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Nowadays mobile devices are multi-functional devices capable of hosting a broad range of applications for both business and consumer use. Mobile phones also use operating system as computers. Operating system is the software platform on top of which other programs run. When purchase a mobile device, there is a specific operating system to the device and manufacturer will have chosen it. The operating system is responsible for determining the functions and features available on your device, such as thumbwheel, keyboards, WAP, synchronization with applications, e-mail, text messaging and more. The operating system also determines which third party applications can be used on the mobile device.
Chapter II - Literature Review
This chapter covers all key literature in relation to the research topic, such as; Understand operating systems environments available in smart phones, research on technological evolution of operating systems in smart phones, understand the current situation of operating systems used in smart phones and Research on future treads in facilities and facilities smart phone operating systems. This literature will provide the basis for further literature review to be covered in Chapter III and Chapter IV.
2.2 Operating system environments available in smart phones
Nowadays there are several smart phone operating systems in competition. There are Android OS from Google, Windows mobile from Microsoft, "Bada" from Samsung electronics, BlackBerry OS, "iOS" from apple, "MeeGo OS", Plam OS, Symbian OS from Nokia and "webOS" for Plamfrom HewlettPackard .These are the nowadays top of smart operating systems in the mobile market According to wisegeek (no date).
2.2.1 BlackBerry OS
BlackBerry OS is one of the most well known operating systems for mobile phones. BlackBerry devices are only find BlackBerry OS. This OS is tailor-made for business, with functionality taking a seat over personality or appearance. Messaging,Â emailÂ and other communication features are mainly focus on this OS. Media players and other entrainment-based applications can take as less common for the device.
2.2.2 Apple iOS
"iOS" is found on apple products such as the iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch. For some in regards to iOS, compatibility and operating system security has been a point of contention. Entirely it is a closed-source. Apple chooses on its own which software the platform will and will not support. As an example, Adobe Flash does not work on the apple operating system. For its ease of use, Apple has a wide variety of apps and an interface.
2.2.3 Windows Mobile OS
Windows Mobile is the mobile phone version of Microsoft's operating system. Therefore, it is more compatible with many Windows programs such as Microsoft Office, making it a popular choice for businesspeople. Before being adapted for use in phones Windows Mobile originally designed for Microsoft's line of Pocket PCs.
2.2.4 Android OS
The website Wisegeek (no-date) mentioned the Android is base on the Linux operating system. Originally developed by an independent organization, it was later bought by Google. This OS is free and open source; as a platform it is praised many for his flexibility. Main advantage of android is anyone can develop apps for the OS, and any company can release a phone using it.
2.3 Technological evolution of operating systems in smart phones
According to Digitaltreands (2011) in five years, the concept of a Smartphone will change dramatically. Since 2005, the Apple iPhone emerged as a cannibalizing platform, made for loading innovative apps, designed with finger-flicking ease-of-use in mind. The rumored Google Phone not only came out in the form of a new operating system, but the actual Nexus One as well. Accelerometers touch screens, GPS-based location awareness - these have also all appeared in full force in the last few years and changed the market entirely.
2.4 Currently available features and facilities in smart phones
A brief description of current features and facilities available in smart phone are given below.
Smartphone's have Global Position System (GPS) technologies that help users get from one place to another place. According to a study by market research firm iSuppli(2010), most popular navigation devices are Smartphone's other than the GPS. The navigator will provide directions or give users turn-by-turn assistance after entering the starting location and the final destination. However, it always depends on the phone and application, which use the user.
Any Smartphone compact with a camera, MP3 player and a video and audio recorder. Therefore, Smartphone is a single handheld device. Smartphone's are facilitating to capture, upload and share photos and videos, as well can listen to radio and music, download, transfer and sync music playlists from other devices.
Within few seconds, Smartphone's allow users to access the Web. Typically, Smartphone's display high resolution Web pages and are equipped with features that help users scroll and zoom in and out of pages either through a keyboard or touch screen. The research firm Gartner predicts that Smartphone's will become a more widely used tool for browsing than personal computers.
Every Smartphone's come with applications, which also called as apps, and software that let users take their business on the go. These include word processing applications, spreadsheets and PDF readers that can be used for work and personal business management. To help users keep track of appointments, tasks and expenses, applications can download as user's wish.
Smartphone's mainly introduce for business world, as result of that Smartphone's also configured to communicate with company email servers therefore, at any time users can send and receive work email and access their calendar.
Social networking sites like Twitter, Facebook and Groupon come pre-loaded on some Smartphone's, while others require a download by the user. Moreover, Smartphone's include functionality that allows the user to set up and click one application and view feeds from all their social networking sites at one time.
Amy, Demand's view is Smartphone applications run the gamut from games to calorie counters to virtual sticky notes and more. These applications are intended to make personal and professional life easier and it connect businesses with consumers or entertain. Some applications come pre-loaded on Smartphone and others can be downloaded for free or a small fee. Gartner predicts that by 2013," Smartphone applications will be a $6.2 billion dollar industry".
Past time some mobile operating systems support only few capacities. But these days mobile operating system allows high capacity of flash memory chips to their mobile devices like Apple's introduce 8GB, 16GB, 32GB, 64GB capacity of Flash Memory in their mobile devices.
2.5 Future trends in features & facilities of smart phones
A brief description of future trends in features & facilities of Smartphone's are given below.
Connected Devices- location aware devices
According to John B. (2010) article on digitaltrends.com mentioned the dream of fully connected, location-aware devices will finally come to fruition. This is more than just a simple Bluetooth dump between business phones, but a full data exchange - say, sending all your favorite apps over Wi-Fi to another Smartphone, as well as every movie you have ever download, and all of your music.
According to gsmareana.com (2012) says Samsung beam handset already offering projection technology as a normal projector. It can be used for in class demonstration, watch movies via mobile, etc. And another improvement projection base technologies call "holographic projection" feature is nowadays in researching and testing to embed in feature smart phones.
According to John B. (2010) mentioned next few years Smartphone start behaving more and more like laptops. Past June, DoCoMo (DoCoMo is a trademark of the NTT DoCoMo corporation of Japan) started offering the Toshiba T-01A in Japan, a super-fast phone that uses an advanced Qualcomm chip. With these fast processors, Smartphone's will finally run full-blown apps such as Adobe Photoshop - and not just with the limited features offered in the current Photoshop app. There are already signs of other forthcoming power apps on the horizon as well, including tools that can handle photographic effects and process large, high-res images and videos.
