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Since 1990's web has become major source of information access. Whether the information is textual or visual form, locating the information needed has always been a difficult task. Search Engines have been improved over the last few years for textual information. When people gained interest in the web and began developing their own web pages, many became frustrated as what they saw as the lack of design control in HTML. The Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) was developed for giving the designer more precise control over design elements .
The author in this article has explained how HTML, XML and CSS can be used as multipurpose for Web publishing. In this research, I am mainly concentrating on Cascading style sheets or my area of interest is CSS. The author explains how to split the design code from the actual content in a website. CSS main application is to give style to the web pages which are written in either Hyper Text Markup Language or EXtensible Hyper Text Markup Language (such as colors, fonts, and layout), but this language also can be used to any kind of eXtensible Markup Language document, including Scalable Vector Graphics and XML User Interface Language. A Cascading Style Sheet refers to layout's technical specifications. It ensures that a web page will appear exactly the way the developer has specified. The main idea is to reuse the content .
The author has explained CSS can be used on variety of devices such as PDA's, web etc to present information. Later he has discussed some of the advantages of using CSS such as how consistence it is and how well the information can be presented on the web. When a developer wants to create a website the major concerns for business are time and money. CSS is a web design method that can help a developer to save time and money while also improving visitor's experience. CSS has become the preferred web design method as it offers benefits for both web designers and website visitors .
Style sheets have been developed as a means to define visual instructions without resorting to misuse of HTML tags or solutions that can be implemented only by one browser. A style sheet can be a set of instructions that apply to a very specific portions of you document- to highlight this text in that color, for example, Or a style sheet can be universal guidelines for document presentation, controlling font choices, colors, margins, heading styles, and almost any other visual detail you can imagine. Generally, a style sheet is a document or document fragment that defines rules for the stylistic presentation of content .
Style sheets can be developed in any style sheet language-they are not produced in XHTML. Each style sheet language has its own syntax and rules, much like programming languages and XHTML have their own rule sets. As of now, the only language in with XHTML across multiple browsers is known as Cascading Style Sheets .
Since the beginnings of SGML in the 1970s, Style sheets have existed in one form or another. CSS were developed for creating a consistent approach to providing style information for web pages or documents .
CSS has various levels and profiles. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS 1.0 in 1997 and CSS 2.0 in 1998) were introduced by the W3C in association with the HTML 4.0 standard. In this section we review relevant aspects of CSS 2.0 and HTML 4.0. CSS 2.0 and HTML 4.0 provide a comprehensive set of "style" properties for each type of HTML tag. By setting the value of these properties the document author can control how the browser will display each element.
CSS level 3 have been under development since December 15, 2005.The W3C maintains a CSS3 progress report. CSS3 is modularized and consists of several separate recommendations .
Critical Analysis of Research Method
The author has given examples to show how well information can be presented on web using CSS. I agree with the author that CSS with structured document allow the same document to present on various devices and some other features where I agree with author are below which is making CSS to used extensively.
By changing the one style sheet designer actually changing all the pages design.
Reduce the Bandwidth
When CSS separates the actual content from design dramatically reduce your file transfer size. Your CSS document will be stored externally, and will be accessed only once when a visitor requests your website.
Improve the usability
If you started using style sheets extensively, your site would automatically become more usable.
When you remove all the the body attributes and font tags from your HTML pages, and writing them in a single external style sheet, your HTML pages will turn smaller in size, and the style sheet would only need to be downloaded once, and thus your site would load faster.
Load the sites faster
As the style sheets are separated from actual content and therefore code become lighter, which automatically enable the websites to load faster.
Can be used for various devices
CSS can be used for different media like the printer and PDA.
Searches will be faster
Using CSS will leave your website with more content than code - and content is critical to your search engine success.
Cascading style sheets are now compatible with almost browsers
CSS allows you the different presentation styles for same markup page.
Evaluation of Research
The author has explained in his paper all the advantages of using CSS which I agree with him. Though it has its own strengths, there few things which need to be address in CSS. They are discussed below :
Separate style from content
The main benefit in CSS is separates the styles from the actual content of web page. While using HTML, you might have noticed, that HTML have both style and content. Foe example with FONT-tag, you can make your page look more stylish.
Issues to be addressed
As author has discussed about the strengths of CSS, there are few issued to be addressed about CSS, which are discussed below .
1. No simple method is available for Margin Collapsing well-documented and useful, also difficult and not likely by authors
2. At present no as simple expressions which used for specify property values, which are useful in various cases
3. As CSS does not contain any variables which makes to do a replace all, when there is one desires to change a fundamental constant
The author started with explaining how web design can be made effective using Cascading style sheet. Style sheets are increasingly important to today's web designer. Style sheets provide the visual treatment and presentation. CSS provides the web designer with a means of defining visual stylistic issues in a single location, either in head of an XHTML document or in an external style sheet.
Cascading style sheets is the most prevalent style-sheet language in use, though XSL is gaining fast in the world of XML vocabularies .
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