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Microsoft Windows Server 2003:
* Distributed File System (DFS): DFS allows multiple network shares to be aggregated as a virtual file system.
* Support for SAN and iSCSI: Computers can connect to a Storage Server over the LAN, and there is no need for a separate fibre channel network. Thus a Storage Area Network can be created over the LAN itself. iSCSI uses the SCSI protocol to transfer data as a block of bytes, rather than as a file. This increases performance of the Storage network in some scenarios, such as using a database server.
* Virtual Disc Service: It allows NAS devices, RAID devices and SAN shares to be exposed and managed as if they were normal hard drives.
* JBOD systems: JBOD (Just a bunch of discs) systems by using VDS, can manage a group of individual storage devices as a single unit. There is no need for the storage units to be of the same make and model.
* Software and Hardware RAID: Windows Storage Server 2003 has intrinsic support for hardware implementation of RAID. In case hardware support is not available, it can use software enabled RAID. In that case, all processing is done by the OS.
* Multi Path IO (MPIO): It provides an alternate connection to IO devices in case the primary path is down.
* Only one computer in a domain can be running Windows Server 2003 for Small Business Server.
* Windows Server 2003 for Small Business Server must be the root of the Active Directory forest.
* Windows Server 2003 for Small Business Server cannot trust any other domains.
* Windows Server 2003 for Small Business Server is limited to 75 users or devices depending on which type of CAL.
* Windows Server 2003 for Small Business Server is limited to 4GB of RAM.
* A Windows Server 2003 for Small Business Server domain cannot have any child domains.
* Terminal Services only operates in remote administration mode on the server running SBS 2003, and only two simultaneous RDP sessions are allowed.
* To remove the limits from SBS server and upgrade from Small Business Server to regular Windows Server, Exchange Server, SQL and ISA server versions there is a Windows Small Business Server 2003 R2 Transition Pack.
* As well as those designed for general purpose use on desktops and servers, distributions may be specialized for different purposes including computer architecture support, embedded systems, stability, security, localization to a specific region or language, targeting of specific user groups, support for real-time applications, or commitment to a given desktop environment. Furthermore, some distributions deliberately include only free software. Currently, over three hundred distributions are actively developed, with about a dozen distributions being most popular for general-purpose use.
* Linux is a widely ported operating system kernel. The Linux kernel runs on a highly diverse range of computer architectures: in the hand-held ARM-based iPAQ and the mainframe IBM System z9, System z10 in devices ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers. Specialized distributions exist for less mainstream architectures. The ELKS kernel fork can run on Intel 8086 or Intel 80286 16-bit microprocessors, while the µClinux kernel fork may run on systems without a memory management unit. The kernel also runs on architectures that were only ever intended to use a manufacturer-created operating system, such as Macintosh computers, PDAs, video game consoles, portable music players, and mobile phones.
* Most Linux distributions support dozens of programming languages. The most common collection of utilities for building both Linux applications and operating system programs is found within the GNU toolchain, which includes the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and the GNU build system. Amongst others, GCC provides compilers for Ada, C, C++, Java, and Fortran. The Linux kernel itself is written to be compiled with GCC. Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler, Sun Studio, and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler. BASIC is supported in such forms as Gambas, FreeBASIC, and XBasic.
* Users can control a Linux-based system through a command line interface , a graphical user interface , or through controls attached to the associated hardware. For desktop systems, the default mode is usually graphical user interface, where the CLI is available through terminal emulator windows or on a separate virtual console.
* A Linux system typically provides a CLI through a shell, which is the traditional way of interacting with a Unix system. A Linux distribution specialized for servers may use the CLI as its only interface. A headless system that runs without even a monitor can be controlled by the command line via a remote-control protocol such as SSH or telnet.
* Many operating systems support one or more vendor-specific or open networking protocols as well, for example, SNA on IBM systems, DECnet on systems from Digital Equipment Corporation, and Microsoft-specific protocols (SMB) on Windows. Specific protocols for specific tasks may also be supported such as NFS for file access. Protocols like ESound, or esd can be easily extended over the network to provide sound from local applications, on a remote system's sound hardware.
Microsoft Windows CE:
* A distinctive feature of Windows CE compared to other Microsoft operating systems is that large parts of it are offered in source code form. First, source code was offered to several vendors, so they could adjust it to their hardware.
* Windows CE has evolved into a component-based, embedded, real-time operating system. It is no longer targeted solely at hand-held computers.
* Microsoft says it implies a number of Windows CE design precepts, including Compact, Connectable, Compatible, Companion, and Efficient.
* Windows CE is optimized for devices that have minimal storage. A Windows CE kernel may run in under a megabyte of memory.
* The first version, known during development under the code name “Pegasus”, featured a Windows-like GUI and a number of Microsoft's popular applications, all trimmed down for smaller storage, memory, and speed of the palmtops of the day.
* Windows CE 6 was introduced in 2006. It offers a revised kernel architecture of the operating system, up to 32,000 parallel processes can be executed. A virtual addressable range of 2 gbyte is possible for every process. The compatibility to existing Windows CE applications and drivers are kept.
* - energy saving design for mobile handheld- and palmtop computers
- complex design
- complex applications
* The NT family of Windows systems was fashioned and marketed for higher reliability business use.
