Networks From Co Operative Black Hole Attacks Computer Science Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Black hole attack is one of the severe attacks that come from misbehavior of the node. The misbehaving node acts as selfish or malicious. Malicious node is also called black hole. The black hole intercepts the packet and confidentiality of the message is disclosed. Our approach to combat the Black hole attack is to make use of a 'Fidelity Table'. Fidelity level that acts as a measure of reliability of the node. And by the use of Fidelity Table blackhole was detected and eliminated. The simulation was carried using NS-2 and the performance of the network is analyzed after removal of black hole attack.

Keywords- Mobile ad hoc network (MANET),Blackhole, Packet dropping, Malicious node , Routing.

Introduction

An ad hoc network is a collection of nodes that do not rely on a predefined infrastructure to keep the network connected. So the functioning of Ad-hoc networks is dependent on the trust and co-operation between nodes. Nodes help each other in conveying information about the topology of the network and share the responsibility of managing the network. Hence in addition to acting as hosts, each mobile node does the function of routing and relaying messages for other mobile nodes.

Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile hosts without the required intervention of any existing infrastructure or centralized access point such as a base station. There are several applications of MANET ranging from a one-off meeting network, emergency operations such as disaster recovery to military applications due to their easy deployment. However, due to their inherent characteristics of dynamic topology and lack of centralized management security, MANET is vulnerable to various kinds of attacks. Black hole attack is one of many possible attacks in MANET. Black hole attack can occur when the malicious node on the path directly attacks the data traffic and intentionally drops, delay or alter the data traffic passing through it. There is lots of detection and defense mechanisms to eliminate the intruder that carry out the black hole attack. We present a technique to identify black attack and a solution to discover a safe route avoiding black hole attack.

Overview of the project

We propose a solution that is an enhancement of the basic AODV routing protocol, which will be able to avoid multiple black holes acting in the group. We present a technique to identify multiple black holes cooperating with each other and a solution to discover a safe route avoiding cooperative black hole attack. Our solution assumes that nodes are already authenticated and hence participate in communication. Assuming this condition, the black hole attack is discussed Our approach to combat the Black hole attack is to make use of a 'Fidelity Table' wherein every participating node will be assigned a fidelity level that acts as a measure of reliability of that node. In case the level of any node drops to 0, it is considered to be a malicious node, termed as a 'Black hole' and it is eliminated.

Security Issues

Ad-hoc networks are more vulnerable than wired networks therefore security is much more difficult to maintain in mobile ad hoc networks. Following are the various vulnerabilities that exist in wireless ad-hoc networks:

Open Medium

Eavesdropping is easier than in wired network as there is no centralized medium.

Dynamically Changing Network Topology

Mobile Nodes comes and goes from the network. They dynamically change their topology. This allows any malicious node to join the network without being detected.

Cooperative Algorithms

The routing algorithm of MANETs requires mutual trust between the neighbour nodes which violates the principles of Network Security.

Lack of Centralized Monitoring

There is absence of any centralized infrastructure that prohibits any monitoring agent in the system.

MANET Challenge

Most of the routing protocols for MANETs are thus vulnerable to various types of attacks. Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing (AODV) is a very popular routing algorithm. However, it is vulnerable to the well-known black hole attack.

Blackhole Attack

A black hole attack is used by a malicious node which makes all the traffic travel through it by claiming to have the shortest route to all other nodes in the network. Then, instead of forwarding the packets, the malicious node simply drops it. In a blackhole attack, a malicious node impersonates a destination node by sending a spoofed root reply packet to a source node that initiates a route discovery. The source node traffic can be deprived by malicious node. A variant of this black hole is the gray hole attack, which selectively transmits some packets and drops others. Other attacks towards an adhoc network include partitioning and replay attacks.

A blackhole node has two properties.

1. First, the node takes advantage of the ad hoc routing protocol, such as AODV or DSR, to advertise itself as having a valid route to the destination node, even though the route is spurious, with the intention to intercept packets.

2. Second, the node consumes the intercepted packets. This type of attack is dangerous and may cause immense harm to the network.

As an example, consider the following scenario in figure 2.3 Here node S is the source node and D is the destination node. Nodes 1 to 5 act as the intermediate nodes. Nodes 4 (B1) and 5 (B2) act as the cooperative Black holes. When the source node wishes to transmit a data packet to the destination, it first sends out the RREQ packet to the neighboring nodes. The malicious nodes being part of the network, also receive the RREQ. Since the Black hole nodes have the characteristic of responding first to any RREQ, it immediately sends out the RREP. The RREP from the Black hole B1 reaches the source node, well ahead of the other RREPs, as it can be seen from the figure 2.3. Now on receiving the RREP from B1, the source starts transmitting the data packets. On the receipt of data packets, B1 simply drops them, instead of forwarding to the destination or B1 forwards all the data to B2. B2 simply drops it instead of forwarding to the destination. Thus the data packets get lost and hence never reach the intended destination.

