Principles And Use Of Electronic Publishing Computer Science Essay

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Electronic publishing is the publication of multimedia information text, image, video, animation and graphics on media such as computer storage devices e.g. disks so that it can be accessed by a computer. This is also known as digital publishing or ePublishing.

ePublishing is a term used to describe the production and distribution of digital information that requires computer-based user interaction. This means that the digital product is created on a digital platform and distributed on a digital platform. Users also access or interact with the information on a digital platform.

Words and Terms

User � the consumer, the client: the person that interacts with digital information (or multimedia content)

Interact � to be involved with an activity or a set of on-screen activities, where the user�s actions produce a reaction or digital information

ePublishing involves the development of digital libraries and catalogues (series of things) that can be accessed through the computer or other electronic devices. Once these libraries are developed, people can access the publications as electronic material such as e-books,�music files or video files by downloading them from the electronic library.

While the internet is a great source of digital information, you may find non-network digital publications as digital archives or encyclopaedias available on electronic storage devices such as CDs and DVDs. There are some encyclopaedias and reference sites (e.g. dictionaries) that can be received over a high-speed access to a network through a mobile phone.

Think of the internet as a big electronic library and of websites as small sections (catalogues) within the library allowing users to access digital material. There are some websites that you visit to download music, and there are some websites that you visit to download books. Nowadays you can access books, magazines and newspapers through your cell phone or through tablet devices (such as Kindle, iPad, Galaxy Pad and the Playbook). This access is known as digital delivery.

Digital delivery may come in the form of a programme-application (commonly known as an app) which is downloaded onto your mobile device (cell phone or tablet) that is used as a portal to access your library catalogue. Apps are useful for instance, when you constantly need reference material for school or religious study purposes, but do not want to carry a pile of real books. There are apps for the different versions of the Bible for users who want to read their Bibles either in Bible-Study or while commuting and there are apps for different dictionaries for users who want to keep a dictionary on hand. You should already be familiar with portable audio devices (or digital audio players) that you carry and use to listen to your music while commuting. This is a form of digital delivery through an external memory device that keeps a library (catalogue) of digital content (in this instance, music).

2. Systems required for electronic publishing

The electronic publishing process is fast as it allows for multimedia content to be distributed over the internet and through programme-applications (apps). Users may read the multimedia content on a website, in a programme-application on a tablet device, or on a computer (notebook or netbooks).

The benefit of electronic publishing results in information that is adaptable to various reading devices or delivery methods.

A system is a complex set of related parts. These parts are arranged into various methods of procedures or actions, organised to achieve a goal. A system establishes processes for apps e.g. reading an e-book happens through an app (Kindle or iBooks). The progression of identifying (seeing) a book, to picking or deciding which book to read, to opening the book to read is a programme-application.

In order for these actions to take place, a brain network needs to run the programme-application. Behind this set of operations is a set of connections which interact in order to make the exchange of messages between the programme-application and the device on which it is viewed. This network process includes running the electronic device (mobile phone or tablet application). Think of it as the system (the magic behind the actions).

There are two categories of systems required for electronic publishing: development systems and playback systems.

Systems for development

In order to create multimedia content you need a system for development that is very high in capacity (processing) in order to allow for the development of sound, graphics and video (all of which can take up a lot of memory).

If you are the developer or producer of multimedia content, you need a high-capacity computer to create the content. You can however produce multimedia content with smaller electronic devices such as your mobile phone, a portable audio device, and a tablet device. For example, you can record sound or take a photograph using your mobile phone and immediately upload it onto a website such as Facebook or Twitter or a personal blog. If your Facebook Page is the publication portal which contains a library or catalogue of all the photographs and sounds that you have uploaded, then you have already been involved in the process of electronic publishing. You will notice however, that the quality of the photograph or the sound is rather low and cannot be published in a printed book or played over the radio for public consumers. It is sufficient for your users (i.e. consumers of your personal catalogue). This means that in order to produce high-quality multimedia content for public consumption on a larger broadcast platform, you have to use your computer as it has a higher capacity for producing content.

b. Systems for playback

Systems for playback do not have to be very high in memory capacity (mobile phones, portable sound devices, or tablets). But in order to view high-quality (broadcast quality) digital material, they have to be very high in memory to allow for the smooth transition between multimedia actions e.g. a fifteen second compressed video can take up to 15MB of memory storage on disk. Furthermore it would not be able to be emailed to the average inbox and it would not be able to play without interruption (which compromises its quality). Because the average CD can hold approximately 650 MB of data, it is the preferred means to deliver this kind of content.

Words and Terms

MB (Megabyte) - a unit of computer data storage that is calculated in multiples made up of roughly one million (1�000�000) bytes. A byte is a unit comprised of a group of eight bits of computer information representing a unity of data (e.g. a number or a letter). A bit is a binary digit (computer number system based on two digits �0� and �1�).

The Development System The Playback System

CPU with high-speed processer CPU with high-speed processer

Graphics & sound cards Graphics & sound cards

At least 1024x768 monitor At least 1024x768 monitor

High-capacity removable disk storage High-capacity removable disk storage

CD/DVD-ROM recording device CD/DVD-ROM reading device

Scanner Speakers

Speakers

Microphone

Keyboard

Digital camera

Drawing tablet

You can find all your system details in Control Panel > Performance Information and Tools. It will show you the following basic information:

Processor

Memory

Graphics

Manufacturer

Model

System memory

System type

Storage

3. Digital printing types and language codes

In multimedia content production, digital data can be formatted through the use of various software programmes and prepared for user consumption.

Once you have

created digital data or information on the computer, and

edited digital files in various software packages, you have to

prepare digital files for output (digital printing or electronic publishing) for public consumption

Preparing digital media for digital printing (publication)

Once digital media has been created through the use of various software programmes, it can be prepared for consumption (publication).

