Network Computer And Thin Client Computer Science Essay

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Multivendor Networking Environment

Network infrastructure must adapt to the rapid growth of data-intensive application security threats, and cutting-edge technology. A multi-vendor network support of the idea, in order truly to IT and business needs of enterprise infrastructure, organizations must be free to choose the best solutions to meet their unique needs, and based on open standards and closed-system basis. Business needs, to promote the network infrastructure, not vice versa.

Today's enterprise network provides more than just technology infrastructure. This is a creation of conditions for enterprise development in support of mission-critical applications, creating operational efficiencies and increase productivity. Although the basic infrastructure of the organizations, their initiatives, companies must promote the development of enterprise networks to ensure that business support today's requirements while evolving to meet future requirements.

Multivendor Network Scenarios

Large Organization

In a large organization, that the smaller agencies or departments often have unique computing devices. Because these departments are part of a larger entity, they must pass information up the common interests. While this situation is similar to the merger plan, it is usually dramatically reduced, because the cross-connect requirement, we can see in the advanced range.

New applications

When new applications are implements on new computer systems, the multivendor network must interface existing users with the new application or combine the new application's data with data derived from another application on a different system.


When two companies merge or organizations, each entity using its data-processing equipment, different manufacturers, some type of connection is required. These requirements can be as simple accounting data from one system to the other or as a complex, allowing users to access the system features both laying types.


This is often the most pleasant environment, mainly due to the outgoing supplier is not a strong desire to solve their customers will soon take additional communication problems. Requirements of many conversations between users are sharing a common set of two different systems, parallel processing.

New applications

When new applications achieve new computer system, multi-vendor networks and new applications to existing user interface, or in combination, from a different system from the application of data derived from another application's data access new application data.

Information Management

 Since many computer systems are highly specialized software and hardware components, they are often used to solve specific technical requirements. In the medical environment, for example, a type of hardware may supervise and monitor laboratory instruments, and the other patient tracking system may run and may face another patient tracking system, but may face another general management and accounting system.

Task 2

Diskless Workstation

Linux kernel for the diskless workstation is ready to run, using the official Linux 2.2.16 kernel source from mirroring. The core includes: (kernel configuration file)

Support for the network chip used (RTL8129/RTL8139)

IP kernel auto-configuration, via DHCP

NFS support

Root file system on NFS

proc file system support

PS/2 mouse support

All this does not need to be closed, including support for IDE disk, floppy disk drive support, and even the module support. The necessary supports, all of which are directly compiled into the kernel, resulting in an approximately 500KB of kernel bzImage. Compile the kernel is the only option, because CPU's = 586 MediaGX chipset does not support any advanced features.

Boot diskless workstation and then continue to take control in the BIOS PXE support and guide the implementation of an IP address and the path of DHCP requests, and then perform a binary pxelinux less than 8K of (using TFTP). Once pxelinux is running, it searches (in pxelinux.cfg directory where is the relative load), try to name and IP address of the final document of the default for its configuration file. Once found, and then start the kernel image to load the specified configuration file relative position of pxelinux binary) (and control transferred to the other boot parameters, including the location of the kernel NFS root file system mount point.

When the kernel receives control it initialises the hardware, and then perform a DHCP request for the kernel configure the network interface. Then, start the NFS client and mount the root file system read-only (NFS root zone), and transfers control to initialize.

Once running on the system initialization to perform any of Debian the same basic initialization, run / etc/rc1.d directories and / etc/rc2.d with few exceptions, the above-mentioned script. One more important script / etc / init.d /'s re loaded in the read / write mode of the root file system and mount / proc file system.

NFS root zone in the configuration, the last script to run the XDMCP query mode start X server on the server (this is the XDM server), and start the server from the XDM login screen started to show.

Characteristic of Linux Diskless Workstation

Once started, as a remote X terminal diskless workstation functions. When the user logs on, the XDM server to set DISPLAY environment variable to point at the remote X server, start the user's X logon script. X application, anything that can be run as usual and will appear in the diskless workstation for remote X terminal itself. Care needs with the assumption that they are running on the same computer, they (for example, Abiword is the assumption that it can add the font path to use local font file name, adding the font, the font path by a fixed XFS show some applications ) or remote running against the limits (for example, xlock; and "remote" option, or in its configuration file to overwrite).