* Windows CE, Microsoft's offering in the mobile and embedded markets, is also a true 32-bit operating system that offers various services for all sub-operating workstations.
* Windows CE (officially known as Windows Embedded), is an edition of Windows that runs on minimalistic computers, like satellite navigation systems and, uncommonly, mobile phones.
* Windows CE 2.0 also comes with a new version of Pocket Internet Explorer. You can use this to not only browse the Internet, but browse the files on your PC. Pocket Internet Explorer is improved in other ways, making it closer to the desktop version in look and features.
* Windows CE 2.0 has merged Contacts, Calendar and Tasks into one application that closely resembles the desktop version of Microsoft Outlook, and easily synchronizes with it.
* Pocket Word and Excel are also improved. Pocket Word now lets you spell check a document and use TrueType fonts without conversion. It does a better job of formatting your document with tabs, indentation, and numbered lists. Pocket Excel adds database functions along with the ability to zoom in and out, and split or freeze sections of the worksheet.
MAC OS X:
* The human interface guidelines published by Apple for Mac OS X are followed by many applications, giving them consistent user interface and keyboard shortcuts.
* In addition, new services for applications are included, which include spelling and grammar checkers, special characters palette, color picker, font chooser and dictionary; these global features are present in every Cocoa application, adding consistency.
* The graphics system OpenGL composites windows onto the screen to allow hardware-accelerated drawing.
* This technology, introduced in version 10.2, is called Quartz Extreme, a component of Quartz. Quartz's internal imaging model correlates well with the (PDF) imaging model, making it easy to output PDF to multiple devices.
* Its functions are to instantly display all open windows as thumbnails for easy navigation to different tasks, display all open windows as thumbnails from the current application, and hide all windows to access the desktop.
* the Sync Services were included, which is a system that allows applications to access a centralized extensible database for various elements of user data, including calendar and contact items.
* The operating system then managed conflicting edits and data consistency.
* It allows for dynamic previews of files, including videos and multi-page documents, without opening their parent applications.
* Mac OS X is renowned for its simplicity, its reliability, and its ease of use. So when it came to designing Snow Leopard, Apple engineers had a single goal: to make a great thing even better. They searched for areas to refine, further simplify, and speed up — from little things like ejecting external drives to big things like installing the OS. In many cases, they elevated great to amazing.
* The Finder has been completely rewritten in Cocoa to take advantage of all the modern technologies in Mac OS X, including 64-bit support and Grand Central Dispatch. It's more responsive from top to bottom, with snappier performance throughout the Finder. And it includes new features such as customizable Spotlight search options and an enhanced icon view that lets you thumb through a multipage document or watch a QuickTime movie.
* the revolutionary Time Machine made backing up your hard drive easy for the first time. Time Capsule took backup even further with its wireless hard drive that works seamlessly with Time Machine. Now Snow Leopard makes Time Machine up to 80 percent faster and reduces the time it takes to complete your initial backup to Time Capsule.
* if you wanted to enter Chinese characters on a computer, you had to type in the phonetic spelling of Chinese words and the computer would convert them into proper Chinese characters. Snow Leopard offers a breakthrough new way to enter characters: You write them directly on the Multi-Touch trackpad in your Mac notebook. They'll appear on the screen in a new input window.
Windows Mobile Phone:
* Internet Explorer Mobile: Conveniently transfer favorites from your PC to your phone. And check out handy new features like Adobe Flash Lite support and easy searching right in the address bar.
* Microsoft Office Mobile: which gives you access to the applications you use all the time, like Office Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and OneNote. So lose the desk and do some number-crunching, compose that memo, or practice that presentation.
* Microsoft Office Outlook Mobile: E-mail, calendar, and contacts. And it's easy to sync Outlook between your phone and PC so you stay up to date as you roam.
* Bing for mobile: Find the fastest route to get where you're going, track down the best sandwich in town, or locate the cheapest gas around. Bing for mobile helps you find the local information you're looking for, with fewer clicks.
* Windows Live : Catch the latest news from your friends in one place, no matter which popular social network site they belong to whether they use Facebook, Twitter, or MySpace. You can use your favorite Windows Live features and programs, too, right from your phone. Post updates to Windows Live Spaces, check your Hotmail e-mail account, IM with Messenger, and more.
* You can avoid many of the threats to the information on your phone if you take the right precautions. Get help here for protecting your phone and its data.
* Let your phone provide the soundtrack for your workout, play that entertaining video, or display those vacation photos. These are just some of the ways your phone can become your portable entertainment center.
* It's easy to use your phone's web browser to visit your favorite web sites, search the Internet, and find and download mobile applications, ringtones, music, and other media. All you need is an Internet connection.
* Manage your work time and your downtime with your phone. You can schedule your day, track tasks, set reminders, and more. And when you're away from your office, Microsoft Office Mobile helps you keep up with your daily work.
* Your Windows phone has everything you need to communicate with friends, family, and business associates
* If you're near a Wi-Fi hotspot, you may be able to wirelessly connect your phone to the Internet. However, not all providers support Wi-Fi connections, so check your phone to see if this service is available.
* You can help keep data more secure by requiring a password every time that the device is turned on.