Overview Of Internet Services Administration Computer Science Essay

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ISPs may provide Internet e-mail accounts to users which allow them to communicate with one another by sending and receiving electronic messages through their ISP's servers. ISPs may provide services such as remotely storing data files on behalf of their customers, as well as other services unique to each particular ISP.

Many universal Web servers also support server-side scripting, e.g., Apache HTTP Server and PHP. This means that the behavior of the Web server can be scripted in division files, while the real server software relics unaffected. Usually, this functionality is used to create HTML documents on-the-fly as different to return fixed documents. This is referred to as active and fixed content respectively. The former is primarily used for retrieving and/or modifying information in databases. The latter is, however, typically much faster and easily cached.

4. Web server description (WSD) 3The Secure Web Server (SWS) for Tru64 UNIX (powered by Apache is an implementation of Apache HTTP Server for Tru64 UNIX. The latest versions of the Apache Web Server are provided with SWS as optionally installable salted subsets. The Secure Web Server 1.3 (powered by Apache 1.3.41) supports the HTTP protocol over the IPv4 network protocol. The Secure Web Server 2.2 (powered by Apache 2.2.9) supports the HTTP protocol over both IPv4 and IPv6 network protocols. SWS also include the Tomcat Java Served and Java Server Page Container (Tomcat). Tomcat can be configured as a standalone Web server. Or, it can be connected to an Apache Web Server to provide support for Java based, dynamic content. All SWS Web Servers can be managed either locally or remotely from a Web-based Administration utility also provided with SWS

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5. Semantics4 is the study of meaning, usually in language. The word "semantics" itself denotes a range of ideas, from the popular to the highly technical. It is often used in ordinary language to denote a problem of understanding that comes down to word selection or connotation. This problem of understanding has been the subject of many formal inquiries, over a long period of time, most notably in the field of formal semantics.

(b)

1.

Web service is a programmable unit of software that can be accessed over the

Internet and used remotely. It can be used internally by a single application

or exposed externally over the Internet for use by multiple applications.

Web Services are services with standard interfaces that just expose a

behavior.

Where as Web Applications can be defined as all the Web pages (.aspx, .jsp,

and HTML files), handlers, modules, executable code, and other files (such as

images and configuration files) that can be invoked from a Web server.

Sounds complex....

Web Applications resides in a web server like IIS. Web Application is a

collection of all the web pages. These are the pages which will be displayed

when a request is made by the browser.

2.

Other books claim to present the complete Web services platform architecture, but this is the first one I've seen that really does. The authors have been intimately involved in the creation of the architecture. Who better to write this book?"

-Anne Thomas Manes, Vice President and Research Director, Burton Group

"This is a very important book, providing a lot of technical detail and background that very few (if any) other books will be able to provide. The list of authors includes some of the top experts in the various specifications covered, and they have done an excellent job explaining the background motivation for and pertinent details of each specification. The benefit of their perspectives and collective expertise alone make the book worth reading."

3.

Web services are typically application programming interfaces (API) or web APIs that can be accessed over a network, such as the Internet, and executed on a remote system hosting the requested services clients and servers that communicate over the Hypertext Transfer Protocol(HTTP) protocol used on the web. Such services tend to fall into one of two camps: Big Web Services and Restful Web Services.

4.

Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI, pronounced is a platform-independent, Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based registry for businesses worldwide to list themselves on the Internet. UDDI is an open industry initiative, sponsored by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), enabling businesses to publish service listings and discover each other and define how the services or software applications interact over the Internet. A UDDI business registration consists of three components:

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White Pages - address, contact, and known identifiers;

Yellow Pages - industrial categorizations based on standard taxonomies;

Green Pages - technical information about services exposed by the business.

UDDI was originally proposed as a core Web service standard. It is designed to be interrogated by Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages and to provide access to Web Services Description Language (WSDL) documents describing the protocol bindings and message formats required to interact with the web services listed in its directory.

5.

UDDI :5 UDDI is a platform-independent, Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based registry for businesses worldwide to list themselves on the Internet. UDDI is an open industry initiative, sponsored by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), enabling businesses to publish service listings and discover each other and define how the services or software applications interact over the Internet. A UDDI business registration consists of three components

6.