For most applications this setting (and boot diskless workstations, servers and between the private network connection) with the fastest speed in the server running X locally. This is particularly true for the xterms, or even close to running applications, such as Netscape true. Graphics applications will significantly slow down a lot of content (such as 15, in the GIMP, etc.), but still very useful. Is usually written in the minds of the remote display allows customers to make better use / server nature of the agreement and application of X will have a better performance.

Since X is a natural design for remote operation, you can use to run the Linux desktop, including KDE and Gnome development of all software. In addition to the run, as all of the window decoration, animation, and so open, especially in graphics-intensive enlightenment window manager (and some speed issues; authors use fvwm 2) and other very graphics-intensive applications, can be of any use of X for Linux should be available. I even heard the VMware use this type of configuration report, although it can not recommend it for VMware is the best graphics-intensive can write directly to video hardware.

Linux desktop software, expanding the scope, especially in the current StarOffice has been released under GPL, Gnome Foundation was established to continue the GNOME Desktop (Sun and HP have announced the development of their products in use), almost KDE 2.0 release, making it a very common office practice platform. (The author has used his principal in the past 2 years Desktop Linux operating system, and increasingly believe that almost everything needs to be completed with the local Linux applications.)

Diskless workstation to set the main catch with sound support. Since all applications are running on the server, the sound hardware of any sound playback program used by the server. Although this is not a single major customers problem / single server, the Qing Kuang, this is clearly a more worthy of attention, if more customers are using, Xuyao good support. One possibility is to arrange the diskless workstation running its own sound programs, may use ssh to start the program. Another is the use of audio programs that use the network, the output of the audio sent to the diskless workstation. At present, the author did not investigate the widespread, but some see some reference pointers.

Detailed Price of Diskless Workstations(Window Based)

Thin Client


Acer H243H bmid - 24" - widescreen TFT active matrix LCD

Acer H243H bmid is a 16:9 format, so that full HD video, and a strong media and film experience audio performance. This 24 "LCD is the best choice for advanced 1080p Full HD gaming and multimedia applications. Enjoy the full dynamic response of the moving speed and ultra-fast 2ms 40000:1 contrast ratio, and to ensure clear and sharp image quality.


HP USB Multimedia Keyboard($11)

Simplify your digital entertainment. Internet key and productivity program common tasks, and began a touch shortcut keys to select the application. HP USB Multimedia keyboard has everything you need.

Maxell - Computer 191034 NRTM-PI Mini Optical Mouse

Maxell 191034 - nrtmr telescopic travel mouse (red) 14mm telescopic line of ultra-thin optical tracking plug and play design, bright 2.0 USB connection tracking wheel 800 dpi resolution and Linux compatible

NComputing L130 Multi-User Network Computing Terminal, Ultra Thin Client. ds-dh

Like all NComputing access terminals, the new L230 and L130 significantly reduce the computation can be said that the computer has not yet developed a standard cost of electricity. The best is, IT staff and end user does not need special training because our solution easy to manage programs, environmental protection and standards of the PC application compatibility. And like our L series, all the L230 and L130 can use standard Ethernet infrastructure, so your users can be located far away from your shared computer, you need their people.

Detailed Price for diskless Workstation(Linux Based)

Thin Client(Encore)


Acer S243HL bmii - 24" - widescreen TFT active matrix LCD($250)

