Operating Systems Networking Technology Computer Science Essay

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A computer network is link between two or more computers connected eachother through a cable or by radio connection so that they would be able to exchange information. A network can be created by hooking together all the computers through a cable or radio connections and using the computer's network interface. In order to operate the network we have to set up computer operating system software.

All the computers in a network are connected with a main computer that shares all the resources with a group of seventy computers and it's called Server and those computers that are connected will the server are called on the network or Node.

Purpose of Networking

Although establish a network is a bit complicated work but the benefits gain from networking overweight the complication of setting up the networking. Basically a networking is about sharing three thins files programs and resources.

Sharing Files

A network enables its peers to share information stored on a server or any other computer attached with the network. You can directly share a file with other computer over the network. Another way is to copy the file from other computer and paste it on your computer. One way or other, the data travels from one computer to other computer over the network cable without use of CD, flash or DVD disk.

Sharing Resources

On the network we can easily share different resources like hard drives or printers. For example a printer is install on 4th floor is shared amongst all the computers and can be access by any computer and can easily use it. In case if the printer is not shared on the network then we have to buy a separate printer for each computer that would leads towards increase in cost for the organization.

Sharing Program

It is better to keep a program copy on the server so that every person can share it and install it on its system when ever required rather than copying it on every computer that would lead towards the requirement of additional hard disk drive for every computer attached with the network. In most of the cases running a share software stored over the network is quite slow. A most common way of using the network is to share programs is to copy the backup program on disk or to a shared network drive. For example Microsoft Exchange enables you to do this if organizations purchase a license from Microsoft and then install it on every computer.

Planning Office Network

Following steps are to follow in order to establish a network for seventy employees working in office:

Making a Network Plan

In order to reduce the cost first we have to make a detail plan because a quick technical decision would lead towards loss of money. The first step is to understand the purpose of establishing a network.

In organization allot of data to be provided to employee the same can be provided by sharing it on server. The organization can not buy a printer for each computer and in order to reduce the expenses a printer can be share on each floor. In organization internet can be share with all the employees working on all four floors. These can be done by giving access of server internet to all the peers. In a business

Required Hardware and Software Components

Following are list of required software and hardware components in each computer in a network of 70 computers

Hardware components

The computers should have a minimum 2GHz Pentium 4s or better, A hard disk of each computer should be minimum of 20 GB so that i can store the required data to run the network features effectively. The required amount of RAM depends upon the operating system install on each computer. In case each computer is having windows-7 then the required amount of RAM should be 2-GB. It is mandatory that each system operating system is updated with latest service pack.

Dedicate Servers in a Network

In a network dedicated server helps in making the network faster and easier to work with more reliability. In a network a dedicated server helps in reducing the cost in an organization as a reason that no other computer would be required that is biggest and fastest as a server. Here are the different servers that would be used in the organization:

File Server

In any organizational network a file server provide centralized disk storage so that the client can easily store their data over the file server. The purpose of the file server is to store and share files and program over the network so that client can't easily access them whenever they required.

File server also helps in preventing the users to update a single file at a same time. For database file the lock can be applied so that the information regarding the organization can be protected.

Print Server

In any organization reduction of cost is the main emphasis. A dedicated server computer can be use as a print server whose main purpose is to collect information being sent to a shared printer by client and print it in an orderly manner.

Web Server

A Web server is a server computer that runs software that enables the computer to host an Internet Web site. The two most popular Web server programs are Microsoft IIS (Internet Information Services) and Apache, an open-source.

Mail Server

A mail server is a server computer that handles the network's e-mail needs. It's configured with e-mail server software, such as Microsoft Exchange Server. Mail-server software must be compatible with e-mail program; Exchange Server, for example, is designed to work with Microsoft Outlook, the e-mail client software that comes with Microsoft Office.

Database Server

A database server is a server computer that runs database software, such as Microsoft SQL Server 2005. Database servers are usually used along with customized business applications, such as accounting or marketing systems.

Hybrid Topologies

Different types of topologies are combined with one another so that they can easily form a hybrid topologies that can easily provide flexibility, more complexity. By using the hybrid topology we can easily create following topologies that can be used in establishing 70 computers network in the organization:

Star-Bus: A star bus combination is used to connect two or more star networks with a single common bus network. For this purpose we have to ensure that the network line be terminated by two or more hubs with each hubs uplinks port must be connected with another hub that will helps out to create the physical star.