Multimedia content can be delivered in a number of different ways. You can save the file in a way that it is not editable (that way users cannot alter your creation). You do this by compressing files (or flattening layers).

Text content

Understanding the purpose of your document is essential to helping you understand how to package it.

The most important aspect of a text document is identification. This means you need to create a page that has your details on it. These are the typical identification details required:

your name, surname and contact information

the title of the content

File > Save As

Choose file formats based on:

Accessibility � do you want it to be accessible on another computer? Save as .doc

Editing � do you want to continue editing the document? Save as .docx

NOTE: if you are mailing your document, but do not want it to be editable by other users, compress it. Save as .pdf

Textual content when retrieved from a printed source can be converted to the digital platform using Optical Character Recognition (OCR) that converts analogue characters into digital characters that you can edit in a word processor.

If you receive digital text that you are not able to edit you can set up your software application to OCR so that it recognises characters (text) allowing you to edit the document using a word processor.

Text files can be opened, modified and opened in any word processing software such as:

MS Word

WordPerfect

WordPad

DocumentsToGo

File extensions for publishing text files include:

\

.txt

.rtf

.doc

.docx

.pdf

ii. Image content

Understanding how your digital camera stores image data will help you determine the quality of images you can take and the number of images you can take at one time.

Digital cameras save image data as JPEG files or RAW image files. JPEG is known as a �lossy� compression because when images are compressed some information is lost and can never be restored. High-resolution JPEG images use lots of memory space and look very clear; low resolution JPEG images use much less space and look more blurred.

RAW image format refers to image data as it comes directly off the digital camera�s image sensor, where no in-camera compression is performed. Raw image files are photographs with high-resolution and superb image quality. JPEG and RAW image files are stored on different memory devices. The most common device is a memory card.

Although memory cards are reusable, the amount image data you can store at one time is limited. The storage capacity is indicted on the card, for example 128MB or 2GIG. The bigger the memory capacity of the card, the more images you can store. However the higher the image quality of your photographs the more memory space they will occupy on the memory card and the fewer images you can store. Downloading your photographs regularly will free memory space on your camera�s memory card and will allow you to edit your images.

You can download images from your digital camera using a USB cable or a card reader. A USB cable connects your digital camera via the USB port on a computer. It allows you to download your image directly from the camera to the computer, using your camera�s battery to power the transfer. Some digital cameras and camera phones use wireless connections, via Bluetooth, WiFi or cellular networks to download or share images. However using a card reader is the most efficient way to download your digital images. Plug the card reader into your computer�s USB port, slot your digital camera�s memory card into it and allow your computer to download the data. A card reader is a recommended digital camera accessory as it allows you to transfer your files without using your camera�s batteries or dealing with cables.

Words and Terms

USB � Universal Serial Bus: a protocol for transferring data to and from digital devices. Your digital cameras and memory card readers connect to the USB port of your computer.

Bluetooth � refers to wireless technology that can exchange data between two electronic devices over short distances.

WiFi -- is a computer network system that allows electronic devices to exchange digital data wirelessly. Electronic devices enabled with Wi-Fi technology (such as a computers, video game consoles,�mobile phones,�tablets, or portable audio devices, can connect to a network resource such as the�Internet�via a�wireless network�access point. Such an access point�(also known as a�hotspot) has a range of about 20 meters indoors and a greater range outdoors.

Image content can be retrieved from books, or printed photographs which can be scanned into the computer. Scanner software generally comes with image-editing software, and images can be scanned directly into software packages such as Adobe Photoshop or Corel Paint.

Image files can be opened and modified in any image-editing software such as:

Photoshop

CorelPaint

Painter

Gimp

Picassa

File extensions for publishing image files include:

.psd

.pdf

.tiff

.bmp

.jpg

iii. Sound Content

Sound content obtained from an analogue source can be converted into a digital format. For this you would need additional hardware such as add-on boards inserted into the motherboard (sound card). Sound boards have an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) for capture and a digital-to-analogue converted (DAC) for playback.

Sound files can be opened and modified in any sound-editing software such as:

Adobe Audition,

Adobe SoundBooth

Adobe Premiere

Audacity

File extensions for publishing sound files include:

.wav

.mid

.mp3

.mp4

.acc

.wma

iv. Video content

Video content can be obtained from an analogue source such as your TV. This can be converted into a digital format. For this you need additional hardware such as add-on boards inserted into the motherboard. Video can also be created using a digital camera and captured into your computer (see Topic 3 for more detail.)

Video files can be opened and modified in any video-editing software such as:

Pinnacle Studio

Windows Movie Maker

Adobe Premiere

File extensions for publishing video files include:

.mpeg

.avi

.mov

.mkv

.flv

.fla

v. Graphic content

Graphic content can be created by drawing your own images or tracing pictures you have scanned or downloaded.

Graphic content can be opened and modified in any image-editing software such as:

Photoshop

CorelPaint

Painter

Freehand

Illustrator

CorelDRAW

Flash

File extensions for publishing graphic files

.FH

.cdr

.eps

.ai

.fla

psd

.pdf

.tiff

.bmp

.jpg

4. Character styling

A character is a symbol in a writing system (e.g. letter of the alphabet). In printing, a character refers to any single letter of the alphabet, any single numeral, any punctuation mark, or any other symbol created as �type�.

Text is a very important feature for multimedia content. It can be used to guide the user on how to interact with the multimedia production or as a means of multimedia content in itself. When considering text for multimedia content keep in mind that the text content needs to be legible, and in keeping with the subject matter. You have covered much of character styling for layout and design content and video content in Topics 1 and 3.

