Network Technologies Architecture And Design Computer Science Essay

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The report summarizes the design, implementation and evaluation of a network design for Optichrome Ltd. The company is comprised of a CEO, two divisional managers and three managerial divisions employing 40 people and intends to rent one floor of a three floor office complex.

1.2 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

Data transfer rate more than 10Mbps.

CEO - 1 computer with data rate 10Mbps (max).

Divisional managers (2) - 1 computer each with data rate 10Mbps (max).

Rendering and Production Division (10 employees) - 20 computers (2 for each employee) with peak data rates up to 300Mbps. Each of the two computers dedicated for rendering ray traced animated frame and the software requires the computers to work in a networked cluster with other rendering computers.

Animation and Modeling Division (20 employees) - 20 computers (1 for each employee) mostly operating independently. Two or three computers may be linked to a project when needed with peak data rates up to 50Mbps.

Administration, Sales and Marketing division (10 employees) - 10 computers (1 for each employee) with peak data rates up to 10Mbps. Mainly for file sharing applications.

Work force expansion by 50%.

Address range around network id 194.45.67.0/24

2.0 DESIGN

2.1 CABLING

The technical requirements of the company shows variable data rates 10 Mbps to 300 Mbps required. The company is about to rent CAT3 based twisted pair cable.

CAT3 (UTP: Unshielded Twisted Pair) cable is mainly used for telephony and provides a data rate up to 10Mbps. Hence CAT3 cannot be used as it would not meet the technical requirements of the company. CAT5 cables can serve this problem.

CAT5(UTP): Used for Ethernet cabling provides a speed around 10 Mbps to 100Mbps(Steve and Nigel, 2010). This cable can be used for Animation and modeling division which requires data rate up to 50 Mbps, the CEO, two divisional managers and the Administration, Sales and Marketing division requiring peak data rate up to 10 Mbps. Maximum length of the cable is 100m for undisrupted transmission.

CAT6(UTP): CAT6 is the standard cable for network installation and provides a data rate up to 1000Mbps(Steve and Nigel, 2010). This can be used for Rendering and Production division which requires data rates up to 300 Mbps. Maximum length of the cable is 100m for undisrupted transmission.

2.2 INTERNETWORKING EQUIPMENTS

The network comprises of a

1. Central router - Router is enabled with IP subnet-zero to use the first and the last subnet. Router acts as the central point to provide routing across divisions, two divisional managers and CEO. It is a multiport router for connecting four switches. Each port of the router is on different subnet.

2. Layer 3 switches- Layer 3 switches are used one per division for Rendering & Production and Animation and Modeling and one switch for the Administration, Sales and Marketing, two divisional managers and CEO. Switches connect to the router via CAT5/CAT6 cables to the central router. Trunk port of layer 3 switch is connected with the router. 48 port switch for Rendering & Production and Animation and Modeling and a 24 port switch for the rest.

3. Network Card- Computers for Rendering and production uses 1Gbps network interface card for peak data rates of 300 Mbps. Computers in the rest of the divisions, the divisional mangers and CEO use normal network interface card of 100Mbps.

2.3 SUBNETING

The network uses ip subneting for allocating ip addresses to each division. Subneting is done on basis of number of hosts in each division, managers and CEO. In the design, Rendering and Production division and Animation and Modeling division are grouped in a different subnet, the two divisional managers on a different subnet, CEO on a different subnet and Administration, Sales and Marketing division which employees 10 employers on a different subnet. Subneting has been done keeping in my mind for any future expansion of work host by 50%.

2.4 NETWORK DESIGN

The network design for Optichrome Ltd is shown below:

Fig 1. Network Design for Optichrome Ltd

As shown in the above design, the network consists of a central router used for routing between vLAN (between different divisions, managers and CEO). Three layer 3 switches are used which are connected to router. Router is connected to three switches to 5 switch ports (three ports of router for vLAN 3, vLAN 4 and vLAN 5 individually) and these ports are assigned such that one belongs to each of the five vLANs. Each router port therefore attaches to the given network at one place and is a member of one vLAN. Therefore every port is allocated an IP address from the range assigned to the vLAN which it is connected.

