One And Many Entity Relationship Computer Science Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Design the database system for Petcare. Petcare is a medium sized veterinary surgery with six branches across London. They want a database system developed to handle the records of the animals they care for, prescriptions and appointments.

Entity-relationship diagram

An entity-relationship diagram (ERD) is a data modeling technique which can be used to graphically present entities, and this diagram can help us easily relate the linkage between the entities, within an information system. This diagram is practically used as a medium to present a visualized relational database: each entity represents a database table, and the relationship lines in between, linking two tables, represent the keys in one table that is linking to specific records in related tables. ERDs may also be more abstract, precisely presenting with only necessarily tables needed within a database, but at least the diagram has to perform the main function of ERDs: To visualize the major concepts and relationships within a database.

Definition of relationship

Relationship is the linkage between entities, presenting entities association. Relationship is shown by line between entities. Relationship lines represent that each instance (like records of pets) of an entity may have a relationship with instances (like records of appointments and pet owners) of the connected entity, or vice versa.

Definition of entity attribute

An entity is precisely characterized through having a certain number of properties or attributes. Attributes are assigned with values thus are used to distinguish itself with other entities

Definition of Optionality and Cardinality

Symbols which locate at the ends of the relationship lines is used to indicate the optionality and the cardinality of each relationship. "Optionality" indicates whether the relationship is optional or mandatory. "Cardinality" indicates the maximum number of relationships.

Definition of entity.

An entity can be defined as a thing, relating to certain objects or events, often can be numerically measured, which an organization recognizes as being capable as an independent existence and which can be uniquely identified. In addition, an entity is an abstraction from the complexities of some domain. Each entity is shown in a box within the ERD.

Entity Relationship Diagram for The Petcare

This is summarize all the entities to the Entity Relationship Data Model.

DRUG TYPE

OWNER

BRANCH

BREED

ANIMAL

DRUG

PRESCRIPTION

APPOINTMENT

ANIMAL TYPE

VETERINARY DOCTOR - ANIMAL TYPE

VETERINARY DOCTOR

Fig. 1

Description:

The owner of the animals will meet veterinary doctor through making appointment, then the veterinary doctor will make a prescription during or after the appointment, depends on the actual situation of the pets, the outcome of the appointment would be a prescription with one or more drugs on it, specifying the related information, like drug taking period and the drug descriptions and drug type, etc. The doctor will be responsible for dealing with different breeds and different types of animals. Branches will have different doctors to be on duty but one doctor will only be on duty in one branch only, for the convenience of making bookings.

Identifying the relationships for the model:

Relationships, in a relational database, can be referred as all entities have connections between them, expressed as relationships. A relationship is a linkage between two entities, and this relationship can represent how and to what extend that the relationship exists between the entities. In the ER approach, more than one relationship can exist between any two entities.

One-to-many and many-to-many Entity Relationship:

One-to-Many Entity Relationship is the most common and typical relationship type. It consists of either a one through many or a zero through many notations on one side of a relationship and a exactly single or zero or one notation on the other.

Notes to the entity relationship diagram:

Owner and animal is one to many relationship

One owner can have many animals, but animal is owned by one owner only.

Animal and appointment is one to many relationship

Each animal can exist in the record of many appointments, like having appointments with different time periods, doctor or branches, but each appointment is related to one specific animal respectively.

Appointment and prescription is one to one relationship

Each appointment will have one specific prescription only, relating to the doctor's justification on the animal's situation on at that specific period of time, so prescription will be directly related to an appointment only.

Prescription and drug is one to many relationship

Prescription, make by the doctor, can contain one or more drugs for the cure of the animal.

Drug and drug type is many to one relationship

One drug type can have many drugs, but one single drug must be classified into one drug type.

Animal and breed is many to one relationship

Animals that come to pet care must classify into one breed, so that one breed is related to many animal that have come or will come at the same time.

Breed and animal type is many to one relationship

One breed, dog, cat, rabbit, etc, have different animal type within each single animal breed, thus one breed is relating many animal type at the same time.

Animal type and "veterinary doctor - animal type" is many to one relationship

One animal type of veterinary doctor may be responsible for many animal types within one animal breed.

"Veterinary doctor - animal type" and veterinary doctor is one to many relationship

One animal type of veterinary doctor may have numerous of them, thus they have a one to many relationship.

Veterinary doctor and branch is many to one relationship

This is simply because one branch may have more than one doctor taking in charge.