Chapter III - Operating systems environments available in smart phones
This chapter covers major four Smartphone operating system such as; Blackberry, Apple iOS, Android OS and Windows Mobile Operating systems and briefly describe its features and facilities.
3.2 Operating systems environments available in smart phones
3.2.1 Blackberry OS
WonderFox Soft (no date) Mentioned BlackBerryÂ is a brand ofÂ wirelessÂ handheld devicesÂ and services developed byÂ Research in MotionÂ (RIM).The first BlackBerry operating system version 1.0 was released in January 1999 .RIM introduce the multitask environment operating system, it is designed for use of input devices such as the track wheel, track ball, and track pad. The OS provides support for Java MIDP 1.0 and WAP 1.2. Previous versions allowed wireless synchronization with Microsoft Exchange Server email and calendar, as well as with Lotus Domino email. OS 5.0 provides a subset of MIDP 2.0, and allows complete wireless activation and synchronization with Exchange email, calendar, tasks, notes and contacts, and adds support for Novell GroupWise and Lotus Notes.
Third-party developers can write software using these APIs, and proprietary BlackBerry APIs as well. Any application that makes use of certain restricted functionality must be digitally signed so that it can be associated to a developer account at RIM. This signing procedure guarantees the authorship of an application but does not guarantee the quality or security of the code. RIM provides tools for developing applications and themes for BlackBerry. Applications and themes can be loaded onto BlackBerry devices through BlackBerry App World, Over the Air (OTA) through the BlackBerry mobile browser, or through BlackBerry Desktop Manager.
The Telegraph Media Group (no date) mentioned early versions of blackberry were simply two-way pagers that were particularly popular in business for their focus on e-mail facilities as, as well providing wireless internet and calendar functions with the release of the 5000 and 6000 series, BlackBerry made the switch to mobile phones introduced a Java-based kernel. The 7000 series followed, and were the first to feature color screens and Bluetooth capability. The 8000 and the 9000 series were the first to be targeted at general consumers, incorporating more commercial features, such as built-in cameras, memory card slots and clearer screens. The latest blackberry OS version is OS 7.0 A new OS, BlackBerry 10, is slated for release on new BlackBerry models on January 30, 2013.
BlackBerry OS 4.3
BlackBerry OS 4.3 was released on 2007 for BlackBerry mobile devices with 64MB+ storage capacity. OS 4.3 enables video recording with Flash. This version comes with the Dimension L theme that combines the icons from the top left with the ones along the bottom. Additional media enhancements include VoiceNotes. This application allows the user to create VoiceNotes and send them via email, MMS, PIN or IM.
BlackBerry OS 4.5
BlackBerry OS 4.5 was released on July 2008. The OS 4.5 features 'Over-The-Air' software upgrades, automatic music playlists, audio-video streaming via RTSP, HTML email support, DocsToGo viewing and editing and remote search for email messages.
BlackBerry OS 4.6
The BlackBerry OS 4.6 was released on June 2008.it has nothing new to offer as compared to the v4.5 except for the Q hotkey for the vibrate profile and an option to switch Bluetooth handset mid-call. BlackBerry OS 4.6 features Wi-Fi enhancements, enhanced clock applications and updated multimedia features like inline video streaming within the browser application, full screen picture preview, video camera application accessible from the camera icon and an automatic playlist for viewing songs. The BlackBerry browser features increased support of web standards like CSS 2.1 and AJAX, continuous spell checking and files can be downloaded via browser.
BlackBerry OS 4.7
BlackBerry OS 4.7 was released on November 2008.It is the predecessor of v5.0. This operating system is fast, responsive and offers a neat UI. The selection tool found in v4.7 makes copy and paste much easier. When you select the text, a small box pops up that can slide either way to select text accurately. BlackBerry OS 4.7 offers a better and much more stable browsing experience than the previous versions. The browser comes with a green 'Go' button making it easier for first time mobile web users, plus the web pages, as well as the pictures, look better and clearer. These enhancements in the OS 4.7 make the phone experience more enjoyable. Overall, it's a great update.
BlackBerry OS 5.0
BlackBerry OS 5.0 was released on August 2009 The biggest improvement in OS 5.0 was its speed. OS 5.0 is fast and a lot snappier than the previous version of the OS. Menus open and close without delay. Besides speed, other changes in the OS are subtle like the UI seems a little polished and there's an addition of a new app, Files. Files sets up network share access for BES users. The browser supports Google Gears and is more interactive than the previous OS. In v5.0, the date handler remains stationary while the user scrolls through emails. OS 5.0 also gives an option to resize pictures before transferring them online. Other additional features are flag emails, option to forward calendar entries, and an updated BlackBerry Maps application that is much faster than its previous version.
BlackBerry OS 6.0
BlackBerry OS 6.0 was released on July 2010 .BlackBerry OS 6.0 comes with an enticing UI. The new WebKit browser of the OS allows a faster and richer browsing experience supporting features like tab browsing, multitasking, and favorites. BlackBerry OS 6.0 also features new animations, graphics, transitions with menu pop-ups and a home screen that allows multiple views. The media player is completely overhauled and offers multi-touch support. Kinetic scrolling makes scrolling through web pages, lists and emails, a smooth experience. BlackBerry OS 6.0 seems touch-screen centric as most of its enhancements focus on the touch interface.
3.2.2 Apple IOS (iPhone OS)
The operating system was unveiled with the iPhone at the Macworld Conference & Expo, January 9, 2007, and released in June of that year. At first, Apple marketing literature did not specify a separate name for the operating system, stating simply that the "iPhone runs OS X". Initially, third-party applications were not supported. Steve Jobs' reasoning was that developers could build web applications that "would behave like native apps on the iPhone". SmartAirMedia Information (no date) says On October 17, 2007, Apple announced that a native Software Development Kit (SDK) was under development and that they planned to put it "in developers' hands in February". On March 6, 2008, Apple released the first beta, along with a new name for the operating system: "iPhone OS".
