaction to customers.

    • ISO 9001 standard commercialize the product with high standard and end users recognize the company internationally.

    • ISO 9001 standard gives motivation to employees and they do more hard work to promote the product.

    • ISO 9001 certified Companies earn more revenue as compared to others.

    ISO 14000

    ISO 14000 standard is use to help the companies to improve the environmental performance on the earth. To achieve this certificate we have to follow the following requirement such as.

    • Create Environmental policy and goals.

    • Identify the impact of product (battery) on Environment.

    • Establish legal requirement.

    If company follow Product lifecycle management, ISO9001 and ISO14001 standards in manufacturing of their product. They will take good reputation in market as well as in end-users. I recommend six sigma models in my business. This models gives number of analytical tools and reduce the problems in product.


    4. Environment Plans

    The Environmental management plans play very important role to maintain the greenery in on our earth globally. In each production stage of product (batteries) some carbon will produce. With the help of environmental plans we minimise the carbon impact on our earth. Today so many environmental agencies are working. They introduce different environmental laws and try to enforce these laws on the following companies to make the environment green. This is our moral duty to make good product along with environment protection. There are different factors involved in environmental management.

    • Environment Pressures.

    • Environmental opportunities.

    • Environmental Life cycle Analysis.

    • Design for Environment.

    4.1. Environmental Pressure

    In environmental pressures there are different types of pressures belongs to different groups, communities, trading partners, media, customers and etc they all wants best results in environmental performance and growth. In our company according to requirement the recycling of batteries is very important and serious step. We have to manage the recycling plant should be secure and safe place for all above stated people. According to environmental pressure we have to reduce the impact of carbon of batteries for green environment. Moreover, we have to give the importance on the environmental safety because if any environment or health disaster happen in our company. It gives bad impact on environmental performance as well as it will turn down the company business. As a result company will suffer loss in business and they can pay high insurance premium. There is high number of chance the end-users will not more use the company products in future

    4.2. Environment opportunities

    Company follow the environmental laws, then it will take benefits from different environment opportunities for instance, employees like to work on a place with wholeheartedly as results company make lots of money, cheap insurance rate, good relationship with customers, improved product quality, reduced company risk and more importantly environment is very health. Moreover, we have to use greenmeter management system for our batteries business. It is basically energy tracking and management system. It will calculate CO2 and CO2 emissions in our business and then we easily know about the damages which our business giving to environment.

    4.3. Environment Life cycle Analysis

    Environmental impacts can happen on all stages. So we have to analysis each stage of life cycle very carefully. There are various stages in life cycle analysis for instance, Development, Production, Shipping, Use, Disposal, End of life. In life cycle analysis we have to improve the outcomes of environment performance by prioritize the different stages of product by giving high priority. With the help of life cycle we easily understand and troubleshoot how each stage of product can communicate with each other.

    4.4 Design For Environment

    Design for environment basically based on three elements. They are following.

    • Design for environmental manufacturing.

    • Design for environmental packaging.

    • Design for disposal and recycleability.

    In design for manufacturing, we have composition of raw material. This raw material we used for our batteries production. This raw material should be harmless and easily recyclable. Moreover, we use two types of raw materials. The primary raw material that has not been recycled and secondary material that is recycled or reused. I recommend secondary material for batteries production because they beneficial in reduction in use of earth resources and reduce energy consumption in preparation. In this stage the suppliers have to adopt the emission minimize techniques. This stage mostly emphasis on the usage of minimum materials, resources and minimum waste.

    In production phase we plan the non-toxic productions in terms of energy consumption and emissions. In production phase, we should have to ready to handle if any disaster occur. Moreover, the packaging of the product should be optimized for recyclability, reuse and waste reduction.

    In packaging and distribution phase we ensure that the battery has to be packaged properly with the minimum packaging material. This material should be bio-degradable and recyclable. We minimise the weight and bulk of products in this phase.

    In use and maintenance phase, we are concerned about the batteries usability, lifetime, durability and maintenance factors.

    Certification for Environmental Standard

    We are producing the batteries so we should have to take the certificate from the ISO. This certificate shows to customers we are fulfilling the end-users product requirement and mean times we take care the greenery of environment.

    ISO 14000

    ISO 14000 standard is use to help the companies to improve the environmental performance on the earth. To achieve this certificate we have to follow the following requirement such as.

    • Create Environmental policy and goals.

    • Identify the impact of product (battery) on Environment.

    • Establish legal requirement.

    5. Intellectual Property Protection

    We should have to protect the intellectual resources of our products by different ways for instance patents, trademarks, trade secret, copyrights and etc. We have to consider the intellectual property protection very carefully otherwise we waste our money and time and some other company will wash out our products from the market.

