Network Protocols and Algorithms

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MSc Network Protocols and Algorithms- COMM54

Analyzing a Routing protocol


In this world there are so many extensive and reliable networks in private and public organisations. All this world is running through internet  communications. We have to make some efficient technologies to increase the fastness of routing. So that we can get some reliable networks in the routing procedure. This paper will explain the maitaining and usage of networks like EIGRP, OSPF, RIP. I will explain  how EIGRP is hugely used for large type of networks. The outward appearances of the OSPF is best suitable for large type of networks. The features of RIP, OSPF and IGRP are same when compare to EIGRP. The optimisation of network plays main role in choosing the OSPF for large networks. We need to improve more methods to reduce the memory riquired for storing routing table information. By doing this one we can get desirable quality protocol.

Index Terms : OSPF, RIPv2, EIGRP, RIP, IPv6, Routing traffic, Routing protocols and convergence.


Routing Protocol is the carrying out of a routing algorithm in software and it defines how routers are transmitting with each other. I am going to look at the position of the network and indicate which are the best desirable routers and protocols. From the available protocols such as RIP, IGRP, OSPF and EIGRP. Here we are going to compare and demarcation their properties and we need to talk about some of the questions considering the selection of routing protocol to our network.

"When should I use RIP version 2, OSPF, EIGRP and BGP in my network?"

Rip version 2:

It is defined in RFC 1723 attempts to address some of the problems associate with RIP v1. There was a conflict with RIP in considering the factors like newer, smarter routing protocols such as OSPF. Nevertheless the following merits takes over OSPF. These are

  • RIP finds implementation of protocols simpler. The task of interpreting IP and subnet mask for every router is made easy.
  • The load of configuration is minimised compare to OSPF because RIP consists of a huge base of small and medium sized protocols inter networks.

The above diagram shows the RIP version 2 message format. In order to avoid to congestion of internet protocols RIP is incorporated with various features like multicasting, subnet masking, and authentication for security issues. RIP utilizes the fields which were defined in RIP version 1. The major demerit is the silent RIP should have the information of multicasting of version 2 before deploying multi casted RIP version 2. 


Open Shortest Path First it is dynamic routing protocol and it is used in internet protocol (IP) networks. Specially, it is a link-state routing protocol and it drops into the interior gateway protocol group and it operate within a single autonomous system (AS). It is mostly used interior gateway protocol in large networks. It routes internet protocol packets solely within a single routing domain and it was designed to support and classless inter-domain routing addressing models and variable-length subnet masking. It detects link failures and converges on a new loop-free routing structure. It computes shortest path tree of each route using the method based on Dikkstra's algorithm. It is a shortest path algorithm.

It does not use TCP/IP transport protocol, but it encapsulated directly in IP datagrams with protocol number 89. OSPF uses multicast addressing for route flooding on a broadcast network link. The backbone area forms the core of OSPF network and it is also known as area or area 0.


This is based on their original IGRP. When comparing to EIGRP to IGRP, I will use EIGRP to improve the network. EIGRP is very effective to improve the network. Because EIGRP has fast convergence, 100% loop free and it has advance distance vector when compared to IGRP. For dis-contiguous networks EIGRP supports VLSM. Configuration of EIGRP is very easy and more over less network design constraints than OSPF it is having incremental update. EIGRP is protocol independent (support Apple Talk and IPX) and it is having classless routing Compatible with existing IGRP network.

EIGRP supports VLSM and it is Advanced Distance Vector Routing protocol. Metric of EIGRP is equal to IGRP metric x 256.


Border Gateway Protocol is the core routing protocol of the internet which connects networks of internet. BGP can be implemented in big networks like networks of networks. To establish the routing between the networks users do not use BGP directly.  A BGP will sporadically send 19-byte keep-alive messages to uphold the connection. The main attributes of BGP are AS-path attribute, weight attribute, origin attribute, next hop, community, multi-exit discriminator, local preference. And it is described as path vector protocol. The following diagram represents BGP state machine.

When we are making decisions and its operations with other BGP peers, it uses a simple finite state machine that consists of six states. Those are idle state, Active state, connect state, Open Sent state, Open Confirm state, Established state. Other router implementations like eBGP to IGPs, and IGPs to iBGP also preferable.

"How should I plan to take over the network?"

when we r plannig to take over the network we must have clear demarcation line guide posts as to which data may licitly sharing with the public or other organisations. Implemetnig the guide posts with using reserve technology safeguards like firewall or with the use of separate systems. Consider Enforced Path for higher risk systems. Admonisher the network traffic to point out botlenecks and anomalies. Determine how the problem are occuring when establishing the expectations and needs of users and identify the source of problem. Consider the possiblity to reduce the processing load of the system or to increasing the network capacity.