It is best to use san-serif fonts when creating textual content that needs to be read e.g. websites, articles and books. Serif fonts are harder to read on screen. We can refer to san-serif fonts as screen-fonts. These include fonts such as Arial, Trebuchet, Tahoma and Verdana which are clean, clear fonts that make for great on-screen readability.

The trick with choosing fonts for multimedia content is that once the digital content has been delivered (ePublishing), there is no telling which fonts your user�s electronic device may default to (whether that device is a web browser, a mobile phone or a tablet device). All electronic devices have built-in screen-fonts (think about the font choices you made when setting up your mobile phone). If the font that you produce multimedia content with is not in the choices built-in to your user�s electronic device, it will be defaulted to a built-in font. This will dramatically change how your content looks on screen.

In order to increase readability, font size should range between 10, 11, and 12-points. While the best font size for readability is 12-points, you can vary it down to 8 points depending on the �look� of your content. However it is important to note that 8-points is far too small for a user with poor eyesight.

5. E-Books

An e-book is simply a book in a digital form. This can take the form of a book that has been scanned in and saved as a .pdf file so that it can be read on an electronic device such as a computer or another form of a portable electronic device such as a mobile phone, a netbook or a tablet device.

E-Books are not only generated from printed books. They can be produced and published through electronic publishing formats such as we have discussed throughout this section.

E-Books are accessed as downloads from a digital library, catalogue, archive or website.

E-book formats

As books can be created using word processors the most commonly available format of e-books is .pdf which is supported by many open-source and independent software programmes. Remember that this is a compressed format and as such takes up a small amount of memory space on electronic devices.

E-books (as with conventional books) can be created and published to include words, images and graphics. Graphics editing software programmes and layout and design software programmes can be used to layout and design (as you have learnt in Topic 1: Explain and create a layout). Later in this topic we will learn how to layout and design e-books. Once the layout has been created, the developer can publish the book electronically as a .pdf.

There are other open-forms of e-books that you might find online where developers have published as xhtml or css multimedia formats to allow users to access the digital content in a variety of other platforms (this means that the e-books are designed, coded, and published as you would a website). This format allows electronic devices with smaller memory (e.g. mobile phones) to access the e-books.

b. Background to e-book publishing

There are many reasons why e-books are published. Originally it seemed a way to allow users access to books that were not widely printed, or that were old and were no longer printed by publishing companies (books that no longer have a large demand from the market).

Many authors also emerged who had compiled books that were not accepted by publishers. These authors published their books electronically to allow users access to their digital information. You will therefore find that e-books can be categorised as officially authorised (published with the author�s consent) or unofficially authorised (the author has not consented to the publication for a variety of different reasons).

The earliest form of an electronic reading device that was available to the public was the Rocket eBook in 1998. This reader was limited in that it allowed access to e-books sold to a limited number of book stores and these books were sold in a format compatible only to the Rocket eBook. A decade later, new hardware was developed by a number of different companies, the Amazon Kindle, the Sony PRS-500, as well as the Nook by Barnes & Noble. In 2010, Apple Inc. launched a tablet device called the iPad which came with a built-in app called the iBook which linked to the iBooks Store.

Subsequent tablet devices that have been developed such as Blackberry�s Playbook and Samsung�s Galaxy Tab have included the access to e-book reader apps (the Apple iPad has this functionality too) that allow the user to access e-books from a variety of different sources which can be read on a variety of different formats. This has not only increased the functionality of the tablet devices, but it has also increased the user�s access to e-book readers (e.g. Kindle, and Kobo) without restricting them to purchasing only one reader that allows only access to one catalogue.

Figure 4.1

iPad screen with Reader Apps

c. Advantages to e-book publishing

There are millions of free e-books available for download. As well as that, e-books are stored on servers and available to read on the internet, or can be repeatedly accessed through apps. If an e-book is not stored on your device, it allows the user more space to save other digital data. E-books can never �run out of print� as is the case with printed books - they are always available. Because e-books are compressed files, they are lightweight and an e-book collection (personal library) does not take up much digital weight.

The availability of language translation apps also means that users do not always need an officially translated copy of the book in order to access the information contained in it. E-book readers come with variations of light settings, making it comfortable to read in any light conditions. There are readers that allow the reader to enlarge fonts (particularly with tablet devices) for the visually impaired, which increases readability.

E-books are immediately available: they can be purchased, downloaded and read from the user�s area of comfort and at their convenience. There is no need to go to a bookstore and purchase a book.

d. Disadvantages to e-book publishing

With advances in technology happening on a daily basis, new file formats are developed and introduced. This may make some old e-book versions unusable when a user changes a reader platform or purchases a new device. This may also result in the user having to convert a large amount of text into compatible formats.

E-books do not provide the tactile quality of an actual book. Some readers still prefer the texture and feel of a real-book experience; the smells of the paper mixed with the ink and the sound of the page turning. Although some e-book readers have page-turning sounds included in the programmes, it cannot be compared to the tactile experience.

The cost of an e-book reader or a tablet device is much more than a single printed book. The user also incurs costs of maintenance of the device as well as the backup of the books that the user has purchased or obtained (as we know, when digital material has become corrupt or been erroneously deleted, it is not easy to retrieve).

The potential piracy of e-books makes authors and publishers reluctant to digitally publish books. Due to the increase of digital rights management many publishers are restricting access to e-books to the specific computer or device on which it was originally downloaded in order to prevent copying and distribution amongst readers. This means that the original purchaser cannot use or copy the book onto another computer or device.

Some e-books exist in cloud format, which means that they are only provided while the publisher of the reader software is still in existence. If the company shuts down, the user will no longer have access to the e-books already purchased.

Formative assessment task 1: Test

For this task you need to revise your notes for a test.