Acer S243HL is a high-end audio in the 15 mm LED display bright colors ultra-thin profile of quality and a solid eco-friendly features. This unique large widescreen display, is not only beautiful appearance - this is a great actor, with full HD resolution, very high up 8,000,000:1,2 Ã- HDMI interface and 2 ms fast response time contrast. So boring image, and even their lives! The integrated white LED technology S243HL make this LCD display is not only attractive and powerful, and energy-saving and earth-friendly. The S243HL family and their appreciation of the latest display technology, environmental products and technology knowledge of individual customers to design the ideal display solution. The show was considered a future potential environmental issues, energy and the cost of the work of space constraints. Ultra-thin (less than 15 mm), is the thinnest 24 "monitor market in the fashion and brushed metal L-base black border parcels. Equipped with mercury-free materials, 63% lower power consumption and zero bright pixels policy, allowing you to big energy savings, while helping to protect the natural energy resources, too. brilliant visual effects film 1920 Ã- 1080 full HD resolution courtesy of the HDMI interface, high performance and 2ms response time.


Lenovo ThinkPad USB Keyboard with TrackPoint($48)

The ultimate compact keyboard! ThinkPad USB Keyboard features elegant, with the same ultra-thin design of ultra low-profile keys found on the legendary ThinkPad keyboard. This is one of a kind keyboard allows you to save valuable desk space, is the perfect complement to your office or home ThinkPad.

ASUS Seashell 

With its elegant design and four different colors to choose from, the optical mouse's shell, the shell of your Eee PC the ideal companion. It's chic and compact design ensures a worry-free mobile solutions, in which to calculate. Other than aesthetics, but also the performance of shell optical mouse, to meet its namesake. It has an advanced optical sensor to track to 1000dpi, track smoothly on a mouse pad, or even none.

Aten Technologies KE8220 Virtual VNC Console

Task 3

Characteristic of Network Computer

International network of experts and managers to address these problems, but because the network is large, complex, both geographical and functional distribution of the amount of time may need to solve. Even if fund managers are problems, symptoms, causes may be located in another remote network or manager may not be able to obtain sufficient information for troubleshooting. In addition, managers must often investigate a large number of data streams of data packets, must often cooperate with other network managers to isolate the real cause of the problem. This may take a long time. The Internet, some problems do not show obvious symptoms. These are known as potential problems. Potential problems may lead to serious consequences, when the network becomes larger or more hosts connected to it.

There are several questions from the large-scale network management difficulties. Many computers are connected to the geographically separate networks. In this case, it is almost impossible to completely control the entire network and host. In different communities, where people may not fully understand computers and the Internet, might start using the computer network. Their experience in network and horse luck, and sometimes careless mistakes lead to serious problems, and prevent network expansion in other communities. The last reason, the existence of a heterogeneous environment, called by different manufacturers of computer is connected to the same networks in the world, and began to Jin Xing communication.

A pair of SNMP / MIB number of the network management system. These are all useful network of experts about the state of network administrators. However, this type of system does not show that, when problems occur, the problem is. We also take into account that some companies do not have such an expert in SNMP-based management system does not work as intended. Network computer concept originated in Oracle. And including Apple, IBM, Oracle and Sun consortium of several major manufacturers. The consortium will soon dispersed, small manufacturers develop proprietary products. Oracle no longer promoted the idea of network computers, but it is still in the market today. It is worthwhile to examine the network computer as this concept still forms the basis for many thin client architectures. The genesis of the NC arose from the fact that at the time of its conception.

A computer network service to a customer's role, does not have sufficient capacity to act as a server. The network computer has network connectivity, it is not a stand-alone computer. There are two concepts of hardware and software components.

Benefit and Possible drawbacks associated with the adoption of Network Computer

The following are the generic advantages of a Networked Computer.

Lower Client Hardware Cost

It can be used as a thin client terminal with lower specifications, making personal computers continue to use the old way better. In addition, the expert thin client devices can be less than a new computer is expensive, because they have fewer moving parts, they are less prone to failure, can be sustained through a personal computer.


 Installation and software upgrades are very easy. It is only necessary to upgrade software on the server, rather than each network computer. Monitoring network software is also easier, because only the control of a machine, not all the machines on the network. When this is conducive to review and provide some software on the network consistency.


This is more difficult to thin client network for viruses, there are few entry points to the network, it is usually impossible to download software from the Internet to the client, the client is not operable disk drives and other virus-infected disk can not be introduced. Additional server software can limit the implementation of the e-mail attachments, thus greatly reducing the threat of computer viruses. Terminal does not store so if they are stolen information, which is the only equipment need to be replaced, not the data.


