Professional-Ethical Issues in Information Systems

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What is Artificial Intelligence or Smart Systems

Artificial Intelligence or smart systems has it's called today can be described as the branch of computer science that deals with writing computer programs that can solve complex or simple problems creatively "scientist and programmers who work on (AI) Smart Systems hope to imitate or duplicate human like intelligence in computers, robots and everyday technology including house hold electronic and more"(Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks).

(A.I) Smart Systems are being used today for many different purposes, all around the world smart systems are being deployed to different areas. It can and it is used in some cases to create a more conducive environments for workers by using robotic machines for dangerous situations for example automobile industries. In the future, it may be used more for human interaction; for example, an automated smart cab would actually be able to do visual recognition and respond to one personally and get you to your destination safely.

(A.I)Smart Systems divides roughly into two groups: Conventional Smart Systems and Computational Smart Systems, also sometimes referred to as Synthetic Intelligence(SI) or Synthetic Smart Systems (SSS). (Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks).

Conventional Smart systems mostly involves methods now classified as machine learning, characterized by formalism and statistical analysis. This is also known as symbolic Smart Systems, logical Smart Systems, or neat Smart Systems. This methods include:

  • Expert smart systems: this is reasoning capabilities to reach a conclusion. An expert smart system can process large amounts of known information and provide conclusions based on them.
  • Case-based reasoning is the process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems.
  • Behavior-based Smart Systems: a modular method of building smart systems by hand.

Computational Smart Systems involves development or learning of smart systems. Learning is based on observation and Experiment data. It is also known as non-symbolic Smart Systems, scruffy Smart systems, and soft computing. Methods mainly include:

Neural networks: smart systems with very strong pattern recognition capabilities.

Fuzzy smart systems: techniques for reasoning under uncertainty, have been widely used in modern industrial and consumer product control systems. (Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks).

(A.I)Smart Systems has come a long way since the early 80s with the advent of computers. This has made it possible for programmers to write programming code for computers and gadgets to perform predefined functions and movement. 

(A.I)Smart systems like these would make life easier and more convenient for the everyday human being.

The field of A.I is huge and its potential can already be seen today in the automotive industries, hospitals, air port and many other areas.

I might be able to cover the entire topic of AI and its benefits but I will point out the relevance of AI in certain areas of human life. (Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks).

How Will (A.I) Smart Systems change the way we use technology

(A.I)Smart systems already has a huge impact on the way we use everyday technology in our day to day lives. Example phones, laptop, house hold appliances, surveillance technology and many more.

(A.I)Smart systems researchers all around the are at the front edge of a larger computational revolution in our midst-a technical revolution that has been introducing new kinds of tools, automation, services, and new access to information and communication. Efficiencies that have already been achieved via computational innovations are beyond the scope of what humans could have ever imagined just two decades ago. It is clear that Smart systems researchers, programmers and scientist will spearhead numerous innovations over the next several decades.

Researchers overall shared a deep enthusiasm and optimism about the future influence of (A.I)Smart systems research and development on the world. Researchers expect Smart systems research to have great positive influences in many realms of human life, including healthcare, transportation, education, commerce, information retrieval, and scientific research and discovery.

The use of (A.I)smart systems technology in automotive industries has been around for years and silicon valley companies also use smart system robots to create chips for mobile phone, computers, Television Sets and many mass produced electrical products or appliances that require a micro chip to operate are being done by (A.I)smart systems robots.

Smart systems technology are available for the masses in the form of house hold items and surveillance equipment and many more areas where we need a advance technology to operate. This technology helps in its efficiency, security, reliability and ease of use in our places of work and our home.

Smart systems can be seen in the metro systems of the world's most advanced countries and cities like USA-New York, CHINA-Beijing, UAE-Dubai, and UK-London, this system are deployed to use surveillance and other monitoring system to keep things running smoothly.

In the not too distant future taxi vehicles or Taxi cabs will be have smart systems at the core of its operation. These vehicles will be able to get you, to and from your destination save and sound without any incident. The advantage of such a technology in a Taxi or Cab will eliminate accidents by human drivers and will ensure you get to the correct location on time without any hassle.

Here are some companies that have embedded smart systems technology in their products manufactured around the world.

