Object-oriented analysis and design

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Introduction

This assignment allows a person to understand the methodology object-oriented analysis and design for a political party. This party requires a new computerized system that would show how an individual would interact with the system.

The first three tasks deals with analyzing the system by showing how the system functions and how they would interact with the system by use case diagrams use case specifications, and activity diagrams. Class diagram shows the structure of the system which allows the member to have private and public information. Communication, sequence diagrams and state machine show how a particular person would behave in the system and the procedure they would take in doing an action. Data protection laws were documented and a recommendation was made on how data can be protected in a computer system.

The class diagram was taken and changed into a entity relationship diagram in order to do normalization of the tables. These tables were then taken and was populated using Microsoft Access. A main menu was created so that the user can interface with the system and not find any difficulty in accessing information. Documentation on two Methodologies, Object-Oriented Analysis and Design and Structured System Analysis and Design were discussed in this assignment, along with the advantages and disadvantages and the difference between the both.

Assumptions were made during this assignment in order to put into place the student thoughts and learning outcomes.

4. (A)

Data Protection Law

The following is the Data Protection Bill of many clauses in Trinidad and Tobago. The data protection bill was taken out from ttparliament.org (2009), the laws are as follows:

  • "A person who intentionally obstructs the data commissioner r any other person acting on the commissioner's behalf, in the event of carrying out an investigation has committed an offence";
  • "Any person who request personal information under false pretences and also impersonating another person has committed an offence";
  • "Any person who intentionally makes a false and misleading statement in order to mislead or attempts to mislead the commissioner in his functions as commissioner under this act has committed an offence by law";
  • "Any person, who fails to comply with an order given by the commissioner, has committed an offence";
  • "A person who has failed to comply with the mandatory code of conduct has committed an offence";
  • "A person, who intentionally discloses any personal information of an individual or an organisation, commits an offence";
  • "Any person, who intentionally collects and secures personal data that contravenes this Act, has committed an offence";
  • "A person who breaches any form of confidential information has committed an offence";
  • A corporate that commits an offence in this Act whether it is the agent or director of the corporate, any officer or any body under the corporation who has participated in the commission of the offence is liable to be prosecuted and liable upon":
  • "A fine of no more than fifty thousand dollars or is subjected to imprisonment for a term of three years and a summary of conviction";
  • "Conviction on the account of indictment to a fine of no more than one hundred thousand dollars or is subjected to imprisonment for a period of no more than five years";
  • Where an offence is committed by a body corporate under this Act, the body corporate would be held accountable and shall be liable upon":
  • "A fine of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, a summary of conviction and";
  • "Conviction on the account of indictment, to a fine of five hundred thousand dollars.
  • Where a corporate commits an Act that is not allowed by the law of the land, the court may impose a fine up to ten per cent of the annual turnover of the enterprise. The court shall take into account":
  • "The estimated economic cost by the corporate to any persons affected by the contravention and";
  • "The estimated benefits that the contravention receives would also be given to the enterprise".

4. (B)

In the computer system data has to be highly protected, the Most Popular Party in the country of contented land has to practice good working practices to ensure that there is no security breaches in the system. The security policy would ensure that the information that is retrieve by a person in the system would have access to that information and no other unauthorised data. Some working practices that should be implemented by the party are:

  1. Control admission to data within the organization: According to NCC education (2007) page218 states that "Access to data depends on both physical access and logical access to software and data within the computer. Access to computer system or parts of the system requires identification, authentication and authorisation of users".
  2. Making regular backups of data and information: sometimes data in a system can be lost due to viruses attacks or the data becomes corrupted and unreadable. To avoid this according to NCC education (2007) page223 states that "To fight against data loss, users must ensure that back-up copies are made of all data and software (both operating system and application programs). Also regular back-up copy should be done of all information that is constantly changing". By doing back-up on the system you would have some data to work with and not all data would be lost.
  3. Disabling all ports: this is also a form of access control in that information cannot be retrieved by used ports in the system.
  4. Data Encryption: persons sending data and information across a network would make sure that all data that is being transmitted is encrypted, so that no one can get hold of unauthorized information that is being transmitted.
  5. Firewalls: installing a good firewall on the system is highly recommended because individual information is stored on the system. By putting a firewall it blocks all hackers and intrudes from entering into the system from the internet.
  6. Anti-virus software: installing anti-virus software would help to fight against any virus attacks that may penetrate into the system. Also to keep up dating it because there are many new viruses that arises each day and do a virus scan as often, this is to ensure that the system is not affected in anyway.