Thin client terminals use considerably less than the personal computer of energy, because they seldom deal with the implementation of the client. For example: thin client as low as 10 to 20 watt hours of electricity Machine, the use of up to two hundred and eighty watts on the personal computer hours.

Network Support Infrastructure

A network can be defined as hardware and software components necessary to connect the device group within the organization and other organizations connected to the organization and the Internet. The physical network infrastructure is the physical design of the network hardware components together. The network's physical design is also known as the network topology. When you plan a network of physical infrastructure, you are usually limited to the hardware components of your choice from the logic of network infrastructure. The network is the logical basis of all the necessary connections between devices, so that software components, and provides network security.

The logical infrastructure of a network consists of

The software products

Networking protocols and services

The components of the logical network are as followed:

The speed of the network

Types of the switching used

The type of switching which will use

The types of connections

Enable the connection between the internal network of private networks and Internet applications, such as the RRAS service and Network Address Translation (NAT) service center, opened a private internal network users to connect to the Internet:, while at the same time protect the private network resources.

Two different solutions offered by two different commercial vendors and document this in your report

Three different types of thin client system, the observation of a case study as follows.

Microsoft Terminal Services, all using Microsoft Windows environment is necessary. It has been reported in the performance or the system and other third-party thin client solutions, no significant difference in ability. Microsoft will launch two new thin client Windows XP, the task of workers for personal computers, other mobile workers. This is the suppliers based on Windows XP thin clients, the system manufacturers to more easily deploy pre-packaged partners, rather than their own customized thin client software solutions. Microsoft declined to comment on the upcoming thin client. However, sources said, thin clients are not low, high-end version of Windows, but for customers to choose to use, but not all PC thin client and server-centric computing model of alternative operating systems.

Thin client packaging will benefit partners, hope to have an alternative product or return Windows XP Embedded, Wyse Neoware's technology or system. Microsoft provides a basic terminal services client, providing access to the Windows Server 2003, but it provides very little functionality. Microsoft partners said the server centile computing, Microsoft three different types of thin client system, the observation of a case study as follows.

Microsoft Terminal Services, all using Microsoft Windows environment is necessary. It has been reported in the performance or the system and other third-party thin client solutions, no significant difference in ability. Microsoft will launch two new thin client Windows XP, the task of workers for personal computers, other mobile workers. This is the suppliers based on Windows XP thin clients, the system manufacturers to more easily deploy pre-packaged partners, rather than their own customized thin client software solutions. Microsoft declined to comment on the upcoming thin client. However, sources said, thin clients are not low, high-end version of Windows, but for customers to choose to use, but not all PC thin client and server-centric computing model of alternative operating systems.

Thin client packaging will benefit partners, hope to have an alternative product or return Windows XP Embedded, Wyse Neoware's technology or system. Microsoft provides a basic terminal services client, providing access to the Windows Server 2003, but it provides very little functionality.

Linux terminal service was one instance of a school using Linux Terminal Service. This school has been selected this is purely cost basis. This is from the more familiar Windows environment changes and related applications as an important guiding factor in an interview on the network of people, although the stability and network security are similar to other options. In most cases, the thin-client networks of cooperation that provides file and print servers hosting the same environment. The deployment is a basic round robin load balancing meetings and complex multi-server environment load multiple servers hybrid based on the balance of resource conditions. The size and complexity of the environment and in school-related complex load balancing solution coupled with technical skills. The system does not measure the performance of any school system is not any measurement so we can not ascertain if this has a certain impact.

Linux has architectural forms and security on the basis of consideration, such as Apple, which is significantly more virus and spyware protection is usually plagued PC. There is a free open source software programs offer a wide range. Because all the work is actually done on the server, users can log on any computer, to enter their preservation work and preferences, they are in the classroom or in a library or other places is one computer in the school, a thin established customer network.