Task requirements:

Prepare to perform an Assessment Task (Test). The purpose of this Test is to determine whether you can:

Explain electronic publishing and systems

Assessment criteria Rating Achievement

No 1 2 3 4 5

1 Can you define and explain electronic publishing and publication?

2 Can you explain the systems required for electronic publishing?

3 Can you explain digital printing types and language codes

4 Can you explain character styling?

5 Can you explain an e-Book?

B. Create documents and different layouts

Learning Outcomes

Student should be able to:

Use the basic document format of InDesign

Open an RTF file in InDesign

Use an In Design template

Use the In Design summary note library

Use layering

Adjust page viewing and set the starting point

Set the guiding line for applying grids

Adobe InDesign is a page-layout software-programme used to create documents for print publishing and page design; and is suitable for electronic publishing. It incorporates illustration capabilities into its interface and allows for cross platform interaction with Illustrator, Photoshop, and Acrobat. InDesign is used mostly for multi-page documents and it can be described as the most flexible and complete application for this purpose.

Use the basic document format of InDesign

To open a document:

Start > Programs > Adobe > InDesign, or click on the InDesign shortcut on the desktop.

Figure 4.2

InDesign opening screen

Setting up the Document

It is a good idea to set up your document correctly from the start as it will make your job much easier as you work on your project. This will require some planning before you begin. For the purposes of our tutorial, your final project will be a brochure. This means you need to set up your document to be horizontal and double-sided.

b. Planning Phase

Take a blank A4 paper and put it on your table in the landscape position (wide). Measure the size of this paper (it should be 29.7mm).

Using your calculator divide 29.7 by 3 (we are making a z-fold brochure). This should give you 9.9.

Mark your paper every 9.9mm (you should make two marks at the top and two marks at the bottom.

Draw you connecting lines from top to bottom. These are your folding lines.

Fold the third to the right along the line behind the page.

Fold the third to the left along the line in front of the page.

You should now have a basic z-fold brochure blank page. When you put this page up on your desk, you should see the folds look like a zed.

Figure 4.3

Z-fold brochure mock-up

FOLDING LINES Z-FOLD

To create a new document, click File > New > Document. This will open the Document Setup dialogue box. Here you will be able to set up the correct page size, margins, and page columns for your document.

Options in this dialogue box include:

Number of Pages Type a value for the total number of pages for this document.

A brochure is A4 size and because it is printed back-to-back, we need two pages.

Facing Pages You can select this option to make left and right pages face each other in a double-page spread (DPS).

Deselect this Option for our tutorial because our project is a brochure, so we want each page to stand alone because we�re planning to print on both sides of a sheet of paper.

Master Text Frame Select this option to create a text frame the size of the area within the margin guides, matching the column settings you specified. The master text frame is added to the master.

Page Size

Choose a page size from the menu, or type values for Width and Height. Page size represents the final size you want. Our brochure is A4 size (29.7mm x 21mm)

There are presets for common sizes such as letter, legal, and tabloid.

Orientation

Click the portrait (tall) or landscape (wide) icons. These icons interact dynamically with the dimensions you enter in Page Size.

When Height is the larger value, the portrait icon is selected.

When Width is the larger value, the landscape icon is selected.

Clicking the deselected icon switches the Height and Width values.

A brochure is designed landscape (wide).

NOTE: The default unit of measurement in InDesign is pica (p0). If you type a value into the Width or Height text fields use the abbreviation for millimetres (mm).

When you have entered all of your document settings, click OK.

NOTE: If you incorrectly enter information in the Document Setup dialogue box, or if you need to adjust any of this information while you are working, you can make changes at any time by clicking File > Document Setup.

InDesign�s Toolbox should be very familiar to users who are comfortable with other desktop publishing software such as PageMaker, Photoshop and Illustrator. InDesign shares all of the tools that were available in PageMaker and most of the tools found in Illustrator. Not all of these tools will be essential for your use so it is not vital to know all of them. In this section, only the basic tools will be discussed in depth.

Figure 4.4

Document set up

2. Open an RTF file in InDesign

InDesign does not open Word files (or PDF without a special plug-in), but you can Place (import the text) .doc, .rtf, .txt and most image formats.

RTF files are Rich Text Files. These are files created on word processors (such as Microsoft Word). They are complex document files (so they may include text, image, and graphics). Such files are saved as .rtf files

You open these files in InDesign if you want to maintain all the paragraph and character styles. This makes it easier to edit versions of the document at a later stage (this way, the client can edit it themselves without needing the designer or content producer to do so for them).

When a file has been created in InDesign, you can also export it as an .rtf file (maintaining the document�s paragraph and character styles) and send it to a client to edit the text. This document can be placed back into InDesign and completed by the content producer.

File > Place the RTF into a blank InDesign file. Then export that as an .RTF again, and then re-import the brand new RTF into your InDesign file. Because all the styles are still intact, it means you have to do very little in formatting.

File > Place and select your word file (show import options if you want to preserve or not preserve formatting, map styles, etc.). You will be presented with a cursor, containing the text from the document. You can flow this text into an existing frame or just click anywhere on the document and InDesign will create a frame. Hold the Shift Key when you click and InDesign will add as many frames and pages as required to hold all of the text.

You may want to use this option if you want to open text for your brochure that you have created in a word processor.

Take a minute to experiment with placing an RTF file.

3. Use an InDesign template

If you do not wish to create a new document from scratch, but want to use an existing InDesign template, you can do so as it will save you time in setting up the document.

File > New > Document from Template

InDesign will start up Adobe Bridge, which contains all the templates, and you will be able to choose which Template you would like to use (as there is a wide variety).

TIP: if you do not want to use the standard issue template, you can find an even wider variety of InDesign Templates available on the internet. Ensure that the file you download is an .indt or .indd file.

All InDesign templates come with placeholder text and images. Therefore all you need to do is to replace the placeholders with your own content.

You can open your template file by double-clicking the .indt or .indd file.