IOS (previously iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple Inc. Originally IOS released in 2007 for the iPhone and iPod Touch, it has been extended to support other Apple devices such as the iPad and Apple TV. Unlike Microsoft's Windows Phone (Windows CE) and Google's Android, Apple does not license iOS for installation on non-Apple hardware. As of September 12, 2012, Apple's App Store contained more than 700,000 iOS applications, which have collectively been downloaded more than 30 billion times. It had a 14.9% share of the Smartphone mobile operating system units shipped in the third quarter of 2012, behind only Google's Android. Paul S (2012) describe In June 2012, it accounted for 65% of mobile web data consumption (including use on both the iPod Touch and the iPad).At the half of 2012, there were 410 million devices activated. According to the special media event held by Apple on September 12, 2012, 400 million devices have been sold through June 2012.
The user interface of iOS is based on the concept of direct manipulation, using multi-touch gestures. Interface control elements consist of sliders, switches, and buttons. Priyal, K. (2012) says Interaction with the OS includes gestures such as swipe, tap, pinch, and reverse pinch, all of which have specific definitions within the context of the iOS operating system and its multi-touch interface. Internal accelerometers are used by some applications to respond to shaking the device (one common result is the undo command) or rotating it in three dimensions (one common result is switching from portrait to landscape mode).
iPhone OS 1.0
iOS is derived from OS X, with which it shares the Darwin foundation, and is therefore a Unix operating system. iOS is Apple's mobile version of the OS X operating system used on Apple computers. In iOS, there are four abstraction layers: the Core OS layer, the Core Services layer, the Media layer, and the Cocoa Touch layer. The current version of the operating system iOS 6.0 dedicates 1-1.5 GB of the device's flash memory for the system partition, using roughly 800 MB of that for iOS itself.
Until iOS, smartphones either didn't have a touchscreen or used a resistive touchscreen and a stylus. The iPhone changed that with its capacitive touchscreen, but more importantly Apple carefully wedded that new hardware capability to a new user interaction model that was simultaneously simpler and more powerful than systems that had come before it. Removing all physical buttons save 5, Apple made touch the primary interaction model. Apple also nearly perfected pinch-to-zoom and inertial scrolling to make apps feel more natural and immediate. The speed and "directness" in iOS 1.0 was amazing then and remains amazing now.
Those new gestures came into their own on the Safari web browser for iOS. It was, as Jobs himself bragged when unveiling it, literally years ahead of the competition. Yes, it famously has never supported the Flash plugin, but it was the first mobile web browser that felt nearly as capable and powerful as a full desktop browser. Where other mobile operating systems reflowed, reformatted, or simply broke the look and feel of web pages, mobile Safari presented the web fully and offered simple zoom and scrolling features that were unmatched at the time.
Apple used its already-massive iTunes and iPod ecosystem to provide an "anchor" for the OS and the beginnings of what would eventually become a huge ecosystem of music, movies, television, books, and apps. For many, listening to music may no longer be in the top five things they use their smartphone for, but at the time the iPod functionality in iOS 1.0 gave the iPhone a killer feature that was easy for end-users to understand and get excited about iOS 1.0 also brought a few other apps and features that were important to the platform and ahead of their time:
Google Maps was shockingly better on the iPhone than it had been on any other platform. Apple fully utilized the new pinch-to-zoom functionality to make the app feel smooth and quick, but more importantly it felt more intuitive and natural to use than even desktop mapping software.Visual voicemail was a clever trick that allowed users to jump directly to any voicemail without having to sit through endless voice prompts. It also showed off Apple's newfound ability to cut deals with carriers. Visual Voicemail was a signal that Apple, not the carrier, was to be the main provider the user experience.iTunes Sync is another unappreciated feature today. Anybody who has struggled with Palm's HotSync or Microsoft's ActiveSync can appreciate that simple and reliable desktop syncing was hugely important. It was also an example of Apple's ability to take complicated features that had given other companies and users headaches and simplify them to the point of invisibility.
The software keyboard on iOS 1.0 was perhaps the first genuinely usable keyboard that could be typed on with your fingers. Yes, systems like PalmOS' Graffiti and 3rd-party extensions like FitalyStamp enabled text entry with a stylus, but iOS' paradigm of showing you the keyboard when you needed it and giving you more screen real estate for reading when you didn't was an important step forward for mass market smartphones
iPhone OS 2.0
The next "finally" moment for iOS 2.0 came in July of 2008, when Apple introduced the App Store to iOS. 3rd party apps for smartphones were the furthest thing from new, but Apple managed to make them feel that way with its system for developing, browsing, and installing them.In iOS 2.0 they introduce Native 3rd-party apps, Microsoft Exchange support, MobileMe and Contact Search facilities.
Unfortunately, iOS 2.0 was not the most stable of releases. Many users experienced shorter battery life, app crashes, and dropped calls - all happening in the midst of a 2.0.1 and 2.0.2 release that had come in fairly short order. The 2.1 release in September of 2008 helped to mitigate those issues. It fixed a raft of bugs across the board on the OS and also added faster sync with iTunes. iOS 2.2 came in November of 2008. In terms of features, Maps saw the biggest updates, with Google Street View, walking directions, and public transit directions added in.
iPhone OS 3.0
iOS 3.0 was released with the iPhone 3GS in June of 2009 and like the 3GS, it didn't necessarily have any single headline feature. Instead, Apple filled in all sorts of gaps in iOS with a massive list of functionality and app updates touching every corner of the operating system.
Cut, copy, and paste. With iOS 3.0, Apple introduced a new text-selection metaphor that worked well with touch - one area where a stylus had worked better than a finger for fine-grained tapping. Apple's combination of a text-magnifying glass and selection sliders was intuitive and, as with many of its touch-friendly features, turned out to be well ahead of the competition in terms of usability. As with many of the features introduced in iOS 3, this feature came later than users would have liked but Apple took the time to get the UI up to its own high standards. In iOS 3 they also introduce MMS, Spotlight search, Push notifications, USB & Bluetooth tethering, Landscape keyboard and Find my iPhone feature.
iPhone OS 4.0
iOS 4.0 Released in June of 2010, iOS 4 was mainly about one thing: adding features for power users. Multitasking, app folders, Wi-Fi tethering, spell-check, customized Spotlight searching (including web and Wikipedia), unified inbox, and support for multiple Exchange accounts all added up to an update that helped keep iOS competitive with Android, which was beginning to finally make inroads.