    5.1 Trademarks

    A trademark is symbol or design is used to identify the products from the other products or goods. For example the coca cola have different trademark or design on the soft drinks bottles to make the difference between other soft drinks companies like pepsi.

    5.2 Copyrights

    The copyrights usually given to authors of "original work" for instance articles, journals, books. With the help of copyrights we can reproduce or represent the work publicly. The copyrights only protect the expression of ideas but not the core or fundamentals of ideas.

    5.3 Patent

    Mostly company use patent method to protect the intellectual property. It fully protects the new invention. "The patent is the property rights in inventions, that is, in devices or processes that perform a useful function" (N. Stephan Kinsella, 2001). The term patent means rights given to inventor who invents or discovers any new or useful process. Basically it gives by the state or government to an inventor for specified time. Patent method is different in every country. No one take the advantage of patent products without the inventor consent. There are following steps required to patenting the battery product.

    • Patent information.

    • Power of Attorney.

    • Project/ Task document.

    • We have to compose the complete patent specification of technology.

    • We will send the formal application with the request for search to determine if it is new product or invention.

    • After finishing the search and the invention is not in their backlog, we publicizing this patent.

    This procedure is look like very difficult but it gives so many advantages to us in future. After completion of these all steps the product is under the rights of company.

    Patent is considered as very authenticate to protect the new inventions and intellectual resources of product.


    Conclusion

    It is not easy to conclude the whole battery production in few words but I try to conclude. First of all, I recommend the open innovation model for the battery production because this innovation model uses the internal and external ideas. Moreover, sometimes companies not afford his own research so they buy external ideas of battery production from other company and start work. "Open innovation is not about selling certainty, it's all about managed uncertainty" (Nesta, 2010).

    Secondly, PLM plays very important role in battery production. In five PLM phases we analyze the customer requirements and risks involved in production. Moreover in PLM phases, we design the training manuals of product for staff & end-users. More importantly, we design recyclable products for healthy environment. PLM effects on whole business strategy.

    In addition, Six Sigma and Post-Fordism are considered as good manufacturing tools but I prefer Six Sigma because, we are making high demand product and Six Sigma is only manufacturing tool which gives the high value to our product in market by reducing the errors. Six Sigma provides large number of analytical tools. "Six Sigma is a process improvement model that enables organizations to streamline processes by reducing the number of defects" (Richard Morgan, 2003). It increases our productivity very efficiently.

    Company should certify with ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 standards for the manufacture of their products. Because these standards provide environmental and quality protection management.

    Finally to protect this technology with the company name, patenting it would be considered as the best option in comparison to keeping it secret. Because we can sell the licence of our products to other organization in order to make profit.


    References

    1. Chayutsahakij, P. and S. Poggenpohl (2002). User-Centered Innovation: The Interplay between User-Research and Design Innovation. The European Academy of Management 2nd Annual Conference on Innovative Research in Management EURAM, Stockholm, Sweden.

    2. A Review of User Innovation in the context of technological development, everyday mobility and social practice By Juliet Jain, Glenn Lyons, Andrew May, Val Mitchell and Tracy Ross. Version: 31 March 2008 ( http://www.ideasintransit.org/literature_review-executive_summary-310308.pdf)

    3. Dresner, Howard. (2004). Interview with Clayton M Christensen, Retrieved February4,2007.http://www.gartner.com/research/fellows/asset_93329_1176.jsp

    4. Policies for Open Innovation: Theory, Framework and Cases Jeroen P.J. de Jong EIM Business and Policy Research Zoetermeer, The Netherlands Wim Vanhaverbeke University of Hasselt Hasselt, Belgium Tarmo Kalvet PRAXIS Centre for Policy Studies Tallinn, Estonia Henry Chesbrough Haas School of Business, University of California Berkeley, CA, USA (http://www.openinnovation.eu/download/OIPAFfinalreport.pdf)

    5. Determinants of User Innovation and Innovation Sharing in a Local Market Pamela D. Morrison, John H. Roberts, Eric von Hippel, Published in: Management Science, 46, 12 (December, 2000), pp1513-1527 (http://userinnovation.mit.edu/papers/8_OPACmgtsci.pdf)

    6. Frank T. Piller and Dominik Walcher, http://userinnovation.mit.edu/papers/Piller%20Walcher%20Idea%20Competitions%20R&D%20Mgmt%202006.pdf

    7. Against Intellectual property (N. Stephan Kinsella, 2001) http://mises.org/books/against.pdf.

    8. Fielding Stanley. Going for the green [online] 1999. http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/55174911.html

    9. Nesta opne innovation from marginal to mainstream published in 2010 .www.nesta.org.uk/library/documents/Open-Innovation-v10.pdf

    10. Richard Morgan Six Sigma for IT service Management,2003 (http://www.sixsigmazone.com/assets/Article__Six_Sigma_for_IT_Management.pdf )

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