Next Generation Of Computer Animation And Applications Computer Science Essay

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Abstract-This paper discusses certain issues regarding computer's animation. Comparative method is applied throughout the paper. Firstly, the paper explains the fundamentals of animation; the introduction and basics of information. Moving forward, we further clarifies what are the advancement that had been occurring; from 2-dimensional until virtual reality. In addition, we also have come up with a few solutions that can counter problems that are present in this particular field.

Keywords-component; 2D animation; 3D animation; Virtual Reality


Computer animation is a form of art that involves production of still images. When it is played back in quick succession (usually on film or video), it appear as continuously moving. It also refers to the ability to change a component or aspect of an object (position, size, angle, color) over a defined time frame. In the beginning of the computer animation from the early of 1940s, Jay Forrester from M.I.T had invented few devices for the purpose of training newbie pilots. After a few years, a filmmaker had attempted to create a short animation with usage of analog computers [1]. And ever since then computer animation have been adapted and used widely.

As time passes, many technologies are introduced to make video or film to become much more realistic. For instances, the introduction of two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) animations. 2D involves usage of two-dimensional axis (X and Y). In a computer's workspace, 2D makes us to see things with vertical and horizontal perspective, but as for 3D, it includes vertical, horizontal and depth. So when we see things from 2D perspective, we only see it similar to 'flat surface' and for 3D, we will be able to see 'live' and realistic objects [2]. For the next generation of computer animation, we discovered that virtual reality has a good impact. Virtual reality can be defined as an interactive, computer generated simulated environment which user can interact using data gloves and head-mounted computer-graphic display. A research associate at the University of Washington, Jerry Prothero said virtual reality can be defined in technological term and psychological term. In technological term it is a set of input devices which stimulate a high percentage of our sensory input channels, for instance by providing a wide visual field-of-view and stereo sound. In the other term, it is a pattern of sensory stimuli which gives one an impression of being in a computer-generated space [3].

The progress in the field of computer technology has brought advancement and improvement in graphics. Now a day, computer gives a good impact mainly in the aspect of helping student to finish their work. They also can add images to make their work looks neat and impressing [4]. There are many software applications that can be use in education, such as Microsoft Power Point and Adobe Flash. Not only aiding in term of education, animation also revolves gaming and entertainment. The purpose of movie is to be viewed while video game is for our self satisfaction. They use both 2D and 3D environments [5]. From long time ago, as early from the introduction of cartoons and icons of gaming such as Pac-Man and Contra, we could see that there are many advances in term of animation, technology used, and so forth. So, we think that it is important for us to explore deep inside all these advancement and came up with our own idea on what and how can we apply this through the research.

Back then, it was just only a dream to think that we might actually be able to see virtual world only from the computer's screen. But, with current advancement in technology, we might be able to view them much clearer and precisely. Virtual Reality (VR) is an advancement of 3-Dimensional (3D) animation. It gives of virtual environment feeling to others, and make they felt like they are in a sense of reality, even they actually does not [6]. For instance, through VR, one might think that they might be placed in another world even though they are actually still on Earth.


The main goal of this research is to study the technology of animations and applications generation and what the solution, method and process to develop the animation. The objectives are:

To study the advantages and disadvantages of two-dimensional, three-dimensional in animation and virtual reality.

To compare the technologies generation of the animations and applications.

To conduct the solution based on animations and applications.


In this research, methodology that is being used is comparative method. Mainly, we used online databases that are subscribed by USM, for instance ACM, IEEE and Springer. Previous journals, proceedings and research paper are compared, the information and data that we retrieved are used wholly in this research paper. We elaborate on computer animation history, certain definitions and explanations. After the analyzing of data and information, we could come up with our responses and comments regarding the paper itself.


Computer animations and applications are important for real world now. Every year, new technology in animation and application has created by programmers. As programmer in animation, they must know how to solve the problem in animation program and application to used in the computer.

The animation program must be suitable with application in the computer. If not suitable, the animation maybe cannot support or run with the application.

Generally, the animation will help next generation to give any new idea for generate the creativity in animation. To make a new idea in animation, the application must be support with animation technology. Animation tools must related with the requirement of application such as the drivers, two-dimension or three-dimension of the graphic and etc.

According to the historical timeline, there are many forms of animation that have been introduced. This includes cell animation, clay animation, stop frame animation, three-dimensional (3D) computer animation and virtual reality. To make this technology can used to industry, they must know what the type of techniques, methodologies and computer technologies have been developed, for instance the key frame animation, procedural animation, non-linear animation, motion capture, and etc. Generally, there have two popular methods in computer animation two-dimension (2D) and three-dimension (3D).

However, the two-dimension (2D) and three-dimension (3D) are different concept of method and technique. These animations are bringing new factor in new era like the games, film maker, and the interactive entertainment. From this factor, the critical of this part is making a game. For example, they should to know the body modeling and how to move the part of the human body from realty into graphic animation in 2D or 3D.



Computer animation is an art of making particular picture to become animated by using computer. Computer animation techniques focus on manipulation of picture. Conventionally, techniques that are used are limited to those of 2-dimensional (2D) techniques. Basically there are four different types of computer animation techniques. They are: (1) Tweening (2) Morphing (3) Onion skinning (4) Interpolated rotoscoping [7].

Tweening is a process that automates frame-making of two different pictures that give off perception that the first picture will change to the second picture. The changes that could be identified are the changes of shape and the changes of coordinate.

Next, morphing technique involves alteration of a picture to another picture with only small changes, which are nearly undetectable. Usually, this technique is applied to change human face, one to another.