1.The iRobot :- http://www.irobot.com/

2. Google's Nexus One :- http://www.google.com/phone/?hl=en&s7e=

3. Boeing :- http://www.boeing.com/

4. AAI Canada Inc :- http://www.aai.ca/

5. Setiai http://www.setiai.com/

6. Lockheed martin :- http://www.lockheedmartin.com/

7. A.I :- http://www.a-i.com/

The companies mentioned above integrate (A.I) Smart Systems into their product/services and offer it to the public, for civilian use or military propose.

Types of (A.I)Smart Systems and Areas where Smart Systems are being Implemented

Programmers, Researchers, and Scientist around the world categorized (A.I)Smart systems technologies into two.

Weak (A.I)Smart Systems And Strong (A.I)Smart Systems

Weak (A.I) Smart Systems

Weak (A.I) Smart Systems refers to the technology that is able perform predefined or predetermined functions, this means it is only able to perform what it has been programmed to do. This type of technology is could be an advance technology but it could also be a limited technology in terms what it is able to perform. The potential of weak (A.I) smart systems is only limited by our imaginations, in terms of what it is told to or programmed to do. 

Weak Smart Systems also refers to technology that is able to manipulate predetermined rules and apply the rules to reach a well-defined goal (Bethell, 2006). This type of smart systems. is presently incorporated into society, especially in large industries. Assembly lines, for example utilize programs that allow machines to work independently of their operator for hours on end (Bethell, 2006). Voice recognition software is also considered a large part of artificial intelligence (Bethell, 2006).

Weak (A.I) Smart Systems has a very exciting future with huge prospect in electronics and other areas. With the exponential growth of computing power at hand, scientists believe that weak A.I. breakthroughs are here and its future is unlimited. One technology that is projected to emerge is the cloud super-computer. Cloud super computers will be equipped with so much power that they will be able to be used as "expert systems" which will be able to use a database of expert knowledge to solve everyday problems (Boden, 1990).

While all of these breakthroughs seem very promising, the most inspirational technologies that are projected to emerge from the development of weak A.I. are in the areas of robotic, genetic and nano technological revolutions. These three revolutions are linked together. The thought is that once the human body is decrypted via the revolution in genetics, robots will be able to be made which will serve to treat the various malfunctions of the human body. Once this is accomplished, the hope is that a nanotechnology revolution will take place in which the robots that treat disease will be able to actually be incorporated into our bodies, function autonomously and fix our malfunctions (Kurzweil, 2006). Weak artificial intelligence is presently in use and has a very promising future, but is this technology truly intelligent?(Feb 18, 2010 - Amanda Dahl).

Strong A.I Smart Systems

This form of (A.I)smart systems is the stuff of science fiction turned reality, this strong A.I refers to technology that has the ability to think independently and its self aware and also has the ability to think cognitively or is able to function in a way similar to the human brain (Bethell, 2006). While some say this technology may never be achieved or is decades away from being achieved, Others say this technology is now being achieved and the basic hopes for the technology exist today. One hope is incorporated into the weak technological revolution of nanotechnology. The hope is that these nanobots will not only be able to help our bodies fight disease but also to make our bodies more intelligent (Kurzweil, 2006). The other hope is to engineer an artificial neural network capable of functioning that is comparable to a human brain. Although some parts of strong A.I. is still only in the conceptive and experimental stage, it is this technology that fuels the fear associated with artificial intelligence or smart systems taking control over lives.(Feb 18, 2010 - Amanda Dahl).

Areas where (A.I)Smart Systems are being Implemented

Smart systems are widely used by industrial companies and the military in some countries, For example the US military uses (A.I)smart systems to conduct surveillance with their spy plane and also to carry out operations in hostile territory. Normally these operation would be conducted by a human beings but human beings cannot operate for days on end without rest. The advancement of this technology helps the US military to be able to keep their military men and women out of harm's way and safe distance from where the operation is carried out. (Jan 10, 2010 - Wasim Salman).

Industrial companies like FORD, GM, INTEL, HTC, and many more offer consumer products with smart systems embedded. A.I smart systems offer ease of use and sometimes reliability, for example Google's Nexus One phone offers voice recognition software that is able to dictate text message or voice-to-text translation while you speak, this smart software is considered an A.I smart system and its even more advance than that of the Microsoft Windows Vista or 7 operating systems.(Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks).

Voice Recognition Software for Disabled People

Disabled people and especially blind people are often at a disadvantage in many places. Voice recognition software improves communication, enables note-taking, and increases participation in their daily lives.( Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks)

How does Voice Recognition Software Work?