Normalized Tables

Table is known as a data (value) and regarded as the model of the vertical columns (which identifies the name) and the horizontal lines. Table contains a specified number of columns but rows inside do not have a specified number. Each row is to identify the subset of the values in the column, which has been identified as a candidate key.

Table in another term relationship, although there is the difference that a table is usually a multi-set (bag) as a series, and does not allow copies. In addition, the actual data rows, the panels are generally associated with some other meta-data, such as restrictions on the table or the values in columns.

Primary key

Primary key is a field or combination of fields that can make and maintain the uniqueness of a record in the table for identification, so each tag can be placed without confusion.

As primary key can be made up of more than one field, primary key is the field (s) that can ensure each record inside one table would not have the problem of duplication, ensuring that field can be used to identify one specific and unique record within one table, thus the primary key is unique for each record and the value will never be duplicated in the same table. A constraint is a rule that defines what data are valid for the area. So the primary key constraint is the rule which says that the primary key field cannot be empty and cannot contain duplicate data.

Database systems usually have numerous tables at the same time, and these are usually related in any way. For example, animal table and appointment table relate to each other on a unique animal number. The animal table will always be a record for each animal, and the appointment table has a record for each appointment that the animal has.

Foreign key

A foreign key, which sometimes referred to as the reference key, is a key used to link two tables together. Typically, foreign key is key found on one table but that field itself is not originally come from that table, normally you will have a primary key field come from one table and paste it into another table, which becomes the foreign key (the primary key in the original table).

A foreign key constraint that the data in the foreign keys must be consistent with the primary key of the table is linked. This is called reference integrity is to ensure that data entered is correct and is not unique.

Definition of Normalization

Database normalization is a technique to reduce to the minimum duplication of information for designing relational database tables and in doing so to maintain the database for certain types of structural and logical problems, that is to say data anomalies. For example, when a given piece of information has multiple instances to be found in a table, this possible happen that these instances will not be kept consistent during the data in the table is updated, leading to a loss of data integrity. The such kind of problems are less vulnerable to a sufficiently normalized table, because its structure reflects the basic assumptions of the multiple instances of the same information should be used when a single instance of only.

There are rules for UNF, 1NF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF, 4NF, 5NF and domain-Key NF. Most textbooks mention 5NF and DKNF only in passing and note that they are not particularly applicable to be design process. Normalization is really about the "formalism of simple ideas". All too often, the simplicity is lost in esoteric terminology and papers are "often excessively concerned with the formalism and provide very practical insight".

In this project, why need a normalization the database, it is because normalization is about designing a "good" database i.e. a set of related tales with a minimum of redundant data and no update, delete or insert anomalies.

Normalization is a "bottom up" approach to database design, The designer interviews users and collects documents - reports etc. The data on a report can be listed and then normalized to produce the required tables and attributes.

First normal form to second normal form

To move form first normal form to second normal form I remove part-key dependencies. "A relation is in second normal form if and only if it is first normal form every non key attributes is fully functionally dependent on the primary key"

Take for instance the table named "Animal" here I have a tow compound key BreedID and AppointmentID. BreedID and AppointmentID have influence on the Animal. Hence I brake out the determinant and dependent data items into their own table.

Second normal form to third normal form

To move form second normal forms to tired normal form I remove inter-data dependences (non-key dependences).

"A relation is in third normal form if and only if it its in second normal form and every non-key attribute is non-transitively dependent on the primary key"

A use full mnemonic for remembering the relation for normalization is the distortion of the legal Oath presented below:

No repeating group

The data items depended upon the key.

The while key And nothing but the key

So help me code.

Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)

A relation is in Boyce-Codd normal form (BCNF) if and only if every one of its important functional dependencies is a candidate key. The definition of BCNF is handling certain situations which 3NF does not deal with. To distinguish the characteristics of a relation between 3NF and BCNF are given below. Since it is such a relationship is unlikely to have these properties, in the real life design the most case of the relations in 3NF are also in BCNF. Therefore many authors propose a vaguely distinction between 3NF and BCNF when it involves about giving advice to normalize a design for long term. As the relations in 3NF and BCNF are slightly difference, it is a bit difficult to bring up with significantly examples. To be strictly conforming to the definition of 3NF does not handle a relation that:

1. Has multiple candidate keys, which

2. Those candidate keys are composite, and

3. The candidate key overlap. For example, the candidate keys have at least one common attribute.

Here are all tables after normalization:

