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A mobile ad-hoc network is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes that communicate with each other over wireless links without any central administration. In ad-hoc networks, each host has to act as a router for itself to communicate with hosts outside its transmission range due to the limited range of each host's wireless transmission.
An ad-hoc routing protocol runs on every host and is subject to the limit of the resources at each mobile host. Therefore, a traditional routing protocol, which is used in IP network, is not suitable to the ad-hoc network. Also, it is not appropriate to use conventional protocols, which are proposed or used in IP networks, such as MAC, QoS, Multicast, and TCP. There are many research issues to design protocols in ad-hoc networks:
A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants . It also usually used in various applications such as monitoring, tracking, or controlling. The development of wireless sensor networks was motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance. Due to the reality in the real time application right now, the utilization of wireless sensor network is necessary to make sure the data will be transferred efficiently to the end user.
C:\Users\Latifah\Desktop\_.._IICManager_Upload_IMG_SanFrancisco_18 Sensor Network.JPG
Figure 2: Wireless Sensor Network
The primary challenge in building a MANET is equipping each device to continuously maintain the information required to properly route traffic and because of the expansion of wireless user now day, there are essentially good to have an efficient wireless sensor network so that the end user will get the accurate data.
The main points are as follows:
Find the suitable routing protocols for the monitoring purposes in environmental conditions like natural disaster activity.
Determine the suitable numbers of nodes for the wireless sensor network.
In any project or research, it is important to have the objectives. In this project, the aims are to optimize the MANET routing protocols and the parameters that involve with it. This is to show the comparison between the parameters done by the researchers before. The objectives are:
To compare performance of two MANET routing protocol which are Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR).
To determine parameters such as throughput and delay for network optimization by using different number of nodes for Wireless Sensor Network.
This project is about the study of MANET routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Network, which is Dynamic Routing Protocols and Optimized Link State Routing. Therefore the description of these two routing protocols and their principles are crucial before doing the simulation. On top of that, the similarities and differences between MANET and WSN are highlighted to give better understanding of these two wireless networks.
In general wireless communication is classified into two main that are infrastructure based and infrastructure less based networks and to further classify, infrastructure less networks are divided into two groups which are WSN and MANET. The two networks are equivalent but build for different purposes. Both groups of wireless networks are self organizing networks where nodes are connected by wireless link, can move freely and the topology of the network changes constantly.
Some of the similarities are:
Both WSN and MANET powered by battery and there is a big concern on minimizing the power consumption.
These networks use a wireless channel that is prone to interference by other radio technologies operating in the same frequency.
The differences are like:
Sensor networks focus on interaction with environment rather than focus on interaction with human whereas MANET nodes are always in touch by human beings (E.g. laptop, computers, PDA, mobile radio terminals and etc).
MANET is used for data and information exchange whereas sensor network nodes are usually embedded in the environment to sense some phenomenon and possibly actuate upon it .
Dynamic Routing Protocols (DSR) 
The Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR) is a simple and efficient routing protocol designed specifically for use in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks of mobile nodes. DSR allows the network to be completely self-organizing and self-configuring, without the need for any existing network infrastructure or administration.
DSR has been implemented by numerous groups, and deployed on several testbeds. Networks using the DSR protocol have been connected to the Internet. DSR can interoperate with Mobile IP, and nodes using Mobile IP and DSR have seamlessly migrated between WLANs, cellular data services, and DSR mobile ad hoc networks.
The protocol is composed of the two main mechanisms of "Route Discovery" and "Route Maintenance", which work together to allow nodes to discover and maintain routes to arbitrary destinations in the ad hoc network. All aspects of the protocol operate entirely on-demand, allowing the routing packet overhead of DSR to scale automatically to only that needed to react to changes in the routes currently in use.
The protocol allows multiple routes to any destination and allows each sender to select and control the routes used in routing its packets, for example for use in load balancing or for increased robustness. Other advantages of the DSR protocol include easily guaranteed loop-free routing, support for use in networks containing unidirectional links, use of only "soft state" in routing, and very rapid recovery when routes in the network change. The DSR protocol is designed mainly for mobile ad hoc networks of up to about two hundred nodes, and is designed to work well with even very high rates of mobility.
Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) 
OLSR is a proactive routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. The protocol inherits the stability of a link state algorithm and has the advantage of having routes immediately available when needed due to its proactive nature. OLSR is an optimization over the classical link state protocol, tailored for mobile ad hoc networks.
OLSR minimizes the overhead from flooding of control traffic by using only selected nodes, called multipoint relays (MPRs), to retransmit control messages. This technique significantly reduces the number of retransmissions required to flood a message to all nodes in the network. Secondly, OLSR requires only partial link state to be flooded in order to provide shortest path routes. The minimal set of link state information required is that all nodes, selected as MPRs, must declare the links to their MPR selectors. Additional topological information, if present, may be utilized e.g., for redundancy purposes.
OLSR may optimize the reactivity to topological changes by reducing the maximum time interval for periodic control message transmission. Furthermore, as OLSR continuously maintains routes to all destinations in the network, the protocol is beneficial for traffic patterns where a large subset of nodes are communicating with another large subset of nodes, and where the (source, destination) pairs are changing over time. The protocol is particularly suited for large and dense networks, as the optimization done using MPRs works well in this context. The larger and more dense a network, the more optimization can be achieved as compared to the classic link state algorithm.
OLSR is designed to work in a completely distributed manner and does not depend on any central entity. The protocol does not require reliable transmission of control messages: each node sends control messages periodically, and can therefore sustain a reasonable loss of some such messages. Such losses occur frequently in radio networks due to collisions or other transmission problems.
Also, OLSR does not require sequenced delivery of messages. Each control message contains a sequence number which is incremented for each message. Thus the recipient of a control message can, if required, easily identify which information is more recent - even if messages have been re-ordered while in transmission.
Initially, four major steps are involved in this project in order to achieve the objectives. The important step is to design the MANET and the specifications. Next step is to choose the parameter for Dynamic Routing Protocols (DSR) and Optimized Links State Routing (OLSR). Then do the optimization process. Finally, project results will be documented for approval. The methodology step flow is as in Figure 3.
Figure 3: Project Methodology Flow
Scope of Study
This project will be conducted based on the scope outline below:
Routing parameters for each protocol are user defined to get the best result from the simulation.
Sensor nodes are represented by wireless workstation and not moving
Numbers of nodes are chosen to 10, 25 and 30 nodes in each simulation scenarios.
Each simulation will be set to run for 600 second.
Project Propose Schedule
Refer Table 1 for details on the project propose schedule and plan to achieve the project objective.
Table 1: Gantt chart of Project Propose Schedule