SOAP, 6originally defined as Simple Object Access Protocol, is a protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of Web Services in computer networks. It relies on extensible Markup Language (XML) as its message format, and usually relies on other Application Layer protocols (most notably Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and HTTP) for message negotiation and transmission. SOAP can form the foundation layer of a web services protocol stack, providing a basic messaging framework upon which web services can be built. This XML based protocol consists of three parts: an envelope - which defines what is in the message and how to process it - a set of encoding rules for expressing instances of application-defined data types, and a convention for representing procedure calls and responses.

Task-2

To open Computer Management, click Start, and then click Control Panel. Click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management.

Figure: For open Computer management

Step- 1: First open con sole

Figure : For console

Figure : Management console

(a)

Right-click the service that you want to configure, and then click

Figure : Service and Application

(b)

(c)

To open Computer Management, click Start, and then click Control Panel. Click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management

Figure: Computer Management (Local) Storage

Figure: Computer Management (Local) Storage\Removal Storage

To open Removable Storage, click Start and then click Control Panel. Click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management. In the console tree, double-click Storage and then double-click Removable Storage.

Figure: Computer Management (Local) Storage\Disk Defragmenter

(d)

To open Device Manager, click Start, and then click Control Panel. Click Performance and Maintenance, and then click System. On the Hardware tab, click Device Manager.

Figure: Computer Management (Local) System Tools

(e)

Figure: System Information

(f)

To open Computer Management, click Start, and then click Control Panel. Click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management.

Figure: Computer Management (Local) System Tools\Local Users and group

Figure: Computer Management (Local) System Tools\Local Users and group

Figure: Computer Management (Local) System Tools\Local Users and group

(g)

To open Performance, click Start, click Control Panel, click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Performance.

Figure: Computer Management (Local) System Tools\Performance Logs and Alerts

Figure: Computer Management (Local) System Tools\Performance Logs and Alerts/Computer Logs

Figure: Computer Management (Local) System Tools\Performance Logs and Alerts/Trace Logs

Figure: Computer Management (Local) System Tools\Performance Logs and Alerts/ Alerts

(h)

Figure: IIS Services

(j)

Figure: Internet Information Services

Figure: Internet Information Services

Task 3

(A)

1.

Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical name organization for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private system. It links a range of information with domain names assign to each of the participants. mainly notably; it translates domain names significant to humans into the numerical (binary) identifiers associated with networking tools for the reason of locating and addressing these policy global. An often-used similarity to give details the Domain Name System is that it serves as the "phone book" for the Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP addresses

2.

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Internet Protocol (IP) IP is the most important protocol in the Internet level of the Internet Protocol set and has the task of deliver famous protocol datagram (packets) from the source host to the goal host exclusively based on their addresses. For this reason the Internet Protocol defines addressing methods and structures for datagram encapsulation. The first major description of addressing composition, now referred to as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) is still the main protocol of the Internet, while the heir, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is being deployed actively global.

3.

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) provide variable, connectionless package delivery. IP is connectionless because it treats each packet of information without help. It is variable because it does not promise rescue. That is, it does not require acknowledgments from the transfer host, the receiving host, or middle hosts. is the fourth review in the development of the Internet Protocol (IP) and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. Together with IPv6, it is at the core of standards-based internetworking methods of the Internet. IPv4 is still by far the most widely deployed Internet Layer protocol. As of 2010[update], IPv6 deployment is still in its infancy.

4.

Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participants. Most importantly, it translates domain names meaningful to humans into the numerical (binary) identifiers associated with networking equipment for the purpose of locating and addressing these devices worldwide. An often-used analogy to explain the Domain Name System is that it serves as the "phone book" for the Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP addresses

5.

Resolver The most common type of resolver is the brushless transmitter resolver (other types are described at the end). On the outside, this type of resolver may look like a small electrical motor having a stator and rotor. On the inside, the configuration of the wire windings makes it different. The stator portion of the resolver houses three windings: an exciter winding and two two-phase windings (usually labeled "x" and "y") (case of a brushless resolver). The exciter winding is located on the top, it is in fact a coil of a turning transformer. This transformer empowers the rotor, thus there is no need for brushes, or no limit to the rotation of the rotor. The two other windings are on the bottom, wound on a lamination. They are configured at 90 degrees from each other. The rotor houses a coil, which is the secondary winding of the turning transformer, and a primary winding in a lamination, exciting the two two-phase windings on the stator.