Figure 4.5

Open template documents

Figure 4.6

Template choices from Adobe Bridge

Figure 4.7

Placeholder images and text

Double click on the text boxes and change the text accordingly. The character and styles should stay the same, but if you would like to change them you can.

Change each individual area by using the Text Toolbar (placed by default at the top of your window when you are using the text tool) or,

Change the character styles in the document, which will change all of the text with these styles applied to them.

Figure 4.8

Text toolbar

Replacing the Images

Click once on the placeholder image, and type Ctrl+D to place a new image in the frame.

Browse to find the image you like, and click OK.

The image probably will not fit into the frame properly � you can adjust this by Right Clicking > Fitting and selecting the option which best suits your image.

To use only a portion of the image, you can adjust the size by going to your Direct Selection tool (white cursor) and clicking on the frame. Now you will be able to adjust the image size while keeping the image frame the same size. The document will only display the portions of the image which are inside the frame.

You can change the colour from the template in a way that compliments the images and text.

First, place your images.

Click on the Eyedropper Tool (or press �I�). This will absorb the colour into the eyedropper.

Click on your background area or highlight the text you would like to change.

NOTE: If you use the eyedropper tool to absorb an area of text in InDesign, it will absorb that text�s formatting as well as the colour. You can then apply this formatting to any other text you would like.

Take a minute to experiment with replacing text and images.

4. Use the InDesign summary note library

Libraries are a great InDesign resource. They provide an easy way to quickly drag and drop commonly used elements into your layout. Some properties of InDesign libraries are similar to InDesign documents. For example, each library is stored as a separate file on your hard drive or server, and they remain open until you close them.

Libraries take up much less space than a document, because they open in a small panel, so you can have multiple libraries open at once and only take up a small fraction of the screen.

When you are not using them, you can still keep them open for easy access but minimize them like panels. The other great thing about libraries is not only do they store the size, shape, link information, and properties of the elements you add, they also retain the page co-ordinates of each item, so you have the ability to place that item at the exact same location the next time you use it. To do so, you would use the Place command in the Panel Options instead of using the drag-and-drop feature.

Words and Terms

Elements - objects you place on an InDesign document. These could be text, image, graphics, or tables.

Libraries - useful when using large documents like Magazine Layouts or Booklets

5. Use layering

InDesign uses layers like many other current software programs (such as Photoshop and Premiere). Layers allow you to overlap objects within the document. Each time you create a new object, a new layer is created. It is likely that you will want to adjust the layering of the objects within a document.

InDesign allows you to quickly stack objects �above� and �below� using a function called Arranging.

In the Layers panel of your brochure template you should find the following layers: Text, Artwork and Guides. If you move the Text below the Artwork Layer, you will notice that the Text Layer moves behind the Artwork Layer and you can no longer see it. Experiment with this and see how it works.

Figure 4.8

Layers panel

Although you may think of these layers as being above and below one another, InDesign uses the terms Forward and Backward. To move an object forwards or backwards within the layers, select the object you wish to move and click Object > Arrange > Bring Forward (or Send Backwards).

You can also move an object to the very front of the page (above all other layers), or to the very back (below all layers) by clicking Object > Arrange > Bring to Front (or Send to Back to put it below everything else).

6. Adjust page viewing and set the starting point

In order to adjust page viewing, we need to choose a template with a number of pages. Please open the community newspaper template.

Pages and Page Spreads

In the File�> Document Setup dialogue box, you select the Facing Pages option; which makes sure that document pages are arranged in spreads.

NOTE: In a long document, you can move to a page quickly by choosing Layout�> Go to Page.

Words and Terms

Spread -- a set of�pages viewed together, such as the two pages visible whenever you open a book or magazine. For example, a magazine advert that is laid out over two pages is called a DPS (Double Page Spread).

Figure 4.9

Pages panel with selected spread

b. Change the page and spread display

The Pages Panel provides information about control over pages, spreads, and�masters�(pages or spreads that automatically format other pages or spreads. We will learn about master pages as we move on). By default, the Pages Panel displays thumbnail representations of each page�s content.

If the Pages Panel is not visible, choose Window�> Pages.

Choose Panel Options in the Pages Panel�Menu.

In the Icons section, specify which icons appear next to the page thumbnails in the Pages Panel. These icons indicate whether transparency or page transitions have been added to a spread, and whether the spread view is rotated.

In the Pages and Masters sections:

Select an icon size for pages and masters.

Select Show Vertically to display spreads in one vertical column. De-select this option to allow spreads to be displayed side-by-side.

Select Show Thumbnails to display thumbnail representations of the content of each page or master. (This option is not available if certain options are selected for Icon Size.)

In the Panel Layout section, select Pages on Top to display the page icon section above the master icon section, or select Masters on Top to display the master icon section above the page icon section.

Choose an option in the Resize menu to control how the sections are displayed when you resize the panel:

To resize both the Pages and Masters sections of�the panel, choose Proportional.

To maintain the size of the Pages section and resize only the Masters section, choose Pages Fixed.

To maintain the size of the Masters section and resize only the Pages section, choose Masters Fixed.

Experiment with the Pages Panel by manipulating the spreads as above.

c. Target or select a page or spread

You either�select�or�target�pages or spreads, depending on the task you are performing. Some commands affect the currently selected page or spread, while others affect the target page or spread. For example, you can drag Ruler Guides only to the target page or spread, but page-related commands, such as Duplicate Spread or Delete Page, affect the page or spread selected in the Pages Panel. Targeting makes a page or spread active and is helpful when, for example, several spreads are visible in the document window and you want to paste an object onto a specific spread.

In the Pages Panel to both target and select a page or spread, double-click its icon or the page numbers under the icon. If the page or spread is not visible in the document window, it shifts into view.

