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Before understanding the definition of an objective-oriented language, it is important to know a key concept. Object. An object is a software bundle of related state and behavior. Software objects are often used to model the real-world objects that you find in everyday life. Real-world objects share two characteristics: They all have state and behavior. Lamps have state: "on" or "off" and behavior "turned on" or "turned off". Similarly with software objects, they too consist of state and related behavior. An object stores its state in fields (variables in some programming languages) and exposes its behavior through methods (functions in some programming languages). Methods operate on an object's internal state and serve as the primary mechanism for object-to-object communication. Hiding internal state and requiring all interaction to be performed through an object's methods is known as data encapsulation - a fundamental principle of object-oriented programming.
Now what is objective-oriented programming? A type of programming in which programmers define not only the data type of a data structure, but also the types of operations (functions) that can be applied to the data structure. In this way, the data structure becomes an object that includes both data and functions. In addition, programmers can create relationships between one object and another. For example, objects can inherit characteristics from other objects.
One of the principal advantages of object-oriented programming techniques over procedural programming techniques is that they enable programmers to create modules that do not need to be changed when a new type of object is added. A programmer can simply create a new object that inherits many of its features from existing objects. This makes object-oriented programs easier to modify.
Python is an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language developed as a full-featured, but easy to use, scripting language, by Guido van Rossum at CWI in the Netherlands. Initially developed in a Unix environment, Python is now available on PCs and Macs, and applications are portable across platforms. Python combines remarkable power with very clear syntax. It has interfaces to many system calls and libraries, as well as to various window systems, and is extensible in C or C++. It is also usable as an extension language for applications that need a programmable interface.
Perl is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language. Perl was originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a general-purpose Unix scripting language to make report processing easier. http://perl.about.com/od/gettingstartedwithperl/p/whatisperl.htm
Perl borrows features from other programming languages including C, shell scripting (sh), AWK, and sed. The reason why Perl become so popular when the Web came along are: First, most of what is being done on the Web happens with text, and is best done with a language that's designed for text processing. More importantly, Perl was appreciably better than the alternatives at the time when people needed something to use. C is complex and can produce security problems (especially with entrusted data), Tcl can be awkward and Python didn't really have a foothold. It also didn't hurt that Perl is a friendly language. It plays well with your personal programming style. The Perl slogan is ``There's more than one way to do it,'' and that lends itself
JAVA is a programming language originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++ but has a simpler object model and fewer low-level facilities. Java applications are typically compiled to byte code (class file) that can run on any Java Virtual Machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture. Java is a general-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented language that is specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere". Java is currently one of the most popular programming languages in use, and is widely used from application software to web applications.
Java has two types of programs-applications and applets. In terms of programming, both types of programs are similar. Application programs are stand-alone programs that can run on your computer. Java applets are programs that run from a web browser or simply browser and make the Web responsive and interactive. The two well-known browsers are Netscape and Internet Explorer. Java applets can run in either browser. Moreover, through applets the Web becomes responsive, interactive, and fun to use.
So there are so many web languages out there, which one is the best or most suitable for your situation? Let's compare them to each other. Something that Java, PHP, Perl and Python are in common are: they are all server-side web languages, and all have easy access to most major databases, cross-platform(portable) and you will find good support for all 4 languages on the Internet, with Perl have an edge since it is the oldest competitor. PHP mix the code with the HTML file that is pre-processed on the server before it is sent to the client's web browser. Perl and Java source code is kept in separate files.
The advantages of Perl are: it can be compiled into a C executable and then it is very fast; it has been around for a long time, so there are a lot of packages have been developed and are available for free. The disadvantages are: it is a very forgiving language so it is an industrial strength language as Java; the code is hard to maintain later; it is hard to read the code because the language is so flexible in terms of the syntax and structure of the code.
Java's advantages are is a truly object oriented from group up which means it is not artificial "object oriented extensions as in Perl; high secure and reliable and can be used both for web development as for a general application. And the speed is pretty fast too. The disadvantage is that it could be too big of a solution for some small sites.
So as I already mentioned the three objective- oriented languages, there are way more of them out there. But keep this in mind, to design or develop a web, there is never one perfect solution or answer. Isn't it what computer science development all about?