6.

DNS infrastructure is the delegation of zones. Beginning with the root of the DNS .each zone administrator has the authority to delegate sub-zones to other responsible parties. Each sub-zone becomes another delegation point in the DNS infrastructure tree. The correct operation of the delegation hierarchy is essential to the stability of the DNS.A key element of the DNS infrastructure is the delegation of zones. Beginning with the root of the DNS ("."), each zone administrator has the authority to delegate sub-zones to other responsible parties. Each sub-zone becomes another delegation point in the DNS infrastructure tree. The correct operation of the delegation hierarchy is essential to the stability of the DNS.

7.

Fully qualified domain name (FQDN), sometimes referred to as an absolute domain name,[1] is a domain name that specifies its exact location in the tree hierarchy of the Domain Name System (DNS). It specifies all domain levels, including the top-level domain, relative to the root domain. A fully qualified domain name is distinguished by this absoluteness in the name space.

For example, given a device with a local hostname my host and a parent domain name example.com, the fully qualified domain name is written as myhost.example.com. This fully qualified domain name therefore uniquely identifies the host - while there may be many resources in the world called my host, there is only one my host

8.

Network ID refers to a part of a TCP/IP address that is used to identify the subnet that a host may be on. The subnet that the computer is on is determined by the netmask and IP address of the computer. This subnet address is the same as the network ID and is the beginning part of the computers IP address.

When the netmask is setup, it is a number where some of the most significant bits have a 1's value and the rest have values of 0. The most significant part of the netmask with bits set to 1's specifies the network address, and the lower part of the address will specify the host address.

The part of the IP address that matches the part of the netmask where the bits are set to ones determines the network ID. When accessing your Imail or Umail account from the vendor site, you will need to use the vendor passphrase you chose; this may not be the same as your Network ID passphrase

9.

A subnetwork, or subnet, is a logically visible, distinctly addressed part of a single Internet Protocol network.[1] The process of subnetting is the division of a computer network into groups of computers that have a common, designated IP address routing prefix.

Subnetting breaks a network into smaller realms that may use existing address space more efficiently, and, when physically separated, may prevent excessive rates of Ethernet packet collision in a larger network. The subnets may be arranged logically in a hierarchical architecture, partitioning the organization's network address space (see also Autonomous System) into a tree-like routing structure. Routers are used to interchange traffic between subnetworks and constitute logical or physical borders between the subnets. They manage traffic between subnets based on the high-order bit sequence (routing prefix) of the addresses.

(b)

Briefly discuss the common vulnerabilities of DNS:

One of the four categories of Denial of Service (DoS) attacks list by Scambray, McClure, and Kurtz is Routing and DNS attacks (1). This refers to attacks which corrupt the information these systems use to perform their functions. Information Poisoning, though more general, is a more accurate term for categorizing these types of attacks. It is also more inclusive of attacks such as ARP Poisoning which employ similar tactics and are possible because of a common vulnerability. Each of the protocols associated with these attacks either completely lacks or has very poor methods of authentication. Attackers capitalize on this weakness to undermine the trust relationship between two systems. This paper will attempt to illustrate consequences of this deficiency. Buffer overflows and other attacks on specific software that implement DNS will not be covered.

(C)

Measures can be taken to secure DNS:

A secure DNS query may be made by establishing a secure connection with a specific DNS server to determine an address for a hostname. A client device may have a database that may contain a record of a secure DNS server for one or more hostnames. When a DNS request contains one of the specified hostnames, an authenticated session may be created with the designated secure DNS server and a network address for the hostname is returned using the session. The authenticated session may authenticate a client device to the server as well as authenticate the server to the client. In some embodiments, the secure DNS server may accept connections from authenticated clients and may disregard connection requests from non authenticated clients.

(d)

2.

Figure:

Figure:

3.

172.168.2.64

172.168.2.0

172.168.0.64

172.168.1.192

172.168.0.0

172.168.1.128

172.168.0.128

172.168.1.64

172.168.0.192

172.168.1.0

ISP

Getaway

Switch

4.