NOTE: You can also both target and select a page or spread by clicking a page, any object on the page, or its pasteboard in the document window.

The vertical ruler is dimmed alongside all but the targeted page or spread.

To select a page, click its icon. (Do not double-click unless you want to select it�and�move it into view.)

To select a spread, click the page numbers under the spread icon.

NOTE:�Some spread options, such as those in the Pages panel menu, are available only when an entire spread is selected.

Figure 4.10

Spread options

Page 1 is targeted and page 5 is selected (left), and page 1 is targeted

and entire spread is selected (right)

d. Add new pages to a document

To add new pages to a document, do any of the following:

To add a page after the active page or spread, click the New Page button�in the Pages Panel or choose Layout�> Pages�> Add Page. The new page uses the same master as the existing active page.

To add multiple pages to the end of the document, choose File�> Document Setup. In the Document Setup dialogue box, specify the total number of pages for the document. InDesign adds pages after the last page or spread.

To add pages and specify the document master, choose Insert Pages from the Pages Panel Menu or choose Layout�> Pages�> Insert Pages. Choose where the pages will be added and select a master to apply.

Words and Terms

Text threads � a process of linking text frames (or text boxes). You can link text from two (or more) text boxes on the same page, or on different pages in the document; this allows for a flow of text between connected frames.

e. Move, duplicate and delete pages and spreads

You can use the Pages Panel to freely arrange, duplicate, and recombine pages and spreads.

Keep the following guidelines in mind when adding, arranging, duplicating, or removing pages within a document:

InDesign preserves the text threads between text frames.

InDesign redistributes pages according to�how the Allow Document Pages To Shuffle command is set

An object that spans multiple pages stays with the page on which the object�s bounding box covers the most area.

Move pages using Move Pages command

Choose Layout�> Pages�> Move Pages, or choose Move Pages from the Pages Panel menu.

Specify the page or pages you want to move.

For Destination, choose where you want to move the pages, and specify a page if necessary. Click OK.

ii. Move pages by dragging

As you drag, the vertical bar indicates where the page will appear when you drop it. If the black rectangle or bar touches a spread when Allow Pages to Shuffle is turned off, the page you are dragging will extend that spread. Otherwise document pages will be redistributed to match the Facing Pages setting in the File�> Document Setup dialogue box.

In the Pages Panel, drag a page icon to a new position within the document.

Figure 4.11

Moving a page�s position using the pages panel

iii. Duplicate a page or spread

In the Pages panel, do one of the following:

Drag the page range numbers under a spread to the New Page button. The new spread appears at the end of the document.

Select a page or spread, and then choose Duplicate Page or Duplicate Spread in the pages panel menu. The new page or spread appears at the end of the document.

Press Alt as you drag the page icon or page range numbers under a spread to a new location.

NOTE:�Duplicating a page or spread also duplicates all objects on the page or spread. Text threads from the duplicated spread to other spreads are broken, but all text threads within the duplicated spread remain intact�as do all text threads on the original spread.

iv. Remove a page from a spread while keeping it in the document

Select the spread and deselect Allow Selected Spread to Shuffle in the Pages Panel menu.

In the Pages Panel, drag a page out of the spread until the vertical bar is not touching any other pages.

v. Delete a page or spread from the document

Do one of the following:

In the Pages Panel, drag one or more page icons or page-range numbers to the Delete icon.

Select one or more page icons in the Pages Panel, and click the Delete icon.

Select one or more page icons in the Pages panel, and then choose Delete Page(s) or Delete Spread(s) in the Pages panel menu.

vi. Move or copy pages between documents

When you move or copy a page or spread from one document to another, all of the items on the page or spread, including graphics, links, and text, are copied to the new document.

Section markers are preserved. Threaded text frames are also included, but text that is threaded to pages outside the spread does not transfer. If the page or spread you are copying contains styles, layers, or masters with the same names as their counterparts in the destination document, the destination document�s settings are applied to the page or spread.

If you copy a page from a document that has a different size to the document you are copying to, it will be resized to the dimensions of the destination.

If you move or copy a spread with a rotated view, the rotated view is cleared in the target document.

NOTE: If you want to move or copy a multiple-page spread, de-select Allow Document Pages to Shuffle in the destination document to keep the spread together.

vii. Move or copy pages between documents

To move pages from one document to another, open both documents.

Choose Layout�> Pages�> Move Pages, or choose Move Pages from the Pages Panel menu.

Specify the page or pages you want to move.

Choose the destination document name from the Move to menu.

For Destination, choose where you want to move the pages, and specify a page if necessary.

If you want to remove the pages from the original document, select Delete Pages after Moving.

NOTE:�When you copy pages between documents, their associated masters are copied automatically. If the new document contains a master with the same name as the master applied to the copied page, however, the master of the new document is applied to the copied page instead.

viii. Move or copy pages between documents by dragging

To move pages from one document to another, make sure that both documents are open and visible.

NOTE: You can choose Window�> Arrange�> Tile Horizontally or Tile Vertically to display documents side-by-side.

Drag the original document�s page icon to the new document.

In the Insert Pages dialog box, specify where the pages will be added

If you want to remove the pages from the original document, select Delete Pages after Inserting.

ix. Start a document with a two-page spread

Instead of beginning the document with a right-facing (recto) page, you can delete the first page and begin your document with a left-facing (verso) page that�s part of a spread.

Important:�Because of the settings that make it necessary to keep a left-facing page as the starting page, it can be difficult to insert spreads into a document when following this method. To avoid this difficulty, it is best to work in the document with a right-facing page starting page (which should be left blank). When you have inserted all of the pages needed in the document, delete the first page by following the steps below.

Make sure PAGE 1 of the document is blank.

Choose File�> Document Setup. Be sure the document contains at least three pages and that the Facing Pages option is selected. Click�OK.