Voice recognition software uses a type of artificial intelligence technology called natural language processing, or NLP. NLP stores a vast database of information, and compares input to that information in order find a corresponding piece of data.

In order to recognize human speech, the program has to have a variety of different pronunciations on file for each word. As each word is spoken, the program compares it to all of the similar words on file, and chooses the best match.( Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks)

Voice-to-Text Software

Voice-to-text software can help a disabled student with a variety of school-related tasks. In the classroom and at home, using speech recognition software is helpful for these students.

Taking notes: Students with dyslexia, vision impairments, or motor control issues often have trouble with note-taking. This places them at a disadvantage for homework, tests, or even classroom participation. Voice-to-text software translates the teacher's lecture into notes for the student, eliminating the problem.

Written coursework: These same students can use the voice recognition software to answer homework questions, take tests, or compose essays.( Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks)

Voice-to-Sign Language Software

In addition to voice-to-text translation, natural language processing algorithms are now able to translate the spoken word into both text and visual sign language. The iCommunicator program, for example, is essentially a real-time translation program for anyone with hearing impairments.( Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks)

Air Line Industries

The air line industries currently use this smart systems in their plans and will deploy more advance version in their next generation plans. This will eliminate pilot error all together and keep the plane safe.
Currently the latest generation plans have smart systems that can fly a plane on autopilot for hours on end and can also take control of the plane if the pilot falls asleep or tries to crash  the plane, this smart systems are an invaluable part of a modern air plane and it makes the safety of the air craft and its passengers top most priority. (Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks).

The Automobile Industries

The automobile industries are currently using  a similar less advance systems and are planning to develop a more advance system in the future. The smart systems currently used by the automobile industries are anti theft smart systems. This smart systems is activated when a car is stolen or broken into. (Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks).

Security systems keep homeowners, and their property, safe from intruders. A smart home security system, however, offers many more benefits. Home automation technology notifies homeowners of any problems, so that they can investigate. Artificial intelligence programs keep track of the homeowner's habits, and other important information, and notify emergency personnel when necessary. (Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks).

Home Automation Technology Used in Fire Protection

A smart system home security offers much more protection than the typical fire alarm. This type of smart system monitors all areas of the home, checking carbon monoxide levels as well as watching for signs of fire. In the event of a fire, the smart  system home security can alert the homeowner and notify emergency services. Artificial intelligence smart system programs are even able to pinpoint the location of the fire, and provide that information to fire department personnel as they respond, for more efficient firefighting. (Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks).

Smart Home Security System Access Control

Motion detectors, security codes, and cameras provide information to a smart home security smart system, allowing it to determine whether an individual is a resident, a cleared visitor, or an intruder. Motion detectors trigger an alert, letting the artificial intelligence program know that there is someone or something to be evaluated. Facial recognition software and security codes allow the security system to allow residents into the home, while restricting access to other individuals based on pre-programmed information. (Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks).

Y In the event that the smart home security system detects someone who is unknown, it can provide video of the visitor to the homeowner. Visitors that are welcome can be given clearance and allowed in the house remotely. Unwelcome visitors can be ignored, and individuals attempting to break in will trigger a call to the police. (Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks).

A.I Smart System Programs Protect the Homeowner

Intruders and fires are not the only dangers in a home. A smart system home security also protects residents from unanticipated health problems. Using the same cameras and motion detectors that protect the outside of a home, smart houses can learn about the habits and normal movements of the residents. When the resident does something unexpected, and does not resume normal activities, the smart home can alert family members or emergency services. This aspect of a smart home is particularly helpful for the elderly, or those in fragile health. (Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks).

The Social, Professional, Ethical, and Legal Implications of (A.I) Smart systems

The Social Implications of A.I Smart Systems

We as human being rely on advance technology a lot and the more we use it, the more it becomes a part of our daily lives for example phones, computers/laptops, Social media and many more. These technologies just keep on getting better and better and A.I Smart systems is the Holy Grail of advance technology.

Weak A.I Smart systems already has a huge social impact on the way we view and use technology. People now expect our computers to be able to do almost everything for us, as we use more advance technology like phone with inbuilt voice recognition software we expect the company or software maker to deliver more advance features and make it smarter and easier to use, some people may even want the software to be able to write or compose a note, message of their choice.