Network

Hosts

Broadcast Address

from

to

172.168.0.0

172.168.0.1

172.168.0.62

172.168.0.63

172.168.0.64

172.168.0.65

172.168.0.126

172.168.0.127

172.168.0.128

172.168.0.129

172.168.0.190

172.168.0.191

172.168.0.192

172.168.0.193

172.168.0.254

172.168.0.255

172.168.1.0

172.168.1.1

172.168.1.62

172.168.1.63

172.168.1.64

172.168.1.65

172.168.1.126

172.168.1.127

172.168.1.128

172.168.1.129

172.168.1.190

172.168.1.191

172.168.1.192

172.168.1.193

172.168.1.254

172.168.1.255

172.168.2.0

172.168.2.1

172.168.2.62

172.168.2.63

172.168.2.64

172.168.2.65

172.168.2.126

172.168.2.127

172.168.2.128

172.168.2.129

172.168.2.190

172.168.2.191

172.168.2.192

172.168.2.193

172.168.2.254

172.168.2.255

172.168.3.0

172.168.3.1

172.168.3.62

172.168.3.63

172.168.3.64

172.168.3.65

172.168.3.126

172.168.3.127

172.168.3.128

172.168.3.129

172.168.3.190

172.168.3.191

172.168.3.192

172.168.3.193

172.168.3.254

172.168.3.255

172.168.4.0

172.168.4.1

172.168.4.62

172.168.4.63

172.168.4.64

172.168.4.65

172.168.4.126

172.168.4.127

172.168.4.128

172.168.4.129

172.168.4.190

172.168.4.191

172.168.4.192

172.168.4.193

172.168.4.254

172.168.4.255

172.168.5.0

172.168.5.1

172.168.5.62

172.168.5.63

172.168.5.64

172.168.5.65

172.168.5.126

172.168.5.127

172.168.5.128

172.168.5.129

172.168.5.190

172.168.5.191

172.168.5.192

172.168.5.193

172.168.5.254

172.168.5.255

172.168.6.0

172.168.6.1

172.168.6.62

172.168.6.63

172.168.6.64

172.168.6.65

172.168.6.126

172.168.6.127

Task-4

(a)

1.

Automating server administration using wsadmin scripting:

The scripting library provides script procedures to assist in automating your environment. Use the server management scripts to configure servers, the server runtime environment, Web containers, performance monitoring, and logs. You can also use the scripts to administer your servers.

The scripting library provides a set of procedures to automate the most common application server administration functions. There are three ways to use the script library.

2.

web search engine is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. The search results are usually presented in a list of results and are commonly called hits. The information may consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open directories. Unlike Web directories, which are maintained by human editors, search engines operate algorithmically or are a mixture of algorithmic and human input.

3.

7Robot This module implements a configurable web traversal engine, for a robot or other web agent. Given an initial web page (URL), the Robot will get the contents of that page, and extract all links on the page, adding them to a list of URLs to visit.

Features of the Robot module include:

Follows the Robot Exclusion Protocol.

Supports the META element proposed extensions to the Protocol.

Implements many of the Guidelines for Robot Writers.

Configurable.

Builds on standard Perl 5 modules for WWW, HTTP, HTML, etc.

A particular application (robot instance) has to configure the engine using hooks, which are perl functions invoked by the Robot engine at specific points in the control loop.

(b)

Interpret the following "/robots.txt" file

User-agent: *

Disallow: /cgi-bin/

Disallow: Naj/

Ans: This is the User directive. The * means all robots, so the following disallow directives apply to any robot or spider. These are the directories that we don't want the robot to look at. The cgi-bin directory contains cgi scripts. This is directive of the robot. Naj is the disable file system. It can create malicious code can stop the file.

(c)

Interpret the following "robots.txt" file

User-agent: *

Disallow

Ans: This is the User directive. The * means all robots, so the following disallow directives apply to any robot or spider. It can go find out for the information for user. These are the directories that robot up to source.

(d)

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Figure: Scheduled Tasks wizard

Figure: Scheduled Tasks wizard

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Figure: Scheduled Tasks wizard

Figure: Scheduled Tasks wizard

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