This would apply to the computer system being developed in that personal information about a member would be secure and no unauthorized person would have access to the information. These would apply to the computer system not having any:

  • Security breaches
  • Unsecure data
  • No threats posed by people
  • There would be no environmental threats.
  • The system can recover from any attacks made.
  • Fraud attack
  • Identify Theft

4. (C)

Recommendation

A political party like the Most Popular Party that has personal information of members should be protected at all times. Therefore a firewall administrator must be put in place, in order for personal or any information at all to reach authorized persons. The firewall administrator would ensure:

  • That a hacker from the internet would not penetrate the system and corrupting files and any other information. With the firewall in place it would block hackers and intrudes from getting information from the computer system.
  • The firewall administrator would control the use of accessing data by different workers or person's who may use the system. When looking at any information on the system the firewall administrator would know who and what information the person is looking at, if the person is an authorized person the firewall administrator would block that person from getting information.
  • That viruses attack would not harm the system, if a person sends an e-mail containing a virus the administrator would scan the e-mail first to ensure that there is no viruses attach to the message. The administrator should also control persons who use the internet and if they download a file or look at e-mails they should be trained to be to scan all documents and be aware of using the internet. A good anti-virus should be install and keep up dating it on a regular bases.
  • The use of computers, fax machines, ports and printers, in general having access and privileges to all of these devices. Passwords should be implemented, so that a person has to log in into the system before they can view any sort of information, the firewall administrators would then allow such persons to view data once they are authorized by the firewall administrator.
  • Data should also be encrypted when sending information over the network or through the internet. This is to ensure that there would not be any impersonation of a worker and any one getting hold of data that they are not authorized to look at.
  • There must also be a data protection policy so those individuals who are working in the party would have rules and regulations to follow. If any person breaks the policy, then there would be serious consequences.

Task 8

Review on work

When one is designing a system for the Most Popular Party the computerized system requires a lot of time and dedication in analysing and designing the system. At the beginning at the initializing stage the system requires a system requirement, specification, database design and graphic interface.

Most of the time the system requirements would not work properly because there would be new user requirements to be added over a period of time. In this assignment analysing the system was very important, this was done in task one to task three. This was one of my strengths in this assignment since my knowledge in this field was at a certain level and some experience was gained in doing these three tasks. Analysing the system is very important and at the beginning it shows you how the user would interact with the system.

The design stages for the Most Popular Party system were a bit challenging for me. One of my weaknesses is that normalizing the tables was a bit difficult for me since my knowledge in this area was limited and not enough experience was gained in the past to do this part of the assignment. What was interesting is that after analysing the system and showing how the user would interact with the system, the developer can now design a system to put in play the idea into effect. My knowledge in protecting data was expanded, since it allows an individual to practise best in protecting the integrity and information of individual members.

In closing I would say that a lot of effort was put in order to fulfil all the necessary requirements of this assignment. Beneficial knowledge and experience was gained by doing this project.

Assumptions

At some point the requirements of the system will not meet one hundred percent of the time, this is so because there will always have additions and new user requirements, but there must be some point of cut off and acceptance points. Therefore a lot of assumptions were made in doing this assignment. The assumptions are as follows:

  • An overview was done in order to breakdown the use case diagrams. Four main use cases were used in order to put the information in an orderly manner.
  • The assumption was made that a National officer can collect revenue as well as a party staff and party worker.
  • When party members pays their annual subscription and donation are received by organisation and individuals, the assumption was made from these two sources of revenue the party pays staff and pays party expenses such as rent, adverting and materials.
  • In order to select candidates the party workers would do a shortlist of potential members and from that list the party members would have meetings and select their candidates to stand for elections.
  • Since four use case was done, four use case specification, four flow diagram and four swim lanes was done for each use case diagram.
  • Two sets of class diagram were done showing all attributes and operation as well as a generalization diagram was done combining the two diagrams into one. Six CRC cards were done to show responsible, collaboration, attributes, relationships and a description of each member.
  • Two sequence and two communication diagrams were done on any two use case diagrams. The assumption was made that a member can change after a period of time, from a party member to a Member of Parliament or Assembly Member. Once a AM or MP run for more than four times then they would exit the system as was done in the state machine diagram.
  • An assumption was made to use the same entities from the class diagram and convert it into an Entity Relationship diagram in order to build the tables using Microsoft Access.
  • Eight data dictionary was done for the main entities in the system.
  • Screenshots was taken to show how the different options in the system.

Bibliography

  • NCC Education Limited (2007)
  • Systems Analysis
  • Published by: NCC Education Limited
  • NCC Education Limited (2007)
  • Systems Design
  • Published by: NCC Education Limited
  • Tomsho et.al (2007),
  • Networking Essentials,
  • Fifth Edition,
  • Published by: NCC Education Limited
  • Dotnetspider.com
  • Accessed on: 1/11/2009
  • http://www.dotnetspider.com/forum/185974-Difference-OOAD-OOPS.aspx
  • Ttparliament.com (2009)
  • Data Protection Bill
  • Accessed on: 05/11/2009
  • http://www.ttparliament.org/publications.php?mid=28&id=522
  • Sullivan and Caffrey (2009)
  • Impact on Introducing object oriented software development methodologies
  • Accessed on: 16//12/2009
  • http://www.iscn.at/select_newspaper/object/esbi.html
  • Dba-oracle.com (2009)
  • BC Burleson Consulting
  • Accessed on: 4/11/2009
  • http://www.dba-oracle.com/t_object_oriented_approach.htm
  • comp.glan (2009)
  • comp.glan
  • Accessed on: 20/10/2009
  • http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff/tdhutchings/chapter4.html#head2
  • pefkaros.K (2008)
  • International Journal and Business Research
  • Accessed on: 22/11/2009
  • http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6773/is_2_8/ai_n31126769/pg_6/
  • Schumacher. m (2001)
  • Hausarbeiten.de
  • Accessed on: 20/10/2009
  • http://www.hausarbeiten.de/faecher/vorschau/106034.html

Appendix

  • Sheraaz Mohammed

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