From the designed network, the distance between any switch and the router and any user from its respective switch is less than 100m, hence undisrupted transmission is achievable.

vLAN 1: vLAN 1 belongs to Rendering and Production division which has 20 computers. Each computer is given an ip address and one address is allocated to the port of the router connected in this vLAN. The computers in this vLAN use 1Gbps NIC card. CAT6 cabling is used to connect the computers, switch and the router. This can provide the data rates required of up to 300Mbps. One of every two computers for each employee is dedicated to the intensive task of rendering ray traced animated frame and works in a networked cluster with all the other rendering computers. At night the remaining computers in the rendering division are turned over to the task of rendering animated frames.

vLAN 2: vLAN 2 belongs to Animation and Modeling division which has 20 computers. Each computer is given an ip address and one address is allocated to the port of the router connected in this vLAN. The computers in this vLAN use 100Mbps NIC card. CAT5 cabling is used to connect the computers, switch and the router. This can provide the data rates required of up to 50Mbps.

vLAN 1 and vLAN 2 are configured on the two 48 port switches respectively. Each of these divisions has 20 employees and for future expansion by 50% in each would require 30 ports.

vLAN 3: vLAN 3 belongs to Administration, Sales and Marketing division which has 10 computers. Each computer is given an ip address and one address is allocated to the port of the router connected in this vLAN.

vLAN 4: vLAN 4 belongs to two divisional managers (Rendering & Production manager, Animation& Modeling manager). Each manager has one computer which is given an ip address and one address is allocated to the port of the router connected in this vLAN.

vLAN 5: vLAN 5 belongs to CEO. His computer is given an ip address and one address is allocated to the port of the router connected in this vLAN.

vLAN 3, vLAN 4 and vLAN 5 are on a single switch of 24ports. Three ports of router are connected to each of these three vLANs. The computers in vLAN 3, vLAN 4 and vLAN 5 use 100Mbps NIC card. CAT5 cabling is used to connect the computers, switch and the router. This can provide data rates required of up to 10Mbps.

The design employs one central router. Hence any network can reach the other network in one hop. Hence the design employs minimum hop method. Employees within the same division can communicate in zero hops within a switch. For communication between divisions, divisional managers and CEO can be achieved in one hop through the central router.

2.5 OFFICE SPACE LAY OUT

The Fig 2 below shows the actual layout of Optichrome Ltd based on the above network design (Fig 1).

Fig 2.Lay out Of Optichrome office space

Rendering and Production division is assigned vLAN 1. Animation and Modeling division is designated vLAN 2. Administration, Sales and Marketing division is assigned vLAN 3. Two divisional managers are assigned in vLAN 4 and CEO is assigned vLAN 5. Router is placed in SERVICE BLOCK. The lay out designed is 150m x 75m.

Distance between all the switches and router is less than 100m, hence CAT5, CAT6 cables can be used for undisrupted transmission. Switch 1 and Switch 2 are at a distance of 75m (max) from the router and the computers are connected with the respective switches at a distance less than 75m. Switch 3 is placed in ADMIN whose maximum distance from router and the divisional mangers and CEO is less than 100m.

Hence the design satisfies the cabling requirements with respect to distance and the respective data rates.

3.0 IP ADDRESSING

3.1 GIVEN ADDRESS RANGE

Obtained address range is around the network id 194.45.67.0/24. To serve the given requirements subneting is used, else all the employees would have to be on the same subnet. The network uses classless ip subneting for allocating ip addresses to each division. Subnet is done on basis of number of employees (number of computers) in each division, managers and CEO. Subneting has been done keeping in my mind for any future expansion of work host by 50%. Subneting is also done as managers are in one subnet, CEO is one subnet and divisions are on different subnets depending on the number of employees (number of computers) in each division.

Every port of the router should be on a different subnet.

Network address and broadcast address in any subnet cannot be used.

One address has to be assigned to the router port connected to each vLAN.

Ports of a switch are configured as Virtual LAN

3.2 SUBNET OF /27

The maximum number of computers (users) in the whole network is 20. So the network is divided as /27 the new subnet which would give 32 ip addresses.