"Is now a good time to change to IPv6 and if so what Routing protocol would I use?"

Yes it is the time to change to IPv6 because IPv6 uses the same types of routing protocols which we use in IPv4, but there are slight changes, those are named below types of routing protocols for IPv6 for better network and effective network. Different types of routing protocols are

1. Static

2. RIPng (RFC 2080)

3. OSPFv3 (RFC 2740)

4. IS-IS for IPv6

5. MP-BGP (RFC 2545/2858)

1.Static Routing Protocol: This routing protocol is configured and used as same as IPv4. In a static routing protocol a router must determine the link-local address for each of its neighbour routers to check the redirect message's target address describes the neighbour by its link local address. This is the simplest form of routing, but it is a manual process does not work well when we change the routing information frequently.

2.RIPng: RIPng/ RIP version 3 is developed to defend popular distance vector routing protocol on IPv6. This is functionally identical to RIPv2 leave of 2 differences alternatively using IPv4 address in the updated messages it uses IPv6 addresses and second one is RIPng router. It needs to communicate with another router it uses a special multicast address that is destination address.

3.IS-IS: intermediate system-to-intermediate system is a link-state interior gateway protocol (IGP) for IP networks it uses OSPF Algorithm to find routes and also JUNOS to support implementation of the protocol, addressing issues of scale, convergence.

4.OSPF: OSPF in IPv6 is based on link-state or shortest path first (SPF) technology and it belongs to interior gateway protocol groups. And it operating with a single autonomous system (AS) and it is defined as the OSPF version 2 in RFC 2328 for IPv4. This is the mostly used interior gateway protocol (IGP) for large enterprise networks. The mostly used exterior gateway protocol is the border gateway protocol (BGP), the principle routing protocol among autonomous systems on the internet.

5.Multipoint BGP Routing Protocol: It is the other routing protocol of IPv6 which is path vector routing protocol in general. It is a exterior gateway protocol, and it is different from the interior gateway protocols. Exterior gateway protocol (EGP) gives loop-free exchange of routing information between routing domains. With the combinations of JUNOS routing policies, provides a system of administrative checks and balances which can be used to transit agreements and implement sharing. MP-BGP modifies BGP-4 carry information of other protocols, like IPv6 and RFC 2858 determine multiprotocol extensions for BGP-4.

"Will we have to change to IPv6 or is there an alternative?"

IPv6 is a next generation protocol for packet-switched internet works and the internet. Which has larger address space of 128 bits long. It is good  time to change to Ipv6 and it is the most using protocol version presently, and it was the first to receive widespread use. Protocol can be extended easily to meet the requirements of new applications. Those are hierarchical addressing and routing infrastructure. I would like to recommend changing for Ipv6, as per the future considerations. The other alternative wouldbe continuing with the on-going Ipv4, if we compare the characteristics of Ipv4 and Ipv6. Ipv6 is the better one to use.

IPv6 has a mechanism called Flow Label for Resource Allocation. Flow label enables source to send request for the special handling of a packet. In Ipv6 packets are forwarded between connected network segments. Its a place where Ipv6 data sorting and delivery occur. Ipv6 header is more efficient than Ipv4 here new fields are present and checksum is removed. Due to the larger address space gives unique addresses to billions of devices like PDA's,cellular phones and many more devices like 802.11 systems. Most features of Ipv6 could be porrted to IPv4 and there is one feature IPv4 can't match. For IPv4 a means to extend the capacity of the network was derived, called "Network Address Traslation".

"Which Routing Protocol should I use?"

I prefer to use OSPF. Because it detects the changes in topology like link failures and it converger over a new loop-free routing structure with in very less time this information is maintained on each router. It's routing plicies are to constuct a routing table which are governed by the cost factors. The backbone area forms core of OSPF network. This is responsible to distribute routing information between nonbackbone areas.


Here we have compared the features of different routing protocols like EIGRP, RIP, IGRP, OSPF, IPv4 and IPv6. In above mentioned protocols EIGRP and OSPF are suitable for large and autonomous networks and these are the best in Interior Gateway Protocols. I suggest that the OSPF is best suitable for large and autonomous networks, because the delay in routing the packets were also almost optimized here and the network traffic is optimized in OSPF. It can calculate a separate set of routes for each IP types of services. It uses multicasting to reduce the load on OSPF which are not participating in OSPF. It has the same features like EIGRP and these are more economical than other type of networks. In my discussions IS-IS is developed in several large ISPs but OSPF developed a very large enterprise networks and it supports fast and efficient networking and also optimizes the network traffic which plays a very important role in large networks. In case of EIGRP the memory required for storing the routing table in routers were already optimised which makes networks more reliable. EIGRP and OSPF acts as one and the same when ideal cases are occurs, that means if the network was made and connected with ideal conditions.








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