The next technique is onion skinning. It is a technique that is mainly used to make cartoon animation. This technique also involves video editing for a few frames at a particular designated time. It also helps animator to decide on how will the sequences of picture changes smoothly.

Last but not least, the interpolated rotoscoping. It is a technique that imitates a human's natural movement of gesture. At first, a picture of human with certain action is projected to a glass panel. The projected image is drawn repeatedly by the animator.

Usually, two-dimensional (2D) computer animation is widely applied in cartoon making. We could see that most of cartoons in television shows are in the form of two-dimensional (2D). Even though this technology is not as powerful as those of nowadays, it still has its own fans. But we have to remember that without two-dimensional (2D) computer animation, there will be no advancement as of today. Day by day, two-dimensional (2D) computer animation become obsolete and slowly being replaced by three-dimensional (3D) computer animation.


Gao Ying et al. [9] is make constructs character animation parser for corresponding animation files and compiles many character rendering core functions and also provides the programming interfaces of key-frame animation, mixed animation and morph animation. They have provided the framework design for 3D character Animation Engine which is a character animation parser and a group of role rendering functions. Based on realization of core classes for 3D character animation engine, they are proposed more technique for a single mesh model animation, .X animation files and skin skeletal animation. From this technique, whole character is composed of an integrated mesh model will be faster. In other word, this technique can fill with grid name, types, initial pointer, adjacent to arrays information, material arrays, and texture arrays and so on. For the game technology, they provided to use key-frame animation because a character animation which is used more widespread in current games based on skin skeletal animation. This method can propose by using other technology methods [10]. The key-frame is a movement of any point base on the formula method. It will divide into a longer time.

Deformable objects give virtual reality a natural look for user interaction. Schneider and Kimer [10] are provided a method of deformable object animation for simulation of the object. It can classify into three categories: (1) Geometrical (2) Physical (3) Hybrid. In this paper, they address the animation in virtual environments to show movable or deformable objects and this technique can use with controlling the speed of animation [12]. In the other situation, they have done to test the implementation of trees being blown in the wind. But this application has test on Windows 95. Maybe this implantation must be test again in Windows 7 to compare this deformable is suitable or no. Also, this deformable have a problem to run in application because the memory used is high. To solve this problem, compute only some frames in a sequence. They also provide the animation distributed systems. In the future, distributed applications using the partitioned virtual world model will also be tested.

The images processing are process in three step; background subtraction, radial distortion compensation, and image size reduction. Ta Huynh Duy Nguyen et al. [11] analyzes the images must be include with background subtraction, filtering, data size and result of the image processing. To make sure this image come to reality, this image of human 3D body must be process in rendering algorithm. This method is supposed the determining pixel depth and virtual pixel color. To make the image of the body in 3D, the speed of the image must be control by using arc-length reparameterization [12]. So, this image can look more interactive. Girard, M [12] has used the vertical body motion and horizontal body motion to provide the solution of image processing.

In the process to make of three dimension (3D) animation production, they are some steps relate to production technique and methods based on technique and expression style. The information about these steps is as follow:

Figure 1 - Steps of process Three Dimension (3D)


Back then, it was just only a dream to think that we might actually be able to see virtual world only from the computer's screen. But, with current advancement in technology, we might be able to view them much clearer and precisely. Virtual Reality (VR) is an advancement of three-dimensional (3D) animation. It gives of virtual environment feeling to others, and make they felt like they are in a sense of reality, even they actually does not [6]. For instance, through virtual reality (VR), one might think that they might be placed in another world even though they are actually still on Earth.

There is several different distinct method of virtual reality (VR). Some of them are upgrades of the traditional animation technique and some of them are newly introduced. Mainly, there are three main technique of virtual reality (VR): (1) Real-time rotoscopy methods (2) Real-time direct metaphors (3) Real-time recognition-based metaphors [8].

Real-time rotoscopy method involves usage of data recording using virtual reality (VR) device in real time that can be applied to a graphical object on-screen. For instance, when a particular action is recorded using the virtual reality (VR) device, another graphic object that is endorsed with the recorded data will do the same as those of recorded data's behavior.

Next, as for real-time direct metaphors, it also involves data recording using virtual reality (VR) device. In real time, the recorded input data will be producing a particular effect, but is corresponding to the recorded input data. For instance, when a puppeteer maneuvers their puppet, the puppet will correspond to the movement (input data) from the puppeteer. As a result, the puppet will do certain action as what the puppeteer insisted to do.

Lastly, the third technique is real-time recognition-based metaphor. This technique also involves recording of input data by virtual reality (VR) device. Subsequently, analyses are being made to the input data. Afterwards, a corresponding direction is being made with respect to the input data.

For the application of virtual reality (VR), there are a lot of fields or expertise that uses them. For instance, a new pilot is usually been given virtual reality (VR) practice first before they could fly the actual airplane. On the other hand, slowly but steadily, virtual reality (VR) is being adapted on current gaming experience. However, due to the high cost, this implementation is not yet applied globally.


In a nutshell, we have seen many changes that had been occurring ever since computer animation was introduced. For two-dimensional (2D) computer animation, there are several techniques that have been elaborated. However, there are still many different two-dimensional (2D) computer animation techniques that are not explained. In the future, should there be any changes made to this paper, we will also include the remaining techniques.

Based on the all papers, there are still having solutions for the background of the problem. As mentioned before, our proposed work is by applying another method or technique 3D information technology in this research.

As for virtual reality (VR), what we have explained maybe covers only small portion of virtual reality (VR). As the technology keeps evolving, virtual reality (VR) also will become much more complex compared to nowadays.