The new subnets are 194.45.67.0/27 to 194.45.67.31/27,194.45.67.32/27 to 194.45.67.63/27, 194.45.67.64/27 to 194.45.67.95/27, and so on till 194.95.47.255/27.

Rendering and Production Division:

1. Subnet 194.45.67.0/27 to 194.45.67.31/27 is the IP address range

2. 194.45.67.0/27 is the network address.

3.194.45.67.31/27 is the broadcast address.

4.29 useable ip addresses, can be assigned to the computers.

5. From the 194.45.67.1/27 to 194.45.67.29/27,ip address is assigned for the 20 computers and can be used for further expansion in this division. Every alternate computer (on odd ports) dedicated to the intensive task of rendering ray traced animated frame and at night computers (on even ports) are turned on. Once the computers are connected on the switch and ip address has been allocated to the respective hosts, respective ports of the switch are configured as vLAN 1.

6.194.45.67.30/27 is assigned to the router port connected to vLAN 1.

Animation and Modeling Division:

1. Subnet 194.45.67.32/27 to 194.45.67.63/27 is the IP address range

2. 194.45.67.32/27 is the network address.

3.194.45.67.63/27 is the broadcast address.

4. 29 useable ip addresses, can be assigned to the computers.

5. From the 194.45.67.33/27 to 194.45.67.61/27, ip address is assigned for the 20 computers and can be used for further expansion in this division. When required, two or three computers can be linked to the network. Once the computers are connected on the switch and ip address has been allocated to the respective hosts, respective ports of the switch are configured as vLAN 2.

6.194.45.67.62/27 is assigned to the router port connected to vLAN 2

3.3 SUBNET OF /28

The number of computers (users) in Administration, Sales and Marketing division is 10. So /27 would result in wastage of IP addresses. /27 is divided into /28 to form new subnets.

194.45.67.64/27 to 194.45.67.95/27 is divided to get 194.45.67.64/28 to 194.45.67.79/28, 194.45.67.80/28 to 194.45.67.95/28.

So the network is divided as /28, the new subnet which would give 16 ip addresses

Administration, Sales and Marketing division:

1. Subnet 194.45.67.64/28 to 194.45.67.79/28 is the IP address range

2. 194.45.67.64/28 is the network address.

3.194.45.67.79/28 is the broadcast address.

4. 13 useable ip addresses, can be assigned to the computers

5. From the 194.45.67.65/28 to 194.45.67.77/28, ip address is assigned for the 10 computers and can be used for further expansion in this division. Once the computers are connected on the switch and ip address has been allocated to the respective hosts, respective ports of the switch are configured as vLAN 3.

6.194.45.67.78/28 is assigned to the router port connected to vLAN 3

3.4 SUBNET OF /29

Two divisional managers require one computer each. So /28 would result in wastage of IP addresses. /28 is divided to /29 to form new subnets.

194.45.67.80/28 to 194.45.67.95/28 is divided to get 194.45.67.80/29 to 194.45.67.87/29, 194.45.67.88/29 to 194.45.67.95/29

So the network is divided as /29, the new subnet which would give 8 ip addresses

Divisional Managers:

1. Subnet 194.45.67.80/29 to 194.45.67.87/29 is the IP address range

2. 194.45.67.80/29 is the network address.

3.194.45.67.87/29 is the broadcast address.

4. 5 useable ip addresses, can be assigned to the computers.

5. From the 194.45.67.81/29 to 194.45.67.85/29, ip is assigned for each of the computers of the two divisional managers. Once the computers are connected on the switch and ip address has been allocated to the respective hosts, respective ports of the switch are configured as vLAN 4.

6.194.45.67.86/29 is assigned to the router port connected to vLAN 4

3.5 SUBNET OF /30

CEO requires one computer. So /29 would result in wastage of IP addresses. /29 is divided to /30 to form new subnets.

194.45.67.88/29 to 194.45.67.95/29 is divided to get 194.45.67.88/30 to 194.45.67.91/30, 194.45.67.92/30 to 194.45.67.95/30

So the network is divided as /30, the new subnet which would give 4 ip addresses

CEO:

1. Subnet 194.45.67.88/30 to 194.45.67.91/30 is the IP address range

2. 194.45.67.88/30 is the network address.