H:\Project\paper\Example.jpg

Fig 2.3 Example of blackhole attack

Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Protocol

AODV is categorized as a dynamic reactive routing protocol. In a reactive routing protocol, route will be established based on the demand (upon request by source node). Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol is used for finding a path to the destination in an ad-hoc network. To find the path to the destination all mobile nodes work in cooperation using the routing control messages. In AODV route discovery, there are two important control messages namely Route Request (RREQ) and Route Reply (RREP). Both control messages carry an important attribute called destination sequence number and has the incremental value to determine the freshness of a particular route.

Route Discovery Process

In this, the source node will broadcast control packets, RREQ message to its neighbors in order to find the best possible path to the destination node. On receiving the RREQ message from node, the destination node will reply with the RREP message to node by forwarding the message to the node. In turn, node will forward the message to the source node.Once the source node received the RREP message, it will process the message by calling the AODV recvReply() function. This function will update the route entry for destination if either the destination sequence number in the routing table is less than the destination sequence in the RREP message or the destination sequence number in the routing table is equal with the destination sequence number in the RREQ message but the hop count is less than the one in the routing table. In case where source node received multiple RREP messages, this function will select the RREP message with the highest destination sequence number value.

Fig 3 .3.1 AODV Route Discovery

Advanced uses of AODV

1. Because of its reactive nature, AODV can handle highly dynamic behaviour of Vehicle Ad-hoc networks.

2. Used for both unicasts and multicasts using the 'J' (Join multicast group) flag in the packets.

RELATED WORK

4.1 Proposed Framework for Black Hole Attack Analysis

In this section we have proposed one algorithm, which is an enhanced version of the existing AODV protocol. The algorithm simulates the behaviour of black hole attack in MANET using NS-2. In MANET world, when a node uses AODV protocol it can act as vulnerable by implementing following properties

1. The node can set its hop count field to 1;

2. The node can increase the sequence number by at least one when compared to other nodes in the network;

3. It can set the source IP address to a non existing IP address;

4. It can unicast faked RREP message to the source node;

When a source node receives faked RREP message it updates its routing table towards no existing (malicious) node. In our simulation we have considered the property of "send Fake RREP" to the source node at a particular frequency by malicious node .It can be achieved by an increasing destination sequence number and reducing hop count. We have created a simple framework in which the attack can be occurred . Initially we have to check whether the particular packet belongs to AODV protocol. If it is AODV protocol we have to check whether it is RREQ packet. If it is RREQ packet the malicious node updates the sequence number and set its sequence number has the highest; not only that it also set the hop count field in 1 as discussed above. Thus the attack is successfully launched by a black hole node in MANET environment.

Ns-2 Simulation of Black Hole Attack Analysis

Now we discuss NS-2 implementation of this attack in detail.

Pseudo code to simulate the black hole attack,

1: If (AODV_Packet) {

2: If (RREQ) {

3: If (I am the source or previously seen it) {

4: Drop the Packet

5: } else {

6: If {No Attack} {

7: Resolve the Route;

8: SendRouteReply;

9 :} else if (BlackHoleAttack) {

//The Black hole will send a genuine reply

10: Resolve the Route;

11: SendRouteReply;

12 :}

13: }

14 :} else {

15: Handle it in Normal way

16 :}

17 :}

18: else {

19: If (it is a packet which I am originating) {

20: Handle it in Normal way

21 :} else {

22: //it is the packet I am forwarding

23: If {No Attack} {

24: Handle it in Normal way

25 :} else if (BlakHoleAttack) {

26: //Maliciously dropping the packet

27: Drop the Packet

28 :} else if (BlackHoleAttack) {

29: //Maliciously dropping the packet

30: Drop the Packet

31 :}

32 :}

33 :}

PREVENTION OF CO-OPERATIVE BLACK HOLE ATTACK

We propose a solution that is an enhancement of the basic AODV routing protocol, which will be able to avoid multiple black holes acting in the group. We present a technique to identify multiple black holes cooperating with each other and a solution to discover a safe route avoiding cooperative black hole attack. Our solution assumes that nodes are already authenticated and hence participate in communication. Assuming this condition, the black hole attack is discussed Our approach to combat the Black hole attack is to make use of a 'Fidelity Table' wherein every participating node will be assigned a fidelity level that acts as a measure of reliability of that node.