Then IOS 4.1 Released in Septhember of 2010 ,IOS 4.2.1 released in November of 2010 with iPad multitasking , iPad folders, AirPlay, AirPrint .IOS 4.2.5 released in February of 2011.IOS 4.3 released
March of 2011 with Personal Hotspot (GSM) ,AirPlay for 3rd-party apps and iTunes Home Sharing features.
iOS 4 came alongside the iPhone 4 and therefore added a feature designed to take advantage of the phone's front-facing camera: FaceTime video chat. As with many iOS features over the years, Apple was certainly not the first to offer video chat. However, Apple's implementation both worked better and had a simpler interface than other solutions. FaceTime worked only between iPhones and (and later, Macs and iPad 2s) and though Apple had promised to make the video chat solution an open standard, it has yet to deliver on that promise.
With iOS 4, Apple "finally" introduced folders to the homescreen. Its solution was elegant in that users simply had to drag and drop icons on top of each other to form folders, a UI innovation that seems simple yet Android has just now caught up with Ice Cream Sandwich. By now, the average iPhone user had often installed dozens of apps, leading to difficulties just finding them - Spotlight search wasn't a highly used feature here. Along with folders, iPhone users could now also replace the background image on the home screen.
Apple also added support for the iPhone 4's Retina Display and faster processor, giving developers even more ways to create high quality apps. Since the display was a straight pixel-doubling of previous iPhones, it meant that developers did not need to rush to support the new screen - especially since apps that were coded with Apple's standard SDK received higher quality buttons and UI widgets "for free."
Although iOS 4 still may not have appealed to hardcore BlackBerry users, Apple did at least beef up its email offering by adding support for multiple Exchange accounts and, critically, a unified inbox and threaded email messages. System-wide spell check also made its first appearance, offering red underlines and quick text-replacement for misspelled words. The Calendar app now allowed users the individually hide specific calendars, the Contacts app gained the ability to link duplicate contacts, and the Messaging app received search capabilities.
iPhone OS 5.0
Like iOS 3, iOS 5 came along with an "S" iPhone, the iPhone 4S on November of 2011. Also like iOS 3, iOS 5 introduced so many new features that it's difficult to keep them all straight.Siri replaces Voice Control with a "virtual assistant" that is able to do more than just connect calls. Siri allows you to ask it questions and give comments in natural language with hooks all over the OS and the web. Siri communicates with everything from your calendar to WolframAlpha. Siri also includes text transcription - a new feature for iOS - that works passably well.
With iOS 5, Apple did something to make sense of the barrage of notifications coming in to the typical iPhone with Notification Center. Similar to the way Android works, there is a persistent pull-down drawer that lists all of your recent notifications along with the ability to clear them out by tapping a tiny "x" for each app. Notification Center is also Apple's first, tiny foray into the world of ambient information, with weather and stock widgets built-in.
Apple removed the requirement that iOS apps be physically tethered to a computer via USB in order to be activated. Frankly, it was frustrating for users to have to tether iOS devices in order to activate them - leading Apple Store employees to actually begin the activation process in-store in recent years.
"Finally," iOS 5 was released along with a new cloud service to replace MobileMe, dubbed "iCloud." It is the latest of several attempts to get cloud services right and, so far, easily the most successful. iOS devices can be backed up directly to iCloud, as can documents and other files. Apps purchased on one device automatically appear on all other iOS devices. iCloud works with the image libraries on iOS devices and on the Mac, though it only syncs the most recent 30 days.
Other new features in iOS 5 include Twitter integration, the ability to use the volume button as a shutter button in the camera, a Reminder app, and an app called "Newstand" for magazine subscriptions. Mobile Safari gained "Reader" functionality, which both saves and reformats web pages for easier reading a la Instapaper. The biggest complaint about iOS 5.0 is that it seems to have significantly affected battery life. Apple has released on bugfix update, iOS 5.0.1
iPhone OS 6.0
iOS 6 was announced at Apple's Worldwide Developers Conference on June 11th of 2012. In iOS 6, that effort comes to fruition with a thoroughly revamped Maps app that features turn-by-turn navigation for the first time, a 3D "Flyover" mode,Siri enhancements ,Facebook integration ,Passbook, iCloud Tabs,Mail enhancements and FaceTime over cellular.
Speaking of Siri, Apple's versatile voice-powered assistant got a big upgrade after being introduced as a beta in iOS 5. Version 6 now lets you ask for sports scores, schedules, and player data, restaurant reviews from Yelp, and reservations from OpenTable.
In iOS 6, they introduced Passbook feature, might factor prominently in a future attack by Apple in the still-immature mobile payments market. Billed as an app for collecting rewards cards, payment types, tickets, coupons, boarding passes, and anything else with a barcode in one place, it's easy to imagine how Apple might exploit its giant collection of active credit card numbers - the iTunes Store - to evolve Passbook into a direct Google Wallet competitor.
3.2.3 Android OS
In order to softpanorama (no date), an Android is a Linux-based operating system designed primarily for touch screen mobile devices such as Smartphone's and tablet computers. Initially developed by Android, Inc., whom Google financially backed and later purchased in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance: a consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. The first Android 1.0 powered phone was sold in October 2008.
Android is open source and Google releases the code under the Apache License. This open source code and permissive licensing allows the software to be freely modified and distributed by device manufacturers, wireless carriers and enthusiast developers. Additionally, Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of devices, written primarily in a customized version of the Java programming language. Softpanorama (no date) mentioned In October 2012, there were approximately 700,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from Google Play, Android's primary app store, was 25 billion.
These factors have allowed Android to become the world's most widely used Smartphone platform and the software of choice for technology companies who require a low-cost, customizable, lightweight operating system for high tech devices without developing one from scratch. As a result, despite being primarily designed for phones and tablets, it has seen additional applications on televisions, games consoles and other electronics. Android's open nature has further encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices which were officially released running other operating systems.
KMITL (no date) describe an Android had a worldwide Smartphone market share of 75% during the third quarter of 2012, with 500 million devices activated in total and 1.3 million activations per day. However, the operating system's success has made it a target for patent litigation as part of the so-called "Smartphone wars" between technology companies.