OWNER

owner ID

owner name

owner address

owner home telephone number

owner mobile telephone number

ANIMAL

Animal ID

Animal name

Animal sex

Animal age

Animal breed ID*

owner ID*

APPOINTMENT

Appointment ID

Appointment time

Appointment date

Branch ID*

Veterinary doctor name*

Animals ID*

VETERINARY DOCTOR

veterinary doctor ID

veterinary doctor name

veterinary doctor address

veterinary doctor telephone number

veterinary doctor mobile telephone number

branch ID*

BREED

Animal breed ID

Animal breed name

Animal type ID

VETERINARY DOCTOR - ANIMAL TYPE

Veterinary AnimalType ID

veterinary doctor ID*

animal typeID*

DRUG TYPE

Drug type ID

drug type name

DRUG

drug ID

drug name

drug type ID*

prescription ID*

PRESCRIPTION

prescription ID

period

drug cost

drug must be take

appointment ID*

ANIMAL TYPE

animetypeID

animal type

BRANCH

branch ID

branch name

branch address

branch telephone number

branch opening hours

branch emergency contact telephone number

Underlined field is primary key, * is foreign key

Database Management System (DBMS) of normalized tables

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of computer software programs. It serves as a control of the database's creation, maintenance, and related uses through the use of computer to provide a platform for the organization and its end users. Through the efforts of database administrators and relating specialists, DBMS enables the organization to take controls on the organizational-wide level database and its development. DBMS is a set of system software and assist and support the use of integrated collection of data records and files known as databases. It can enable accessibility of the same data for the programs of different user application easily.

A DBMS is a set of software programs that controls the organizational database's storage, management, transmission and retrieval of data within a database. DBMSs are categorized according to their data structures or types. The DBMS can permit the nay enquiry and requests for the transmission of data, through an application program and pre-setting instructions for the operation system to transfer the appropriate requested data. The queries and responses must be submitted and received according to a format that conforms to one or more applicable protocols. When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed much more easily as the organization's information requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system.

There are four main parts with in a DBMS: data structure, modeling language, database query language, and transaction mechanisms:

Components of DBMS

Data Definition Subsystem enables users to perform any creations and maintenance of the data dictionary and define the structure of the files within the database.

DBMS Engine accepts logical request from the various other DBMS subsystems, converts them into physical equivalent, and actually accesses the database and data dictionary as they exist on a storage device.

Data Manipulation Subsystem helps user to add, change, and delete information in a database and query it for valuable information. Software tools within the data manipulation subsystem are most often the primary interface between user and the information contained in a database. It allows user to specify its logical information requirements.

Data Administration Subsystem helps users to manage the overall database environment by providing facilities for backup and recovery, security management, query optimization, concurrency control, and change management.

Application Generation Subsystem contains facilities to help users to develop transactions-intensive applications. It usually requires that user perform a detailed series of tasks to process a transaction. It facilities easy-to-use data entry screens, programming languages, and interfaces.

Microsoft SQL 2008's setup of normalized tables and designed test data:

fig. 2

Table: Animals

Animal ID

Animal name

Animal sex

Animal age

Owner ID

Breed ID

1

Garen

M

3

1

1

2

Sona

F

3

2

4

3

Lux

F

2

3

10

4

Jack

M

4

4

8

5

Jax

M

1

5

17

Fig.3

Table: Animals type

Animal type ID

Animal type name

Veterinary doctor - animal type ID

3

Dog

1

4

Cat

3

5

Rabbit

2

6

Bird

4

7

Hamster

5

Fig.4

Table: Appointment

Appointment ID

Date

Time

Animal ID

Veterinary Doctor ID

3

02/06/2010

11:00

1

2

4

03/06/2010

15:00

2

3

5

07/06/2010

12:00

3

4

6

11/06/2010

12:00

4

5

7

12/06/2010

13:00

5

6

Fig.5

Table: Branch

Branch ID

Branch Name

Branch address

Branch telephone phone number

Branch emergency phone number

Branch opening hours

1

Enfield

1 First Street

852-24652585

852-24521521

24hours

2

Islington

2 Second Street

852-21213232

852-31542154

24hours

3

Hackney

3 Third Street

852-28956889

852-23123123

24hours

4

Holloway

44 First Road

852-24854585

852-24542125

24hours

6

Chingford

55 White Road

852-21221211

852-25646546

24hours

7

Leyton

8 Eight Street

852-21521452

852-25487878

24hours

Fig.6

Table: Breed

Breed ID

Breed name

Animal type ID

1

Terrier

3

2

Poodle

3

3

Beagle

3

4

Doberman

3

5

Wolfhound

3

6

Retriever

3

7

Other Dog

3

8

Persian

4

9

Siamese

4

10

Tabby

4

11

Egyptian

4

12

Manx

4

13

Other Cat

4

14

Dwarf

5

15

English Spot

5

16

Dutch

5

17

Satin

5

18

Other Rabbit

5

Fig.7

Table: Drug

Drug ID

Drug name

Drug type ID

Prescription ID

1

Ascorbic Acid

7

1

2

Biotin

8

2

3

Dantrolene

11

2

4

Cyhexatin

7

3

5

Endothall

10

1

6

Cefixime

10

4

7

Dextran

8

5

8

Captan

9

5

Fig.8

Table: Drug type

Drug type ID

Drug type name

7

Anti-biotic

8

Painkiller

9

Behaviour modification

10

Ear medication

11

Skin medication

Fig.9

Table: Owner

Owner ID

Owner name

Owner address

Owner home phone number

Owner Mobile phone number

1

Tom Lee

15 Cha Street

852-24685115

852-94624852

2

David

48 Second Road

852-24652135

852-98125621

3

May Tang

98 Fight Road

852-24652135

852-98125621

4

Alick Low

53 Touhou Road

852-21379462

852-94613258

5

Marisa Ho

99 Touhou Road

852-34984562

852-95462513

Fig.10

Table: Prescriptions

Prescription ID

Period

Drug cost

Drug must take

Appointment ID

1

4 Time per day

500

True

3

2

3 Times per day

650

True

4

3

3 Times per day

400

True

5

4

3 Times per day

500

True

6

5

3 Times per day

600

True

7

Fig.11

Table: Veterinary doctor

Veterinary doctor ID

Veterinary doctor name

Veterinary doctor address

Veterinary doctor home phone number

Veterinary doctor mobile phone number

Branch ID

Veterinary doctor - animal type ID

2

Dr Mundo

15 Kwo Street

852-21354621

852-91321231

1

1

3

Dr Tom Wong

25 Ling Road

852-22548521

852-58754251

2

2

4

Dr Wing Ho

53 Ming Street

852-21548754

852-95478787

1

3

5

Dr King Lee

78 NF Street

852-28546854

852-94785875

4

4

6

Dr Mary Li

20Nt Road

852-21542222

852-97515321

7

5

Fig.12

Table: Veterinary doctor - animal type

Veterinary doctor - animal type ID

Veterinary doctor ID

Animal type ID

1

2

3

2

3

5

3

4

4

4

5

6

5

6

7

Fig.13

Set-up and test all of the following queries using Structured Query Language (SQL)

Structured Query Language (SQL) is a computer language which is designed for managing data in a relational database management system. It lets users to access and manipulate the database. The following task is to display how the Structured Query Language helps users to managing data in the Academic Human resources department system. An SQL 'query' manifests itself as a series of commands or statements. Queries may include arithmetic calculations and can use query elements or procedures stored in the system. SQL databases are designed from using SQL queries

The SQL language is used to ask database questions for the data stored inside the database: "what is the value of the element stored in "Name" index?", or "what is the relationship between the data "name" and "salary"?". Manipulative commands, like "insert data" or "update record" are also issued using SQL queries. A Data Definition Language allows SQL queries to create or administer the data structures, the 'tables' of data, which constitute the database. The actual syntax used is a little more strict and regimented than these natural language phrases suggest, but in effect this is the type of communication that will take place between a relational database and the person or device querying it using SQL.

Provide printouts of SQL code for each query and the output produced when run the query in the database have developed:

Display the names and addresses of the branches of Petcare and the names of all the veterinary doctors working at each of the branches. Any specialism(s) of the veterinary doctors should also be shown.

Below is the MSSQL code for create the table.