3.194.45.67.91/30 is the broadcast address.

4. From the 194.45.67.89/30 is assigned for the computer of CEO. Once the computer is connected on the switch and ip address has been allocated to the respective hosts, respective ports of the switch are configured as vLAN 5.

6.194.45.67.90/30 is assigned to the router port connected to vLAN 5

Each port of router (5 ports) is connected to a separate vLAN.

3.6 EXPANSION

The IP addresses from 194.45.67.92/30 to 194.45.67.255/27 are not used. For further expansion of work host by 50% these addresses can be used using subneting and assigned to the new hosts.

4.0 EVALUATION

4.1 SUMMARY OF THE DESIGNED NETWORK

The address range given is 194.45.67.0/24. For separating each division as different groups subneting is used and each division falls on different subnets.

The designed network employs a central router, three layer 3 switches, computers with 100Mbps and 1Gbps NIC cards and CAT5 and CAT6 UTP cables.

Three switches could have been used by connecting each other through trunk ports without the router. But this results in a data loop and broadcast storm. Hence the network employs a central router for inter vLAN routing. Every port of router is on a different subnet. By providing IOS firewalls on router, security can be ensured to provide access across required network.

Two 48 port Layer 3 switch is used for Rendering and Production Division and Animation and Modeling, for 20 computers and for future expansion in this division by 50%.

CEO and divisional managers are on different subnets on a single 24 port switch for providing security and logical separation with other employees. Administration, Sales and Marketing which employees 10 people and for future expansion by 50% (15 in all) are on different subnet on this same switch.

CAT5, CAT6 cables enables to provide data rates from 10 Mbps to 100Mbps and 10Mbps to 1000Mbps respectively. The design effectively serves the cabling requirements and the required data rates.

Virtual LAN provides logical separation between different divisions.

Vast range of IP addresses are saved after designing the network. Total employees including the managers and CEO are 53. For more 27 employees (for future expansion of 50%) these IP addresses can be allocated. Hence the designed network effectively takes care of the future expansion in the company.

For internet access in future, one port of the router is connected for any WAN link (service provider's link) for internet access.

4.2 SUBNETING OF THE NETWORK SUMMARISED

vLAN 1:

For hosts: 194.45.67.1/27 to 194.45.67.29/27

For router port connected to this vLAN:194.45.67.30/27

vLAN 2:

For hosts: 194.45.67.33/27 to 194.45.67.61/27

For router port connected to this vLAN: 194.45.67.62/27

vLAN 3:

For hosts: 194.45.67.65/28 to 194.45.67.77/28

For router port connected to this vLAN: 194.45.67.78/28

vLAN 4:

For hosts: 194.45.67.81/29 to 194.45.67.85/29

For router port connected to this vLAN: 194.45.67.86/29

vLAN 5:

For host:194.45.67.89/30

For router port connected to this vLAN: 194.45.67.90/30

4.3 POSITIVES OF THE DESIGNED NETWORK

1. Simple design with optimum use of resources.

2. Provides speed up to 1000 Mbps using CAT6 cables.

3. Effective design with less internetworking equipments. One router and three layer 3 switches.

4. Design implies a minimum hop method. One network can reach the other in a single hop.

5. No data loops and broadcast storm. Hence no spanning tree protocol and algorithms required.

6 Effective and efficient subneting with optimized use of the given address range

7. Allocating different subnets for each division.

8. Different subnets for CEO and divisional managers providing logical separation with other employees.

8. Provision of future expansion of work host by 50%.

4.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE DESIGNED NETWORK

1. Central routing. If the router fails, communication is not possible with different divisions, managers and CEO, i.e., If the router fails no communication between different subnets.

2. If any link breaks, like between router and any switch no alternate path provided.

3. Administration, Sales and Marketing division, divisional managers and CEO are on a single switch. Failure of that switch would result in all these division to be non-functional.

4. Too much load on the router, as it is constantly in use.

5. If the design would have employed only three switches without the router the cost would have been reduced. One network can reach other in zero hops (no router in between). Hence the speed would increase.

6. Router is more prone to security threats.

7. No backup system provided.

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