Android 2.0 - Eclair
The Android 2.0 was released in October 2009.Before the android version 2.0 announced they introduced several versions of updates between android 1.0 - android 1.6.The first upgrade to the Android platform came in February of 2009 as Android 1.1.Next update was announced on April 2009 with official name based on a dessert call Cupcake. Thereafter they named their updates alphabetic ordered dessert names. Then next update released Android 1.6 Donut on 15 September 2009.
In android 2.0 they introduce new feature like Speech to text, Bluetooth 2.1 support, new camera features like including flash support, digital zoom, scene mode, new lock screen, white balance, color effect and macro focus and also enhanced other versions features like Google Maps 3.1.2,screen sizes and resolutions with better contrast ratio, Expanded Account sync email and contact synchronization, Exchange email support, search all saved SMS and MMS messages ,includes contact names as suggestions, double-tap zoom and support for HTML5,enhanced Calendar agenda view and optimized hardware speed.
Later January 2010 Google released update of Android 2.1 (Éclair). On 20 May 2010 Android 2.2 Froyo released with new features such as Bluetooth-enabled car and desk docks, USB tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot functionality, numeric and alphanumeric passwords, file upload fields in the Browser application, installing applications to the expandable memory and MotionEvent class enhanced to track multi-touch events and Adobe Flash support. They also enhanced Speed, memory, and performance optimizations in Android version 2.1.
Thereafter on 6 December 2010, the Android 2.3 Gingerbread was released. On that version they updated user interface design, audio, multiple cameras features, graphical, and input enhancements. Later they update several versions on Android 2.3.1, 2.3.2, 2.3.4, 2.3.5, 2.3.6 and version 2.3.7 they introduce Google wallet support.
Android 3.0 - Honeycomb
Google released new version of android on February 2011 as Android 3.0 -Honeycomb. In this version they enhanced user interface, notification bar, multitasking, keyboard layout, copy and paste functions and hardware acceleration. On this version they introduce ne features such as Quick access to camera, select one or more messages, support for video chat in Google Talk, support for multi-core processors and they introduce new security feature such as encrypt all user data.
Thereafter Android 3.1 and 3.2 were released. They added on that versions support for resizable home screen widgets, external keyboards and pointing devices, High-performance Wi-Fi lock, Connectivity for USB accessories and HTTP proxy for Wi-Fi.
Android 4.0 - Ice Cream Sandwich
Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich was released on 19 October 2011. Google has update several functionalities such as easy used and creation of folders with drag and drop support, Pinch-to-zoom functionality in the calendar, include screenshot functionality, improved ability to access apps directly from lock screen, update voice recognition such as real-time speech to text dictation, Include face unlock, ability to shut down apps that are using data in the background, Introduce built in photo editor and introduce near-field communication (NFC) feature allowing the exchange of contact info, directions, YouTube videos and other data.
Thereafter Google released updated android version as Android 4.1 - Jelly Bean with update user interface with performance improvements, enhanced accessibility features, expandable notifications, improved voice detection and offline voice dictation, improved camera features.
3.2.3 Windows Mobile
Exigo Infotech (no date) describe Windows Mobile was based on the Windows CE kernel and first appeared as the Pocket PC 2000 operating system. It was supplied with a suite of basic applications developed with the Microsoft Windows API, and is designed to have features and appearance somewhat similar to desktop versions of Windows. Third parties can develop software for Windows Mobile with no restrictions imposed by Microsoft. Software applications were purchasable from Windows Marketplace for Mobile during the service's lifespan.
Most early Windows Mobile devices came with a stylus, which can be used to enter commands by tapping it on the screen. The primary touch input technology behind most devices was resistive touch screens which often required a stylus for input. Later devices used capacitive sensing which does not require a stylus. Along with touch screens a large variety of form factors existed for the platform. Some devices featured slideout keyboards, while others featured minimal face buttons.
Windows Mobile is the predecessor of Windows Phone. In February 2010, Microsoft announced Windows Phone to supersede Windows Mobile, with the new operating system incompatible with Windows Mobile devices and software. As a result, Windows Mobile has been discontinued.
The final version of Windows Mobile, released Windows Phone 8 .It second generation of the Windows Phone mobile operating system, as officially confirmed by Microsoft at an MSDN seminar in August 2011 and previewed at Microsoft's 'sneak peek' at Windows Phone on June 20, 2012. Brandon, L (2012) mentioned It was released to manufacturing on September 14, 2012 and released to consumers on October 29, 2012 and now, a month later, the company reports it has already sold 40 million licenses.
Microsoft invented several versions of Smartphone's operating systems. They are given bellow with brief description.
According to Quality Excellence (no date) mentioned Microsoft's work on handheld portable devices began with research projects in 1990, two years later work on Windows CE officially began. Initially the OS and the user interface were developed separately. With Windows CE being based on Windows 95 code and a separate team handing the user interface which was codenamed WinPad(later Microsoft At Work for Handhelds).Windows 95 had strong pen support making porting easy; with some saying "At this time, Windows 95 offers outstanding pen support. It is treating pens right for the first time."WinPad was delayed due to price and performance issues, before being scrapped in early 1995 due to touch screen driver problems relating to WriteTouch technology, made by NCR Microelectronic Products. Although WinPad was never released as a consumer product, Alpha builds were released showcasing many interface elements
Pocket PC 2000
According to frosters (no date) Pocket PC 2000, originally codenamed "Rapier", was released on April 19, 2000, and was based on Windows CE 3.0. It was the debut of what was later dubbed the Windows Mobile operating system, and meant to be a successor to the operating system aboard Palm-Size PCs. Backwards compatibility was retained with such Palm-Size PC applications. Pocket PC 2000 was intended mainly for Pocket PC devices; however several Palm-Size PC devices had the ability to be updated also. Further, several Pocket PC 2000 phones were released, however Microsoft's "Smartphone" hardware platform was not yet created. The only resolution supported by this release was 240 x 320 (QVGA). Removable storage card formats that were supported were CompactFlash and MultiMediaCard. At this time Pocket PC devices had not been standardized with a specific CPU architecture. As a result, Pocket PC 2000 was released on multiple CPU architectures; SH-3, MIPS, and ARM. Infrared (IR) File beaming capability was among the original hardware features.