USE [Petcare]

GO

/****** Object: Table [dbo].[Appointments for the whole of the Petcare organisation]

SET ANSI_NULLS ON

GO

SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER ON

GO

SET ANSI_PADDING ON

GO

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[Appointments for the whole of the Petcare organisation](

[Branch name] [varchar](50) NOT NULL,

[Branch address] [varchar](max) NOT NULL,

[Veterinary doctor name] [varchar](50) NOT NULL,

[Animal type name] [varchar](50) NOT NULL

) ON [PRIMARY]

GO

SET ANSI_PADDING OFF

GO

INSERT [dbo].[Appointments for the whole of the Petcare organisation] ([Branch name], [Branch address], [Veterinary doctor name], [Animal type name]) VALUES (N'Enfield', N'1 First Street', N'Dr Mundo', N'Dog')

INSERT [dbo].[Appointments for the whole of the Petcare organisation] ([Branch name], [Branch address], [Veterinary doctor name], [Animal type name]) VALUES (N'Islington', N'2 Second Road', N'Dr Tom Wong', N'Rabbit')

INSERT [dbo].[Appointments for the whole of the Petcare organisation] ([Branch name], [Branch address], [Veterinary doctor name], [Animal type name]) VALUES (N'Enfield', N'1 First Street', N'Dr Wing Ho', N'Cat')

INSERT [dbo].[Appointments for the whole of the Petcare organisation] ([Branch name], [Branch address], [Veterinary doctor name], [Animal type name]) VALUES (N'Hollway', N'44 First Road', N'Dr King Lee', N'Bird')

INSERT [dbo].[Appointments for the whole of the Petcare organisation] ([Branch name], [Branch address], [Veterinary doctor name], [Animal type name]) VALUES (N'Leyton', N'8 Eight Street', N'Dr David Li', N'Hamster')

Branch name

Branch address

Veterinary doctor name

Animal type name

Enfield

1 First Street

Dr Mundo

Dog

Islington

2 Second Road

Dr Tom Wong

Rabbit

Enfield

1 First Street

Dr Wing Ho

Cat

Holloway

44 First Road

Dr King Lee

Bird

Leyton

8 Eight Street

Dr David Li

Hamster

Fig.14

Display all the appointments for the whole of the Petcare organisation. This should be ordered by date. The result should display the branch the appointment is at, the name of the veterinary doctor the appointment is with, the date and time of the appointment, the name of the animal the appointment is for, the type of animal and the breed of the animal.

Below is the MSSQL code for create the table.

USE [Petcare]

GO

/****** Object: Table [dbo].[Name and address of the branches of Petcare]

SET ANSI_NULLS ON

GO

SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER ON

GO

SET ANSI_PADDING ON

GO

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[Name and address of the branches of Petcare](

[Branch name] [varchar](50) NOT NULL,

[Veterinary doctor name] [varchar](50) NOT NULL,

[Date] [date] NOT NULL,

[Time] [time](7) NOT NULL,

[Animal name] [varchar](50) NOT NULL,

[Animal type name] [varchar](50) NOT NULL,

[Breed name] [varchar](50) NOT NULL

) ON [PRIMARY]

GO

SET ANSI_PADDING OFF

GO

INSERT [dbo].[Name and address of the branches of Petcare] ([Branch name], [Veterinary doctor name], [Date], [Time], [Animal name], [Animal type name], [Breed name]) VALUES (N'Enfield', N'Dr Mundo', CAST(0xE4320B00 AS Date), CAST(0x07007870335C0000 AS Time), N'Garen', N'Dog', N'Terrier')

INSERT [dbo].[Name and address of the branches of Petcare] ([Branch name], [Veterinary doctor name], [Date], [Time], [Animal name], [Animal type name], [Breed name]) VALUES (N'Islington', N'Dr Tom Wong', CAST(0xE5320B00 AS Date), CAST(0x07001882BA7D0000 AS Time), N'Sona', N'Dog', N'Doberman')

INSERT [dbo].[Name and address of the branches of Petcare] ([Branch name], [Veterinary doctor name], [Date], [Time], [Animal name], [Animal type name], [Breed name]) VALUES (N'Enfield', N'Dr Wing Ho', CAST(0xE9320B00 AS Date), CAST(0x0700E03495640000 AS Time), N'Lux', N'Cat', N'Tabby')

INSERT [dbo].[Name and address of the branches of Petcare] ([Branch name], [Veterinary doctor name], [Date], [Time], [Animal name], [Animal type name], [Breed name]) VALUES (N'Holloway', N'Dr King Lee', CAST(0xED320B00 AS Date), CAST(0x0700E03495640000 AS Time), N'Jack', N'Cat', N'Persian')

INSERT [dbo].[Name and address of the branches of Petcare] ([Branch name], [Veterinary doctor name], [Date], [Time], [Animal name], [Animal type name], [Breed name]) VALUES (N'Leyton', N'Dr David Li', CAST(0xEE320B00 AS Date), CAST(0x070048F9F66C0000 AS Time), N'Jax', N'Rabbit', N'Satin')

