The 21st century is the era of upcoming technologies, and the other hand electronics and the nanotechnology is the combination of new hall mark in electronics field. We are discussing here most promising technologies electronics devices and nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology is a broad highly, interdisciplinary, and still evolving field over the past TEN years "The technology significally reduces their weight, size, power, consumption, and production costs". We discuss here how we used or involved nanotechnology in electronics circuit and devices to improved nanotechnology devices and applications or its uses. Now a day's nanotechnology used in different field like Medicine. Chemistry and environment, energy, information and communication heavy industry, and consumer's goods,
As we know that nanotechnology is used in information and communication field and its usage a s memory storage, novel semiconductor devices, optoelectronics devices , displays, quantum computers, on the other hand its uses in aerospace as well. We discuss here its applications, technologies, companies, circuits. We give here some useful data's analysis as well.
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As we know that basic theory of electronics means network of voltage, resistance capacitance and active elements such as transistors the whole phenomena to produce signals typically to low levels of powers and that theory produce or referred circuit theory.
Generally transistors act as amplifier or on-off switches if we focus an electronic circuit designed with active or passive elements then form circuits such as power supply, amplifier , oscillator etc. then we proceed on the same phenomena of elementary circuit then create useful devices such as radio, TVS , COMPUTERS etc.
Study of these parameters on DC and AC circuit analysis , diodes , transistors and digital electronics which are then used as building blocks to introduce information , digital communications and the internet . As we know those devices are becoming Compact and Compact these days and that's why the terminology of nanotechnology is introduced in electronic field.
We discuss here about nanotechnology so the first question emerges in our brain is WHAT IS NANO TECHNOLOGY?
ACTUALLY "nanotechnology is a manipulation of atoms, molecules and materials to form structures on the scale of nanometres (billionths of a metere). Nanotechnology involves the production and application of physical, chemical and biological systems at scales ranging from individual atoms or molecules to about 100 nm, as well as the integration of the resulting nanostructures into larger systems.
Now a days research in Science and engineering proved that in nanotechnology promises breakthroughs in areas such as materials and manufacturing, electronics, medicine and healthcare, energy and the environment, biotechnology information technology and national security.
On the other hand scientists define the Nano technology on the base of his research like that "The parameter of Nano scale
Structures deals with the creation, investigation and utilisation of systems that are 1000 times smaller than the components currently used in the field of microelectronics. Nanometer-scale features are built up from their elemental constituents. Micro- and Nano systems components are fabricated using batch processing techniques that are compatible with integrated circuits and range in size from micro- to nanometers Convergence of these two technologies results in growth of Nano electronics. This interdisciplinary combination can create many innovative tools.
MODREN ERA OF NANOTECHNOLOGY:
Nanotechnology is a vast and growing fields and it's provide a broad prospects of revolution in our industry and its offers potential solutions to many problems using emerging nanotechnology.
This technology provides a new opportunities to reshape the electronics industry that's why nanotechnology received a better attention from industrial sector , companies universities and government.
Nano electronics is one of the new field in nanotechnology and it offers a different and right approach for electronic industry in the form of circuit materials , process, information storage and transfer information, and optoelectronics as well we divide the branches in Nano electronics here in three parts like as
Applications of nanotechnology:
Nanotechnology is like a tool kit for all the industries it's provide a solution of all the problem it's provide a kit to interface with machine and its problems its allow us to make a nanomaterial with special properties modified by particle size, structures, surfaces.
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This technology will become an especially and commercially importance because its reduced the costs and give a better performance advantage over existing technology but, on the other hand scientists and researcher divides its application on further field such as
Nano electronics (information and communication technology)
Nano medicine and bio technology
Applications of Nano material in nanotechnology:
We focused in this part of nanotechnology advancement .it depends on understanding of its applications and its principles .As we know that the development of devices in nanotechnology means these are small in size, self contains , light energy and easily turns or replace larger equipment's into compact and this is the first achievement in nanotechnology revolution. In application of nanomaterial's form unique chemical and physical and grain size properties they can be used as wide range of variety like as next generation computer chips, such as kinetic energy penetrators with enhanced lethality, better insulation material, phosphor for high definition TV, low cost flat- panel display, tougher and harder cutting tools, elimination of pollutants, high energies density batteries, high sensitivity sensors, automobiles with greater fuel efficieny,aerospace components with Enhanced Performance Characteristics, Better and Future Weapons Platforms, Long lasting Satellites, Longer-Lasting Medical Implants, Ductile, Machinable Ceramics, Large Electro chromic Display Devices.