Windows Mobile 2003
Quality Excellence (no date) mentioned that Windows Mobile 2003, originally codenamed "Ozone", was released on June 23, 2003, and was the first release under the Windows Mobile banner. It came in four editions: "Windows Mobile 2003 for Pocket PC Premium Edition", "Windows Mobile 2003 for Pocket PC Professional Edition", "Windows Mobile 2003 for Smartphone" and "Windows Mobile 2003 for Pocket PC Phone Edition". The last was designed especially for Pocket PCs which include phone functionalities. The Professional Edition was used in Pocket PC budget models. It lacked a number of features that were in the Premium Edition, such as a client for L2TP/IPsec VPNs. Windows Mobile 2003 was powered by Windows CE 4.20. Communications interface were enhanced with Bluetooth device management. It's allowed for Bluetooth file beaming support, Bluetooth headset support and support for Bluetooth add-on keyboards. A pictures application with viewing, cropping, e-mail, and beaming support was added. Multimedia improvements included MIDI file support as ringtones in Phone Edition and Windows Media Player 9.0 with streaming optimization. A puzzle game titled Jawbreaker is among the preinstalled programs. Other features/built-in applications included the following: enhanced Pocket Outlook with vCard and vCal support, improved Pocket Internet Explorer and SMS reply options for Phone Edition.
Windows Mobile 2003 SE
Ed, P. (2011) provided information about Windows Mobile 2003 Second Edition, also known as "Windows Mobile 2003 SE", was released on March 24, 2004 and first offered on the Dell Axim x30. This was the last version which allowed users to back up and restore an entire device through ActiveSync.
This upgrade allows users to switch between Portrait and Landscape modes and introduces a single-Column layout in Pocket Internet Explorer. To make wireless internet access more secure Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) support was added. An array of new screen resolutions also debuted;VGA (640Ã-480), 176Ñ…220, 240x240, and 480x480, to increase visual clarity and the range of form factors Windows Mobile could run on.
Windows Mobile 5
According to Ed, P. (2011) Windows Mobile 5.0, originally codenamed "Magneto", was released at Microsoft's Mobile and Embedded Developers Conference 2005 in Las Vegas, May 9-12, 2005. Microsoft offered mainstream support for Windows Mobile 5 through October 12, 2010, and extended support through October 13, 2015. It was first offered on the Dell Axim x51. It used the .NET Compact Framework 1.0 SP3, an environment for programs based on .NET. Lightstone Software (no date) mentioned Windows Mobile 5.0 included Microsoft Exchange Server "push" functionality improvements that worked with Exchange 2003 SP2. The "push" functionality also required vendor/device support With AKU2 software upgrades all WM 5.0 devices supported DirectPush. This version featured increased battery life due to Persistent storage capability. Previously up to 50% (enough for 72 hours of storage) of battery power was reserved just to maintain data in volatile RAM. This continued the trend of Windows-based devices moving from using RAM as their primary storage medium to the use of a combination of RAM and flash memory (in use, no distinction between the two is obvious to users). Programs and frequently accessed data run in RAM, while most storage is in the flash memory. The OS seamlessly moves data between the two as needed. Everything is backed up in the flash memory, so unlike prior devices, WM5 devices lose no data if power is lost. New to 5.0, OS updates were released as Adaptation kit upgrades, with AKU 3.5 being the final released.
A new version of Office was bundled called "Microsoft Office Mobile" with includes PowerPoint Mobile, Excel Mobile with graphing capability and Word Mobile with the ability to insert tables and graphics. Media management and playback was enhanced with Picture and Video package, which converged the management of videos and pictures and Windows Media Player 10 Mobile. Among new hardware features were enhanced Bluetooth support, default QWERTY keyboard-support and a management interface for Global Positioning System (GPS). Improvements were made to ActiveSync 4.2 with 15% increased synchronization speed. Business customers benefited from a new error reporting facility similar to that present in desktop and server Windows systems. Caller ID now supports photos so a user can apply an image to each contact to show when a call is received. DirectShow was also natively added.
In order to Lightstone Software (no date) Windows Mobile 5.0 requires at least 64 MBs of ROM (it's advisable to have 64 MBs of RAM), and the device must run an ARM compatible processor such as the Intel XScale or the Samsung and Texas Instruments ARM compatibles.
Windows Mobile 6
According to Lightstone Software (no date) , Windows Mobile 6, formerly codenamed "Crossbow", was released on February 12, 2007 at the 3GSM World Congress 2007. It comes in three different versions: "Windows Mobile 6 Standard" for Smartphone's (phones without touch screens), "Windows Mobile 6 Professional" for Pocket PCs with phone functionality and "Windows Mobile 6 Classic" for Pocket PCs without cellular radios.
Windows Mobile 6 is powered by Windows CE 5.0 (version 5.2) and is strongly linked to the then newly introduce Windows Live and Exchange 2007 products. Windows Mobile 6 Standard was first offered on the Orange's SPV E650, while Windows Mobile 6 Professional was first offered on the O2's Xda Terra. Aesthetically, Windows Mobile 6 was meant to be similar in design to the then newly released Windows Vista. Functionally, it works much like Windows Mobile 5, but with much better stability.
To improve security Microsoft added Storage Card Encryption so that encryption keys are lost if device is cold-booted. Further updates both, security and feature, can now also be provided using Operating System Live Update.
Ed, P. (2011) mentioned Among other improvements: 320x320 and 800x480 (WVGA) screen resolution support (The S01SH or "Em One" by Sharp was the first and only device to have a 800x480 screen on WM5), Improved Remote Desktop access (Available for only certain Pocket PCs), Customer Feedback option, Smart filter for searching within programs and Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) support for select operators
Windows Mobile 6.1
According to Ed, P. (2011) Windows Mobile 6.1 was announced April 1, 2008. It is a minor upgrade to the Windows Mobile 6 platform with various performance enhancements and a redesigned Home screen featuring horizontal tiles that expand on clicking to display more information, although this new home screen is featured only on Windows Mobile Standard edition. This was not supported in the Professional edition. Several other changes such as threaded SMS, full page zooming in Internet Explorer and 'Domain Enroll' were also added, along with a "mobile" version of the Microsoft OneNote program and an interactive "Getting Started" wizard. Domain Enroll is functionality to connect the device to System Center Mobile Device Manager 2008, a product to manage mobile devices. The most apparent of the other differences is that the Standard version (like prior versions) still creates automatic links for telephone numbers in Tasks and Appointments, which allows for the easier click and dial of stored telephone numbers within these Outlook items. This feature is not supported in the Professional version. Windows Mobile 6.1 also had improved bandwidth efficiency in its push-email protocol "Active sync" of "up to 40%"; this considerably improved battery life in many devices.