Branch name

Veterinary doctor name

Date

Time

Animal name

Animal type name

Breed name

Enfield

Dr Mundo

02/06/2010

11:00

Garen

Dog

Terrier

Islington

Dr Tom Wong

03/06/2010

15:00

Sona

Dog

Doberman

Enfield

Dr Wing Ho

07/06/2010

12:00

Lux

Cat

Tabby

Holloway

Dr King Lee

11/06/2010

12:00

Jack

Cat

Persian

Leyton

Dr David Li

12/06/2010

13:00

Jax

Rabbit

Satin

Fig.15

Task 5 assumptions and Improvements

Assumption

For the situation required for designing Petcare database system, there are a number of assumptions that have to be set in order to bind the implementation of the database and these assumptions are also based on the entity relationship diagram that has shown the identification of each entity, relationship and attributes. The following are the assumptions:

Any new appointment must need to be assigned of a veterinary doctor.

One doctor can only work in one branch.

One doctor can take in charge of more than one type of animal.

Branch can accept any type of animal appointments if there are doctor that relating to those types of animals.

Primary keys and foreign keys are set in tables, not all tables would have foreign keys. Each table have their unique ID. Each table should have a primary key and only one primary key.

In task 3, DBMS and Microsoft SQL 2008 are used to setup normalized tables and designed test data.

In task 4, SQL statements base on Microsoft Access 2003are used to query the database and enable the identification of whether the database can fulfill the requirements set.

By using the Entity relationship data model with the respective content and structure of the data, at the real environment, the database can be considered on three levels of abstraction: external, conceptual, and internal.

Improvements

Object-orientation and databases

Object-oriented programming and relational database management systems (RDBMSs) are very common nowadays. As objects are not stored directly in relational databases, there is a general need to bridge the two worlds, though some RDBMSs have object-oriented features to approximate this.

The core of object-relational thinking is the ability to incorporate greater levels of abstraction into data models. This idea represents a major shift in the way that data modeling is done. The Current relational databases are often highly normalized but would not possess much abstraction. Each "thing of interest" is being selected and taken out to be a relational table, so, systems are often requires many database tables and with the same number of screen modules and reports. The program modules are usually directly based on these tables with user workflow only instantiated through the way that the hundreds of screen modules interact. The object-oriented (OO) approach to data modeling will be something of a change for people familiar with entity relationship modeling. Even though we still end up with tables and relationships at the end of the process, the way to think about the modeling process has to change. Object-relational data models have several features that can overweight traditional data model: Fewer entities are required (or "classes" in object-oriented terminology); They are more robust, in that they will support not only the specific user requirements gathered during the analysis phase, but also support a broader class of requirements; They are more stable in that, as new requirements arise, the models would requires fewer changes when comparing to that of the traditional models.

Data is not "information" unless it has been selected for purpose of making value. Information value provides "profit or gain" only if it is accessible or used, through organized systems, provides "competitive advantage". Speed determines the degree of competitive advantage. Computerized database systems are thus, the ultimate method of high-speed information retrieval. It is not difficult to build an organized database system. The "difficulty" lies in the laborious, mundane task of collecting, categorizing and maintaining the massive amounts of data.

Being legitimate is very essential of information, like accounting statement, information itself has to be valid and true to be trust worthy of use in decision-making. So, it is critical that all aspects of our system provide quality. If statistics are based on untrue or erroneous data, it can be regarded as not trust worthy or even committed crimes. The core of object-relational thinking is the ability to incorporate and interact with greater levels of abstraction into data models. This idea represents a major shift in the way that data modeling is done since current relational databases are always highly normalized but with little abstraction.

To organizations, database systems is performing as an essential party that the activity is devoted to planning for, monitoring and administering the systems. planning and managerial activities relevant to database can be focused and the concept of data administration is defined, and the scope of the data administration function, relating the costs and benefits of having a data administration functions. It also defines the concept of a data dictionary and considers the issue of database security. The data control is primary function for the database administrator (DBA). The DBA needs to be able to do three main things:

Prevent would-be users from logging-on to the database

Allocate access to specific parts of the database to specific users

Allocate access to specific operations to specific users

For the DBMS toolkit to review the database, the interface is an essential function of most ICT systems it to interact with users. The three aspects are the content, control and format. The interface can be seen as collection of dialogues between the user and the ICT systems.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.