In the Pages panel, select all the pages except PAGE 1. (The easiest way to do this is to select PAGE 2 and then Shift-select the last page of the document.)

In the Pages Panel menu, de-select Allow Selected Spread to Shuffle.

Select PAGE 1. In the Pages panel menu, choose Delete Spread.

NOTE: To add a spread to a document that starts on a left-facing page, first make sure Allow Selected Spread to Shuffle is de-selected and Allow Document Pages to Shuffle is selected. Then, insert three pages, and delete the extra page.

x. Rotate the spread view

In some instances, you need to edit rotated content. Instead of turning your head sideways to look at the rotated content, you can rotate the spread view. This option is especially useful for working on rotated calendars and tables.

Rotating the spread view does not affect printing or output. However, if you leave the spread view rotated when you print, you may need to change the orientation in the Setup section of the Print dialogue box to make sure the rotated spread prints properly. You can also clear the rotation before printing.

In the Pages Panel, select the page or spread that you want to rotate.

Do any of the following:

From the Pages Panel menu, choose Rotate Spread View�> 90� CW, 90� CCW, or 180�.

Choose View�> Rotate Spread�> 90� CW, 90� CCW, or 180�.

A rotation icon� �appears next to the rotated spread in the Pages panel.

Objects you place or create mirror the rotated view. For example, if you create a text frame when the spread view is rotated 90 degrees, the text frame is also rotated. However, objects you paste are not rotated.

When transforming objects, keep in mind that you are working on a rotated page view. For example, if you are editing a table on a rotated spread view, changing the �left� side of the table will change what appears to be the top of the table in the rotated view.

NOTE: Before you output the file or send it to someone else, it is a good idea to avoid confusion by clearing the spread rotation. Choose View�> Rotate Spread�> Clear Rotation.

7. Set the guiding line for applying grids

Working in InDesign can sometimes call for mathematical precision in the layout of the document. This section provides tips on how you can use the available Rulers, Guides, and Column Specifications to make your final output precise with the placement of your text and graphics exactly where you want them.

Using the Zoom Tool in conjunction with the Guides and Rulers is helpful because it allows you to focus in on specific areas of your documents to make the placement of your text and graphics as accurate as possible. You can access the Zoom Tool by selecting it from the Tool Box, or by going to View > Zoom In or View > Zoom Out.

Columns

To insert columns into your document click Layout > Margins and Columns.

Enter the number of columns you would like in the Number of Columns text field.

Figure 4.12a

Inserting columns - click Layout >

Margins and Columns

Figure 4.12b

Inserting columns � enter the number of columns

Enter the space (in millimetres) that you would like in between your columns in the Gutter text field.

Figure 4.12c

Inserting columns � enter the gutter size

Make sure the chain image is linked and not broken if you would like InDesign to automatically make all the settings the same throughout the rest of your document.

Words and Terms

Gutter - the space between your columns

b. Rulers

Rulers are used to measure the placement of texts and images in your document. The rulers measure in millimetres, starting at �0�, and run horizontally and vertically from the top left corner of your document.

If the Rulers are not displayed, click View > Show Ruler. Or, if the Rulers are being displayed, and you want to get rid of them, go to View > Hide Rulers.

Clicking and dragging on the box where the horizontal and vertical rulers meet adjusts the placement of the ruler.

NOTE: The rulers must be shown in order to draw Guides, which are described in the next section.

c. Guides

Guides are temporary horizontal and vertical lines that you can set up within your document to produce page layout with mathematical precision. They are not actually drawn into your document; they exist only on-screen to help you with your layout.

Guides are useful because they help keep all parts of the document aligned properly, and they assist when measuring with the rulers. The Rulers must be shown in order to insert Guides.

Inserting Guides

To insert a Guide, place your pointer on the horizontal (or vertical) ruler at the top of your document. Click and drag down onto the document where you would like your guide to be.

You should notice a dotted line that correlates with the movement of your pointer. Measure the distance you are pulling your Guide down at by using the vertical (horizontal) ruler on the left of your document. The Guide will appear as a thin aqua line.

If you do not like where you placed your Guide, you can move it to another part of the document by clicking and dragging it, or, you can remove it completely by dragging it off of the document.

ii. "Snap To" Guides

Snapping to a Guide is like �magnetising� it. If you drag an image or element near a Guide (within a fraction of a millimetre), the image or element will lock into place with the Guide. To turn snapping on or off, click View > Grids and Guides > Snap to Guides.

iii. Hiding Guides

If you would like to view your document without the aid of the Guides, you can hide them temporarily by going to View > Grids and Guides > Hide Guides.

d. Saving

Saving your document should be a habit when working in InDesign. Saving frequently lessens the risk of losing the work you have been doing.

To save your InDesign document go to File > Save As.

The Save As dialogue box will appear.

Navigate to the place you would like your document to be saved by using the drop-down menu and navigation window.

Enter the name of your document in the Save As text field.

Click the Save button in the lower right corner of the dialogue box.

Check to make sure that your document is saved in the place you intended.

C. Design typographical features

Learning Outcomes

Student should be able to:

Set text input format and style

Set character spacing and apply kerning for certain characters

Use indent and outdent

Create paragraph style and character style

Create contents with tab functions

Create brochure pages

Using the Text Tool (T) click onto your page to enable the text cursor; don�t worry if the cursor does not line up exactly where you want to place your text � you can move and format your text later.

Begin typing your content. Once you have your raw text on the page you can begin manipulating it to your liking.

Change from the Text Tool to the Pointer Tool and click over your text. You will notice that your text has been placed into a �box� of sorts. This is called an Element. Many objects and all of your text must be within an Element; there is no �freestanding� text in an InDesign document as you might find in a Microsoft Word document.