Aside from the visual and feature distinctions, the underlying CE versions can be used to differentiate WM6.0 from WM 6.1. The version of Windows CE in WM 6.0 is 5.2.*, with the final number being a 4 digit build ID (e.g. 5.2.1622 on HTC Wing). In WM 6.1, the CE version is 5.2.* with a 5 digit build number (e.g. 5.2.19216 on Palm Treo 800w).
Windows Mobile 6.5
Windows Mobile 6.5 was never part of Microsoft's mobile phone roadmap, and has been described by its chief executive, Steve Ballmer, as "not the full release [Microsoft] wanted" until the multi-touch-enabled Windows Mobile 7 (now replaced by Windows Phone) arrived in 2010.Ballmer also indicated that the company "screwed up with Windows Mobile", he lamented that Windows Mobile 7 was not yet available and that the Windows Mobile team needed to try to recoup losses. Microsoft unveiled this version at the 2009 Mobile World Congress in February, and several devices were supplied with it. It was released to manufacturers on May 11, 2009; the first devices running the operating system appeared in late October 2009. Several phones that officially shipped with Windows Mobile 6.1 can be officially updated to Windows Mobile 6.5. This update includes some significant new added features, such as a revamped GUI, a new Today screen resembling that of Microsoft's Zune player with vertically scrollable labels (called 'Titanium'). WM6.5 also includes the new Internet Explorer Mobile 6 browser, with improved interface.
According to Neowin (no date) Along with Windows Mobile 6.5, Microsoft announced several cloud computing services codenamed "SkyBox", "SkyLine", "SkyMarket". "SkyBox" has been confirmed as My Phone, while "SkyMarket" has been confirmed as Windows Marketplace for Mobile. This version was designed mainly for easier finger usage. Some reviewers have noted interface inconsistencies, with some applications having small buttons making them harder to operate using only a finger. Whilst this version of Windows Mobile does not natively support capacitive screens, mobile manufacturers have been able to use them on their devices.
In the months following this release, development shifted from Windows Mobile to its successor Windows Phone. As such no major upgrades were planned or released, although three minor updates; 6.5.1, 6.5.3 and 6.5.5; were made to satisfy consumers during the transition period. 6.5.1 brings larger user interface elements, including icon based soft buttons (rather than text based), an updated contacts app, native support for A-GPS, improved threaded text messaging, and performance improvements. It was unofficially ported to several Windows Mobile phones.
Website of Wallpaperpassion (no date) mentioned the second minor update was announced on February 2, 2010, along with the Sony Ericsson Aspen which was the first phone to use this version. 6.5.3 continues the trend of attempting to provide a more finger-friendly user interface with several new usability features such as native support for multi touch; although device maker HTC Corporation created proprietary work-around to allow multi-touch to work on some applications it installed on its HD2 handset (However, Microsoft applications on this handset, such as the Internet Explorer web browser, did not support multi-touch.) and drag-and-drop start menu icons. Touchable tiles replaced soft keys." Internet Explorer Mobile 6 has also received some major updates including decreased page load time, improved memory management and gesture smoothing. As with other updates it was unofficially ported to some other devices. Additional features include threaded email and Office Mobile 2010.
The last minor update and the last released version is 6.5.5. It first leaked in January 2010, and was unofficially ported to some Windows Mobile phones. The name Windows Mobile 6.5.5 has been applied to these newer builds, although this name remained unconfirmed by Microsoft.
Windows phone 7
According to Microsoft News Center (2012) says Microsoft officially unveiled the new operating system, Windows Phone 7 Series, at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona on February 15, 2010, and revealed additional details at MIX 2010 on March 15, 2010. The final SDK was made available on September 16, 2010. HP later decided not to build devices for Windows Phone, citing that it wanted to focus on devices for its newly purchased webOS. As its original name was criticized for being too complex and "wordy", the name of the operating system was officially shortened to just Windows Phone 7 on April 2, 2010.
On October 11, 2010, Microsoft's CEO Steve Ballmer announced the 10 launch devices for Windows Phone 7, made by HTC, Dell, Samsung, and LG, with sales beginning on October 21, 2010 in Europe and Australia and November 8, 2010 in the United States. The devices were made available on 60 carries in 30 countries, with additional devices to be launched in 2011. Upon the release of Windows Phone 7's "Mango" revision, additional manufacturers became partners, including Acer, Fujitsu, and ZTE.
Windows Phone initially supported twenty-five languages, with applications being available through Windows Phone Store in 35 countries and regions. Support for additional languages and regions were subsequently brought through both the Mango and Tango updates to the OS respectively.
Windows Phone 8
According to Microsoft News Center (2012) June 20, 2012, Microsoft unveiled Windows Phone 8 (codenamed Apollo), a second generation of the Windows Phone operating system for release later in 2012. Windows Phone 8 replaces its previously Windows CE-based architecture with one based on the Windows NT kernel with many components shared with Windows 8, allowing applications to be easily ported between the two platforms.
Chapter IV - Current situation of operating systems used in smart phones
This chapter discusses the current features and facilities of the most use operating systems up to date and operating system trends. Therefore the basic features and facilities categories for easy of analsis and better understanding.
4.2 Current situation of operating systems used in smart phones
A Smartphone is a mobile phone built on a mobile operating system, with more advanced computing capability and connectivity than a feature phone. The first Smartphone's combined the functions of a personal digital assistant (PDA) with a mobile phone. Later models added the functionality of portable media players, low-end compact digital cameras, pocket video cameras, and GPS navigation units to form one multi-use device. Many modern Smartphone's also include high-resolution touch screens and web browsers that display standard web pages as well as mobile-optimized sites. High-speed data access is provided by Wi-Fi and Mobile Broadband.