Hierarchical star: In HS network there is no common bus like hierarchical star that connects with different stars. In this type of network only point to point connection exists.

Star-Ring: we can also use this type of network where hybrid consists of a central hub and signals are routed sequentially among all the available spokes that are connected with the hub to simulate the ring portion in network.

Hybrid mesh: We can also uses a hybrid mesh. Under mesh hybrid topology one or more nodes are connected with different network topology. The purpose of using this topology is that it is highly redundant and fault tolerant

IPv4 and its different addressing schemes

IP (Internet protocol) is the primary protocol that is used for delivery of packets over the TCP/IP network. There are two version of IP exist i.e. IPv4 IPv6. IPv4 is widely used worldwide.

There are main four types of IPv4 routing:

Unicast: A unicast packet carries a single destination address like which may be a DNS request to the verizon.net server that my network uses

Broadcast: broadcast is used when the administrator want to broadcast a packet to every host on the network. For that purpose a message is send to the address the option of broadcast is used for polling, when a request for server, and other operations

Directed broadcast: it is used when a server wants to broadcast to a specific subnet and that subnet is different from sending host. The same message would be send to an address ###.###.###.255

Multicast: Multicast packets are duplicated at the router and the same are then sent to different destinations. The IPv4 addresses has a range that is reserved for this purposes is

Company Network Lay out Diagram and estimated cost

Drawing Diagrams:

In creating a network plan drawing diagrams is a very useful technique. In a diagram we can mention a detail floor plan and explain a actual location of each network component location. In a diagram we can also include the changes made within the network along with the reason of change. Total cost for installation of network includes around about £100,000 which includes purchase of cabling, routers and other equipments. The total cost is estimated keeping in view of the following:

This cost consists of average wiring network costs and includes the wiring installation, labor productivity rates, national average hourly labor wages and material cost.

Cost estimates include the equipment delivery/local material to and service provider to the organization.

Cost estimate includes the cost for preparing each floor for computer networking and includes the wiring installation; it may include the cost to protect the existing workspace structure.

Cost estimate include the sales tax on purchase of networking equipments and supplies.

Cost estimates include the cleanup of the building and removal of debris after the installation of the networking within the building.

Cost estimate includes the labor setup time, minimum hourly charges and mobilization

Analysis and synthesis of the findings based on case study of the network system

California Sport Surface, Inc. is owned by Mark basically it is a very small organization. The main purpose of the organization is to install outdoor sports surfaces like tennis courts. There are only four employees working at CSS and had only three computers. President uses brand new Notebook for presentation. One old dell computer (does not Gigabit speed) have build in running Windows XP used by the organizational bookkeeper, whose work is to handle all the company accounting record on QuickBooks. The organization printing needs are fulfilled by inkjet printer which is connected with the bookkeeper computer. In order to print the file the employees had to give the file to bookkeeper so that he can print it. Internet is shared with president notebook only. The company wants to install network support to address theses issues

The company needs can be fulfilled by establishing a simple peer-to-peer networking. For this purpose they need a gigabit network adopter card for bookkeeper. A combination DSL router and 4-port 10/100/1000 MBPS switch would be required. On DSL router firewall features should be installed to protect the network from internet hackers. For Sharing printer File and printer sharing can be activated on bookkeeper computer after that printer can be shared with rest of the employees


A network can be established in the organization keeping in view following points:

Provide a share access to read the data available in Database server.

Provide each computer access to printer install on all four floors.

Provide shared access to the Internet connection so that users can access the Internet from any of the computers.

The network should be intuitive to the users and shouldn't require any extensive upkeep.

There are different types of network and they can be differenicated baed upon their geographical distribution, need area or metropolitan local area networks. Each network uses its own specified designed, protocol totally depending on the types of devices that are in used within the network. Network can be Internet protocol provides the end-to-end delivery of packets but does not specify the connection or the methods of transport. While IPv4 uses the technique of 32-bit addressing and it easily specify the computer network and interfaces, it also helps in defining the network subnets. Within the network common topologies are buses or hub, ring etc. when we map a network we can form theses topologies with one another. During the mapping a network we have to form the topology based on the arrangement of physical elements or by using the logical elements or it can be done by observing the paths that signals uses to travel within the network.