Applications of Nano electronics (information and communication in nanotechnology):
Nano electronics properties based on carbon nanotubes because its application has vast potential in Nano electronics, biosensor, microscopy, mechanical systems, scientist and researchers is motivated to move beyond to explore the real issues with carbon Nano tube.
In this part we discussed briefly about nanotechnology and its application in Nano electronics and we know that nanotechnology based on two techniques first is top-down method and second is bottom-up methods .we easily say that top-down method is semiconductor devices fine pattery procedure and bottom-up method is synthesis of protein procedure. In first procedure we do the smaller size on Nano scale through semiconductor process and bottom up method integrated atoms or molecules on Nano scale.
Top-down method gives vast idea to scientist to improve the research program of industrial span through SI-LSI technology. Both top-down and bottom-up technology combined together and play an important role in application in ionic and electronic prospective.
SI-LSI technology helps electronic devices and their integration.
Most technologies converge with Nano technology the important techniques has used by the many researchers is fabricated a DRAM capacitor .It's also called batch-processing technique because it's compatible with integrated circuits.
Now a days application of Nano electronics based on information and communication technologies and that's technology has a vast demands this application moderate on the base of current high technology because Nano technology has been already introduced .this technology based on integrated circuits of Nano scale(50nm) it's also use in CPU .
Information and communication applications is further divided as
Novel semiconductor devices
Novel optoelectronics devices
Scientist has been already developed low cost memory that could put tetra byte data or information .in that technique manipulating charged copper particles at the molecular scale. The technology used in mobile devices .this technology based on Nano wires and nanotubes from copper atoms. Apple and Scan Disk Company introduce this technology in market these days.
Novel semiconductor devices:
As we know that semiconductor devices based on substrate and its provide electrical conduction or isolation ,structural support and heat dissipation .semiconductor devices play an important role in different field especially in medical industry , manufacturing, and the entertainment industry.
Now a days electronic and information technology reached at advanced stage and replaced the cost effective devices with improvement features size, high efficiency and quick results .mostly devices is silicon based CMOS architecture .example of novel devices based on spintronics.
Opto electronic devices:
Optoelectronics is feature of optics and electronics .optoelectronics technology is a concept of physics in other way we say that concept of Nano physics where solid nanostructure reduced to the Nano meter scale. It helps to generate and manipulate and convert light. Photonic devices transmit and display information for application such as communication, display, imaging, memory. Optic fibre is a good example now days.
Its play an important role of country information infrastructure and play a key role in its domestic economy and national defence.
It's newly emerging field and based on quantum mechanics, its works on quantum bit, which can hold an infinite numbers of value and its works on the data of 0 and 1.
Quantum comes to cryptographic world where it used for algorithm encryption. Quantum computers will help the power of atoms and molecules to perform memory and processing fast. Its potential to perform certain calculations significantly faster than any silicon based computers.
Quantum computers works on single Qubits and pair of quits, scientists wants to implicate technique with physics and find out the results on the base of the phenomenon of entanglement is inextricably bound to the power of quantum computers.
The study focused on nanotechnology and its application .we discussed here about the newly emerging field and how it helps to boom our industry in future its already helps different sector of industries through its techniques of nanotechnology .If we used nanotechnology techniques we reduced , cost factor and produced low consumption , low energy and compact devices with better results who helps the consumers . Nanotechnology is a grater topic of today's world.
Nanotechnology is presented as realistic promising technology for the future due to recent progress in this field where nanotechnology is combined with conventional SI- based electronics -long term investment based on well strategy where planning should include impressive success in industry ,signifying the bright future of the technology.
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