For example every advance laptop now comes with finger print recognition hardware and software, web cam and others. A lot people now want to able to sit down with their laptop open it and automatically the laptop using a web cam and A.I smart systems software and also face recognition software would log in to the operating system without having to type the password or use the finger print recognition hardware.

As a society we expect technology to get better and keep on improving day by day. Many people around the world are hooked on the latest gadget, software, and many more.

Strong A.I Smart systems is the next step in technological evolutions although it is years away from being achieved this promise to the next big thing in technology and how far we have come. Homes, School, Both Air and sea port, office building will have integrated strong A.I surveillance for security and people might get use to this technology and how it will keep us safe.   

Today the smart phone is considered as a must have technology and it has forever change the way use technology. Many people around the world today always look forward to the latest and most advance technology and A.I is going to an essential part of that technology in not too distant future.

The Professional Implications of A.I Smart Systems

As the world become more technology driven we would need technology that would be able to keep up with our pace of work and be smarter than us in some areas. A.I Smart system would make a lot of things easier and more convenient for us, if  the metro stations around the world were operated by and an advance A.I smart systems this would eliminate human error and accidents on our railways altogether.

It is our duty as human beings to make life easier for our fellow humans and by providing advance technologies that would simplify very thing and make doing things a lot easier.    

The Ethical Implications of A.I Smart Systems

As the technology get more advance we as human being expect everything to be done for us. When the automobile was first introduced it had and still has a manual transmission, but now most of the cars on the road today have automatic transmission, next step according to the auto industries, would be cars with A.I smart systems that could drive without human intervention. Is it ethical for us to create machines that are self aware and could do most of our job for us while there are millions of people around the world without jobs.

The potential for A.I smart systems is unlimited and areas where A.I could be implemented are house
hold cleaning and cooking of our meals, security surveillance, the internet search engine, collecting and disposal of our garbage's these are jobs currently being done by human being.

Should we create A.I machine that would able to do all this work while there are many around the world without jobs, food, health care, a place to stay. Technological advances is inevitable and such technology like the A.I smart systems is only a matter of time but should we create machines that would be able to do  most of the work we humans currently do.
Let us look at the auto industries again, back in the days cars where built and welded together from top to bottom by auto workers with their tools. Now-a-days car are built by A.I machines and we humans just assemble the car and put in the fragile parts. In the future everything will be done by the A.I robots and human workers would not no longer be needed in the production and assemble of vehicles. 

Some may argue that A.I machines do a better job than humans, that is true in certain areas but should we create machine that are self aware and think independently without human intervention. If these machines or a single machine is smarter than 1000 or more humans beings what would stop these machine form taking over the world. This maybe called science fictions and only stuff that happens in the movies but once upon a time so was everything else.

150 years ago no one could have imagine we could have such advance technology and we would be able to communicate with each other around the world no matter how far or how remote the location is. But now that common, what would stop us from creating machine that could one do most our work for us.

So the question still remains is it ethical for humans to create an A.I machine that could someday replace us in our place of work and do a better job or should we keep on the way we are?

The Legal Implications of A.I Smart Systems

A.I smart systems is a very advance and also a very complicated technology, problems may arise in its implementation into day to day technology. For example 

Summary

References

(Apr 2, 2010 - Victoria Nicks) Artificial Intelligence by Victoria Nicks

(Jan 9, 2009 - D. Yvette Wohn)

(Feb 18, 2010 - Amanda Dah)

Bethell, T. (2006, July/August). The search for artificial intelligence. American Spectator, 39(6), 26-35. Retrieved February 5, 2008, from eLibrary.

Boden, M. (1990). The social impact of artificial intelligence. In R. Kurzweil (Ed.), The Age of Intelligent Machines (pp. 450-453) Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Kurzweil, R. (2006). Reinventing humanity: The future of machine-human intelligence. The Futurist, 40, 39. Retrieved February 5, 2008, from eLibrary.

(Michael Anderson and Susan Leigh Anderson)(Winter, 2007, 15) Machine Ethics - special issue of IEEE Intelligent Systems 21(4): July/August 2006, Machine Ethics: Creating an Ethical Intelligent Agent

The Social Impact of Artificial Intelligence. By Margaret A. Boden. From the book: The Age of Intelligent Machines (ed. Kurzweil, Raymond. 1990. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press)

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