The unprecedented growth rate Google's Android operating system has enjoyed can't last forever, and a new report suggests 2012 is the year Android's share of the global Smartphone market will peak. Market research firm IDC on Wednesday released the findings of its latest Worldwide Quarterly Mobile Phone Tracker report, and the firm predicts that cell phone shipments will reach 1.8 billion units this year compared to 1.7 billion in 2011. A sharp decline in the feature phone market will be the root cause of the stalled growth - IDC is forecasting the lowest annual growth rate since 2009 - but Smartphone shipments will offset the 10% decline expected from feature phones, growing 38.8% year-over-year to 686 million units in 2012.
While the overall Smartphone market is expected to continue growing at a healthy pace over the next five years, IDC sees 2012 as the start of a major shift. The global Smartphone market is currently dominated by Android, which will comprise an expected 61% share of the market this year, and iOS, which is forecast to claim 20.5% of the global Smartphone market in 2012.Smartphone unit shipments will continue to grow between now and 2016, but IDC believes there will be a substantial shift in momentum away from Android - which the firm believes will peak in 2012 and then begin declining - and iOS, and toward Microsoft's perpetually emerging Windows Phone platform.
During the five-year period from 2012 through 2016, Android's share of the global Smartphone market will dip from 61% to 52.9% according to IDC, Apple's iOS will slide gradually from 20.5% to 19%, and Microsoft's share of the market will balloon from 5.2% in 2012 (Windows Phone and Windows Mobile combined) to 19.2% in 2016, passing iOS to become the No.2 Smartphone platform in the world.
Here is a graphical chart of the Smartphone platforms market share in 2012: Mobile statistics (2012)
It's a mobile phone offering advanced capabilities but usually with PC-type functionality. It's an all-in-one, portable organizer, email device, phone, SMS device, camera and so much more.
The increased data capacity of modern cellular phone networks allows for mobile Internet access in many parts of the country. Smartphone's use Web browsers to provide access to the same webpages that standard computers can access. When purchasing a Smartphone, it is important to evaluate the quality of the phone's Web browser. A well-designed browser will allow you to browse the Internet with relative ease, while a poorly-designed browser will be difficult to use and certain Web pages may be entirely inaccessible. Many Smartphone's can connect to laptop computers to provide Internet access to the computer over a cellular data connection in a process called tethering.
Photos and Video
Most Smartphone's are equipped with a camera that allows them to capture photographs and video. Some Smartphone cameras are comparable in quality to standard digital cameras. Smartphone's can use an onboard GPS receiver to automatically mark the photo or video with the location where it was captured. They can also use their data connection to send the image or video as a multimedia message or an email or to upload it to a blog or Twitter. Most of Smartphones also feature expandable memory, allowing them to store a large number of high quality pictures or videos.
The large screens, powerful processors and expandable memory in most Smartphone's make them formidable portable media devices. You can store music or video files on a Smartphone and play the files back using the onboard media player. Many Smartphone's can also use their data connection to stream media from Internet media providers such as Hulu, Netflix or Pandora. Some Smartphone's include an HDMI port that allows them to connect to a HDTV or monitor to play video and audio files on the HDTV.
To enable easier user interaction and advanced features, many smartphones have advanced sensors. Accelerometers, gyroscopes, compasses, GPS receivers and distance detectors have become common hardware in most Smartphone's. Accelerometers and gyroscopes are used in gaming and to determine which way the device is being held in order to display the correct image on the screen. Internal compasses and GPS receivers allow Smartphone's to function as versatile navigation devices, share your location with others and to provide relevant information based on your current location. Distance detectors turn the phone's touch screen and buttons off when they detect that the phone is close to your face.
David, D. (no date) provide information about Smartphone's also feature the ability to download new applications. These applications augment the features that are already available on the phone. Each Smartphone operating system has its own application store where applications, or apps, can be downloaded. Some apps are available for free while others must be purchased.
Chapter V - Future trends in features and facilities of Smartphone operating systems
Upcoming operating system features are discussing in this chapter. Upcoming features are depending on the customers' requirements. There is huge competition in market of operating market.
5.2 Identification of future trends in features and facilities of Smartphone operating systems
As the name suggests, Smartphone's possess smarter capabilities than mobile phones, providing then additional, now essential functions like web browsing, multimedia entertainment, games etc - much like mini-computers, only small enough to fit in your pocket. Smart phones appeared in the market close to two decades ago as the alternative to mobile phones which carry the primary function to enable only two-way communication by text or calls. The smart phones of today have other extended capabilities including in-built high-quality camera lenses, mobile apps that aid productivity, video-streaming as well as connectivity that enable millions to stay connected while on the go.
5.2.1 Augmented Reality
The term 'augmented reality' or AR when used in the context of computer technology refers to what we perceive through our senses (usually sight) enhanced through the use of computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics and GPS data. Simply put, AR makes available more information for us users by combining computer data to what we see in real life. Using the camera on your phone, you can point it somewhere 'live' to get an information overlay of where you can find the nearest cafes or dining places.
Smartphone's being portable serve as a good platform for AR to work. You can just whip out your phone to get the latest and relevant info for what you are searching for - information which you would otherwise have to call and ask or search online before heading out of Wi-Fi coverage. Most AR apps available now utilize some form of Global Positioning System (GPS) to facilitate location searches and this feature is likely to develop further over the next couple of years because of its potential.
It seems that the primary limiting factor is the limited recognition accuracy for 'live' views when we point our camera lens at places, buildings or even people. For AR to work seamlessly and reliably, the technology for recognizing places, things or people must be of a certain standard.
5.2.2 Flexible Screens
It may soon be the cases where Smartphone's are able provide a large screen to watch and play your favorite movies and games while maintaining a pocketable size. Screens can be folded and unfolded, all thanks to Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) technology. This paper-thin screen can even project future-features-smart-phones/ from both sides of the screen, so you can show pictures or videos to your friend on one side while using the other as a control.
5.2.3 In-Built Projector
If flexible screens are not enough to compensate for the small screens on Smartphone's why not integrate a projector within? Samsung Galaxy Beam was released back in the second half of 2010. It features a built-in DLP (Digital Light Projection) WVGA projector that is able to project future-features-smart-phones/ at up to 50 inches in size at 15 lumens. What good will this do? Well, for one thing, future Smartphone's can actually be turned into interactive gaming consoles without a need for a TV screen; all you'll need is a flat surface. Instead of a physical controller,