Task 4


Thinstation is an Open Source thin client (Network Computers) operating system supporting all major connectivity protocols. For this project, I downloaded Thinstation-2.2.2-LiveCD.desktop.exe, and connect with Windows Server 2003 Terminal Services. This version of thinstation is not need TFTP server (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) and DHCP server. But DHCP server can be used if needed. I use DHCP server for the purpose of simplicity. Everything required to step up thinstation on the remote computer is included in live CD. When I run this exe file, it extracts required files. This include .iso file which must be burn as bootable CD. When thinstation is loaded it search user configuration file in CD, hard drive, Floppy, USB drive. So we can use a variety of media for configuration file.

Setting up DHCP server

On window server 2003, I install DHCP service and step up a DHCP scope ( The job of DHCP server is to deliver IP address to its client. In the scope option, I select router and set its value which is the default gateway of all clients.


Figure: Setting up DHCP services.

Editing Configuration File

If we boot live CD without configuration file, it configure itself with default configuration. So we need to edit configuration file to fit our need. Configure file include network configuration and other configurations such as keyboard layout. For this demonstration, I have to configure the following criteria.

-Thinstation uses DHCP server to get its IP address.

-IP address of window terminal server

And other configurations such as display resolution . The content of my configuration file is as follow


SESSION_0_TITLE="Windows 2003 terminal server (16 bit color depth)"















As I mentioned above, we can use a variety of media to set our configuration file. I bind configuration file into bootable CD. The package I downloaded includes instructions pointed how to bind configuration file in bootable CD and other utilities to do this.

The package I downloaded includes four directories. They are

"BuildFiles" which includes all necessary files to build bootable image manually.

"CD" which includes iso image file to burn as bootable CD.

"Floppy" which includes user configuration file.

"RebuildIsoWithConf" which includes utility to rebuild iso image file together with user configuration.

So I use "RebuildIsoWithConf" directory to rebuild iso image file.

The steps are as follows.

Extract iso image file from "CD" directory to a temporary directory.

Copy the content of above temporary directory to "RebuildIsoWithConf\cd-files" directory.

Place my own configuration file named "thinstation.conf" in the "RebuildIsoWithConf\cd-files\thinstation-profile\"

I run ms-dos bat file named "rebuild-iso.bat" in the "RebuildIsoWithConf" directory.

A new bootable iso image file appear in that directory which include my own configuration file.

I burn this iso image file as bootable CD.

Setting up Terminal server

The last one needed to do is setting up terminal server. So I install terminal service on window server 2003 server.C:\Users\Adadu\AppData\Local\Temp\VMwareDnD\24531976\terminal.bmp

Figure: Windows 2003 Terminal Server is Running

I create a user account on window server that is a member of Remote Desktop User. This user account is to be used to log in to window server from the thinstation.C:\Users\Adadu\AppData\Local\Temp\VMwareDnD\6ba48284\sss.bmp

Figure: Creating User account.

Now, everything is ready to boot up thinstation on the remote computer. I connects the two computers and boot up the client with bootable CD that I created. The compute start boot process.


Figure: Thinstation is booting up.


Figure: Thinstation is loading.

While thinstation is loading, it detect network interface card. The most popular PCI and ISA NICs are supported by thinstation except from USB NICs. Now, it is the time to start configuration. In my CD, my own configuration profile is included. So thinstation follows my configuration file.


Figure:Thinstation Read Configuration File (Profile Setup)

It brocast DHCP request message to get IP address. In my configuration I didn't configure network. So it will work with DHCP to participate in network. After getting IP address, thinstation is ready to connect remote server, window 2003 terminal server in this case.C:\Users\Adadu\Desktop\thinstationproject\welcome.jpg

Figure: Thinstation is ready to connect remote server.

"AUTOSTART=On" statement in configuration file means that thinstation will connect automatically to server in session 0. I set remote desktop server in session 0 with the IP address of After all windows 2003 server log in screen is appeared.

C:\Users\Adadu\Desktop\thinstationproject\windows server 2003 log in.jpg

Figure: Window Server 2003 Log in screen is appeared.