Operating Systems Which Are Stand Alone Computer Science Essay

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In September 1993, the computer systems industry, in the form of a group of 75 leading system and software vendors, agreed to back an initiative to ask X/Open Company to standardize the specifications of the UNIX operating system. In a parallel move, Novell, Inc. announced that it would transfer the UNIX trade mark, which it owned, to X/Open Company Limited (now part of The Open Group). In a few weeks and two announcements, the computer industry put behind it over 25 years of policy and technical differences to concentrate on delivering a single specification for the UNIX system to the market with the aim of creating a consistent volume market for UNIX systems. All major vendors, including those that would continue to develop and maintain their own implementations of their operating system, agreed that they would ensure that their operating system products would meet a single comprehensive standard specification for APIs (Application Programming Interfaces).http://www.unix.org/images/img00002.gif

This set of specifications would contain about 1170 separate APIs and be derived from those used by the most popular business applications running on UNIX systems. It was therefore able to deliver to market the benefits of a single, standard operating system: application and information portability, flexibility and freedom of choice for customers.

This industry initiative worked through the proven processes of X/Open Company to develop a set of specifications by broad industry consensus, supported by a testing and branding program, that would deliver commonality across multiple implementations of UNIX systems. The early specification (known then as Spec 1170), took into account the interfaces utilized by the most widely used UNIX system applications to ensure historical application compatibility. This Single UNIX Specification now defines products that are called UNIX, and is backed by the X/Open branding program. 

Linux is an open source operating system, which is kind of an adapted clone of a UNIX operating program. In the beginning, during the nineteen sixties to eighties computer devices were huge, cumbersome things that had been only depending on codes to get useful. A standard user wasn't able to run a computer if he wasn't very cognisant of various techniques of coding and he usually had to have access to the resources of a large corporation, the federal government or a well-funded university. Computer geeks and nerds arrived with a hunger to acquire quicker, simpler and even more powerful systems that might not be restricted to large mainframe computer departments. Bill Gates came up with MS Dos and also then the GUI interface which led to the advent of Windows, while programming gurus came up with a changed and improved model of UNIX that was christened -Linux!

Linux currently is much changed compared to the Linux of yesteryear. No longer do you really have to comprehen codes or master programming expertise to be able to work on a Linux procedure. But mainly because persons have grown to love the GUI program of Windows, Linux for a long time wasn't commonly used by the ranked masses of home users. Even so, programmers, professional laptop developers and server-side buyers acclaim Linux for being the finest running system available. Linux now has solid safety measures, and functions fantastically in the arena of server and hosting solutions. On the other hand, for most consumers this OS has some issues outstanding in that it appears incompatible with a variety of computer softwares, the being mostly Windows-based utils and games. Windows, Linux or MAC OS ?? A Comparison.

Windows is a series of operating systems developed by Microsoft. Each version of Windows includes a graphical user interface, with a desktop that allows users to view files and folders in windows. For the past two decades, Windows has been the most widely used operating system for personal computers PCs. Microsoft Windows is designed for both home computing and professional purposes. Past versions of Windows home editions include Windows 3.0 (1990), Windows 3.1 (1992), Windows 95 (1995), Windows 98 (1998), Windows Me (2000), Windows XP (2001), and Windows Vista (2006). The current version, Windows 7, was released in 2009. Windows, Linux or MAC OS ?? A Comparison.

The first business-oriented version of Windows, called Windows NT 3.1, was in 1993. This was followed by Windows 3.5, 4.0, and Windows 2000. When Microsoft released Windows XP in 2001, the company simply created different editions of the operating system for personal and business purposes. Windows Vista and Windows 7 have followed the same release strategy. The latest release is windows 8, Windows 8 is Windows reimagined from the chipset to the user experience. It functions as both a tablet for entertainment and a full-featured PC for getting things done. It introduces a totally new interface that works smoothly for both touch and mouse and keyboard. Windows 8 also includes enhancements of the familiar Windows desktop, with a new taskbar and streamlined file management.

Mac Os is the operating system that runs on Macintosh computers. It is pronounced, "mack-oh-es." The Mac OS has been around since the first Macintosh was introduced in 1984. Since then, it has been continually updated and many new features have been added to it. Each major OS release is signified by a new number (i.e. Mac OS 8, Mac OS 9). Since the core of the Mac OS was nearly decades old, Apple decided to completely revamp the operating system. In March of 2001, Apple introduced a completely new version of the Mac OS that was written from the ground up. The company dubbed it "Mac OS X," correctly pronounced "Mac OS 10." Unlike earlier versions of the Mac OS, Mac OS X is based on the same kernel as Unix and has many advanced administrative features and utilities. Though the operating system is much more advanced than earlier versions of the Mac OS, it still has the same ease-of-use that people have come to expect from Apple software.

At the end,Windows, Macintosh, and Unix/Linux are the three most popular operating systems with Windows being the most popular among the three. Estimates vary, but approximately 85% to 90% of personal computers use Windows. In contrast to the large market share enjoyed by Windows, Macintosh is used by fewer people. Macintosh regulates the design of software and hardware add-ons more rigidly than Microsoft, so the software and hardware added to a Mac is less likely to fail. Linux is less popular and is based on UNIX, an operating system used for more than three decades that now powers about 90% of Web sites. In sharp contrast to both Windows and Macintosh, Unix/Linux is an open source project which enables anyone to modify the Linux code. Although Linux offers greater security and flexibility than other operating systems, it requires some technical knowledge to install and use. For desktop or home purpose, Linux is very cheap or free, Windows is expensive. For server use, Linux is very cheap compared to Windows. Microsoft allows single copy of Windows to be used on only one computer. Starting with Windows XP, they use software to enforce this rule (activation).In contrast, once you have purchased Linux, you can run it on any number of computers for no additional charges. As Windows store user information (files and settings) anywhere, it makes it hard for the users to backup user data files and settings and to switch to a new computer. In contrast, Linux stores all user data in the home directory making it much easier to migrate from an old computer to a new one.

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