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The term IP is an abbreviated form of Internet Protocol which is used to identify the digital computer number through network connections between different servers. An example of IP address in the indicated table can be identified as 192.168.2.2. The IP is a unique number has been assigned to identify every computer that is connected to the internet (Mansfield 2000). So the hackers use computer Ports e.g. 5524 to get someone's IP address (Sterling 1992). According to Mansfield (2000) the windows has three main protocols, which are IPX/SPX, NetBEUI and TCP/IP. The IPX /SPX are normally "a set of two protocols that permit network interconnections for people who use Novell's NetWare clients and servers". Then the NetBIOS Extended User Interface is used to facilitate the LAN communication, where as TCP/IP is used connected between LANs and WANs and also transmit messages (Mansfield 2000). Most of our communications services such as emails, web surfs and chat messengers take place through the TCP/IP.
Therefore by identifying weaknesses within the computer's protocol, a hacker will then attack your IP address to infiltrate into your communication system, especially during the process of downloading materials and when sending files through chat messengers. That way, the hackers and other computer criminals can steal your passwords and login into your web site or email account that operate it or from there.
Describe in detail how the attack may have occurred - you will need to provide sample form field data.
During the course of his email communication with others, Mr. Patel's email details were attacked by a hacker who managed to identify his password logins and contents of his chat. The hackers tend to send malicious viruses like root kit and Trojan hide within the computer system that cannot be easily detected by anti virus or anti-spam softwares. Through the key loggers, the hackers are able infiltrate into an individual's detailed confidential information that has been typed on the effected machine ( Sagiroglu & Canbek 2009). Unfortunately, the hackers also use legal and the social called bonafide websites that we often surf and down load into our computers.
In most cases, the hackers use the key loggers to track down the user's log in records and private information by recovering the passwords that has been stored or transmitted through the computer systems. Therefore, these hackers can filtrate into the messenger chats systems or emails accounts by sending malicious data to trick the web server into generating multiples span emails. They maliciously use key loggers with the purpose of stealing people's identity, committing fraud or even preventing the computer systems from operating effectively. (Sagiroglu & Canbek 2009). Sometimes it is very dangerous to request to for log details and passwords through the email or chat messenger system. The best example comes from the table indicated below.
Response: 331 Guest login ok, send your complete e-mail address as password.
Request: PASS ftpuser@
Retrieving information by through email request can expose you to danger because one may never know who watching them because these viruses and worms like the "root kit listens at a port in the target server and installs sniffers" (Geer 2006). Spam are junk mail that are constantly send to our email addresses by hackers with a view of stealing user's login and data details.
How would James need to change the PHP script to prevent such attacks? You don't need to provide the actual PHP code - just describe what measures James would have to implement to ensure that malicious field data could not be used to generating multiple spam emails. What limitations does this form of attack have?
Hint: Would this attack only have to be performed once to generate thousands of spam emails?
PHP is a system operates through the web server script language and to filter messages from a file or stream of containing texts. Given than the PHP operates through a web server, hackers tend to exploit the security loopholes within the browsers to rewrite a cookie that is capable of accessing user's emails contents through the PHP script. Emails are a great methods communication for sending and receiving information. However, they have become a battlefield being used by hackers to steal user's identity. The hackers constantly send email spasm, which are generally considered as rubbish information that the users have not requested for that mostly come in big large quantities as a tool for advertisement. In most cases, the hackers tend to visit the chatrooms, websites, customer lists, newsgroups and address books identify their clients (Airoldi, 2004).
In our case we have James whose email has been compromised by the hacker, therefore he should follow the following measures to ensure that malicious field data could not be used to generate multiple spam emails; First; James should do is to use the "text mining tools and online repositories to build more accurate filter to scam Pam from emails" and this will also identify the criminal intent hidden in emails" (Airoldi, 2004).
Secondly; James should consider changing his password into the email account
Third; James should delete the cookies from his internet browser and install other anti-virus and anti-spam software into his computer to filter his email account.
Airoldi, E (2004) "Data Mining Challenges for Electronic Safety: The Case of Fraudulent Intent Detection in Emails". Proceedings of the workshop on privacy and security. Citeseer
Geer,D." Hackers get to the root of the problem" Computer. Vol. 39: Issue 5. PP 17-19, May 2006
Mansfield, R (2000) "Hacker attack". Available online at ftp://ftp.sybex.com/2830/2830ch01.pdf. Accessed on 20th December 2010
Sagiroglu, S & Canbek, G "Key loggers". Technology and Society Magazine. Volume 28, Issue 3, September 2009.
Sterling, B (1992) The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier. Spectra Books