Using the Pointer Tool, you can move the Element of text around to anywhere you like on the page. Using the �grippers� on the corners of the Element, you can adjust the width and length of the Element. If you do not specify a length for the Element, it will expand according to the length of your text, however, if you adjust the length of the Element to be smaller than your text, your text will not be visible. A red tab below the Element indicates that there is more content within the Element that is not visible.

Set text input format and style

A common way to format and manipulate your text is to use the Type Menu at the top of the screen. You will notice the first few items under the pull down menu are rather basic and self-explanatory (such as font, size, style, etc.), however, there are other more advanced features used for formatting text under the Type Menu.

Story Editor

InDesign allows you to edit your text using Editor a word processor-style view of it called the Story Editor. A story is any individual text frame or set of threaded text frames. Any changes that you make in the Story Editor will be applied to the document.

To display the Story Editor, select text using the Type Tool or select a text frame with the Selection tool, and press Ctrl + Y. When you have finished in Story Editor, you can return to the layout view, using the shortcut�Ctrl + W

The story editor is useful when:

You want to concentrate on content, not formatting (as most formatting does not display in the Story Editor view).

You need to view your text so that it is easy to read (if your formatted page has text flowing through multiple columns or text that is small and hard to read, the Story Editor makes the text easier to read and edit).

Choose Preferences > Story Editor Display,�if you want a large, easy to read font for the Story Editor display, different from the font used to format the text in the layout.

NOTE: Text in table cells cannot be edited in the Story Editor.

b. Control Palette

Another way to adjust the font, style, and size of your text is to use the Control Palette.

The Control Palette is full of quick formatting options used to manipulate the text, images, and shapes you place in your document. It should be displayed at the top of your screen; if it is not, click Window > Control

c. Set character spacing and apply kerning for certain characters

Formatting text

To change the appearance of text, use the Control Panel. When text is selected or when the insertion point is placed in text, the Control panel displays either the character formatting controls or the paragraph formatting controls, or a combination of both. These same text formatting controls appear in the Character Panel and Paragraph Panel. You can also use these Panels to format text.

Figure 4.13

The Character Panel (left) and the Paragraph Panel (right)

Note the following methods of formatting text:

To format characters, you can use the Type tool� �to select characters, or you can click to place the insertion point, select a formatting option, and then begin typing.

To format paragraphs, you don�t need to select an entire paragraph�selecting any word or character, or placing the insertion point in a paragraph will do. You can also select text in a range of paragraphs.

In the Control Panel, click the Character Formatting Control icon� �or the Paragraph Formatting Control icon .

Figure 4.14

The Character Formatting icon and Paragraph Formatting icon

Paragraph formatting controls

Specify formatting options.

Adjust word and letter spacing in justified text

Insert the cursor in the paragraph you want to change, or select a type object or frame to change all of its paragraphs.

Choose Justification from the Paragraph panel menu.

Enter values for Word Spacing, Letter Spacing, and Glyph Spacing. The Minimum and Maximum values define a range of acceptable spacing for justified paragraphs only. The Desired value defines the desired spacing for both justified and unjustified paragraphs:

Word Spacing -- The space between words that results from pressing the spacebar. Word Spacing values can range from 0% to 1000%; at 100%, no additional space is added between words.

Letter Spacing -- The distance between letters, including kerning or tracking values. Letter Spacing values can range from ?100% to 500%: at 0%, no space is added between letters; at 100%, an entire space width is added between letters.

2. Set character spacing and apply kerning for certain characters

About leading

Leading is the vertical space between lines of type. Leading is measured from the baseline of one line of text to the baseline of the line above it.�The baseline�is the invisible line on which most letters sit.

The default auto-leading option sets the leading at 120% of the type size (for example, 12?point leading for 10?point type).

Change leading

By default, leading is a character attribute, which means that you can apply more than one leading value within the same paragraph. The largest leading value in a line of type determines the leading for that line. However, you can select a preferences option so that leading applies to the entire paragraph, instead of to text within a paragraph. This setting does not affect the leading in existing frames.

ii. Change leading of selected text

Select the text you want to change, and do any of the following:

In the Character Panel or Control Panel, choose the leading you want from the Leading menu .

Select the existing leading value and type a new value.

While creating a paragraph style, change the leading using the Basic Character Formats panel.

About kerning

Kerning�is the process of adding or subtracting space between specific pairs of characters.�Tracking�is the process of loosening or tightening a block of text.

Types of kerning

You can automatically kern type using metrics kerning or optical kerning.�Metrics kerning�uses kern pairs, which are included with most fonts. Kern pairs contain information about the spacing of specific pairs of letters. Some of these are: LA, P., To, Tr, Ta, Tu, Te, Ty, Wa, WA, We, Wo, Ya, and Yo.

InDesign uses metrics kerning by default so that specific pairs are automatically kerned when you import or type text. To disable metrics kerning, select��0�.

Optical kerning adjusts the spacing between adjacent characters based on their shapes. Some fonts have big differences between capitals and low cap font variations. This means that the differences in size may make a capital letter next to a small letter not read as though they are one word. In this instance, you may want to use the�optical kerning�option.

You can also use�manual kerning,�which is ideal for adjusting the space between two letters. Tracking and manual kerning are cumulative, so you can first adjust individual pairs of letters, and then tighten or loosen a block of text without affecting the relative kerning of the letter pairs.

3. Use indent and outdent

Indents move text inward from the right and left edges of the frame. In general, use first?line indents, not spaces or tabs, to indent the first line of a paragraph.

A first-line indent is positioned relative to the left-margin indent. For example, if a paragraph�s left edge is indented 4mm, setting the first-line indent to 4mm indents the first line of the paragraph 8mm from the left edge of the frame or inset.

You can set indents using the Tabs dialogue box, the Paragraph panel, or the Control panel. You can also set indents when you create b

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