In case the level of any node drops to 0, it is considered to be a malicious node, termed as a 'Black hole' and it is eliminated. The source node transmits the RREQ to all its neighbours. Then the source

waits for 'TIMER' seconds to collect the replies, RREP. A reply is chosen based on the following criteria, In each of the received RREP, the fidelity level of the responding node, and each of its next hop's level are checked. If two or more routes seem to have the same fidelity level, then select the one with the least hop count; else, select the one with the highest level.

The fidelity levels of the participating nodes are updated based on their faithful participation in the network. On receiving the data packets, the destination node will send an acknowledgement to the source, whereby the intermediate node's level will be incremented. If no acknowledgement is received, the intermediate node's level will be decremented.

Working principle of PCBHA

1.Collecting response

The incoming responses are collected in a table, namely, the Response table. The entries will have fields like, source address, destination address, hop count, next hop, lifetime, destination sequence number, source and destination's header address. The responses will be collected till a timer expiry event. This is illustrated in figure.

M:\paper\1..jpg

Fig. Collecting responses

2.Choosing a response

A valid route is selected from among the received responses based on the following methodology. A fidelity table' is maintained that will hold the fidelity levels of the participating nodes. The basic idea is to select the node with a high fidelity level. Initially the fidelity levels of the responded node and its next hop are looked for.

If the average of their levels is found to be above the specified threshold, then the node is considered to be reliable.

On the receipt of multiple responses, the one with the highest fidelity level is chosen. In case, two or more nodes seemed to have the same fidelity levels, then the one with the minimum hop count is chosen. As shown in Figure 4.4.1.2, the source S chooses the response RREP-3, as highlighted, after checking the fidelity levels. It then transmits the data packets.

M:\paper\2..jpg

Fig.Choosing a response To forward data

3.Updating the fidelity level

Every destination node sends back an acknowledgement to the source node, upon the reception of the data packets. The receipt of the acknowledgement enables the source node to increment the fidelity level of the intermediate node, for it has proved reliable and safe. In case, the source node doesn't receive the acknowledgement within a timer event, the source node will decrement the fidelity level of the intermediate node which replied and also the level of the node which was given as the next hop of the intermediate node to identify the co-operative attack. This eliminates possible positive next hop information by a cooperative black hole.Periodically the fidelity tables are exchanged among the participating nodes. On receiving the acknowledgement,as seen in Figure., the fidelity levels of the respectivenodes are incremented, and the fidelity packets are exchanged.

M:\paper\3.jpg

Fig. Receiving acknowledgement

and broadcasting fidelity packets 4.Eliminating the Black holes

When the fidelity level of a node drops to 0, it implies it has not forwarded the data packets faithfully and hence a Black hole. The detection of a Black hole has to be intimated to the other participating nodes in the network. This is accomplished by sending alarm packets. When a node receives an alarm packet, it will identify the Black hole and so can eliminate the use of that node from then on. The final scenario where the Black holes have been detected and hence eliminated is shown in Figure .

M:\paper\4.jpg

Fig. Black hole nodes elimination

Our proposed algorithm to detect black hole attack as follows

Notations:

RREQ : Route Request

RREP_COLLECT_TIME: Time for which responses(route replies) are collected

RSPT : Response Collection Table

IN : Intermediate Node

ACK_TIMEOUT: Time for which a node waits for ACK

ALGORITHM:

source broadcasts RREQ

while(simclock=current_time+RREP_COLLECT_TIME)

{

store in RSPT

}

if(size of RSPT = 0)

{

retransmit RREQ

}

else

{

find AVG_FIDELITY_LEVEL =FIDELITYIN + FIDELITYnext hop

select route with highest AVG_FIDELITY_LEVEL

if FIDELITYIN > THRESHOLD and FIDELITYnext hop >

THRESHOLD

{

send data

}

else

{

repeat until a maximum TTL value.

if not {

declare no valid route is found

}

}

}

while (simclock = current_time + ACK_TIMEOUT)

{

if RACK is received

{

increment the fidelity level of the IN

broadcast the fidelity packets

}

}

if (no RACK is received)

{

decrement the fidelity level of the IN and next hop

broadcast the fidelity packets

}

if (FIDELITY of a node = 0)

{

remove the node from neighbour table and fidelity table

broadcast alarm packets

}

CONCLUSION

In this project we have presented a feasible solution to detect the malicious nodes(Black Hole) in the ad hoc network. The proposed solution can be applied to identify and remove any number of Black Hole Nodes in a MANET and discover a secure path from source to destination by avoiding the malicious nodes.

FUTURE WORK

As future work we intend to -

1. Develop simulations to analyze the performance of the proposed solution.

2. Future works will includes some authentication mechanism to make sure that the ACK packets are genuine and also includes mechanism to punish misbehaving nodes.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.