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Aikaterini Mitrokotsa et al describe all the most generic RFID attacks into RFID layers which are related but not identical to ISO layers. They discover structure of possible attacks that can affect the RFID system and defined how we can prevent these attacks with safe handling. By contemplate the point of attack, its systemic effects and countermeasures jointly they can obtain a more coherent view of the threats and what must be done to counter them. They emphasis on the existing weaknesses of RFID system so that a better understanding of RFID attacks can be helpful to achieve and subsequently more efficient and effective the algorithms techniques and procedures to face these attacks may be develop. 
Geethapriya Thamilarasu and Ramalingam Sridhar identify the various RFID security threats and exposures to RFID components and describe the framework of intrusion detection system for detecting malicious reader and tag deportment in RFID. They have discussed the limitations and weakness of on tag cryptographic security solutions. They evolve the security framework with an IDS module including of the reader layer and middleware layer and estimate the prevention and detection mechanisms. 
L.Kovavisaruch, P.Suntharasaj they both introduced the radio frequency interface to the smartcards and the contactless cards for payment and ticketing application in transportation system in Thailand. They also define the key success factors (standardization of RF spectrum, Cost of RFID tag and reader, Privacy and security issues, nation policies and human resource development) to successfully implement RFID in Thailand. They proposed that RFID will surely become a condition for transportation with both private sector and public sector due to the emerging demand of RFID market around the world. 
Samer S. Saab, Zahi S. Nakad, describe indoor poisoning systems (IPSs) using passive tags. They presented mathematical modelling of distance and position errors taken from RFID tag RSSI (received signal strength information) measurement, incorporating an angle-dependent loss factor. Their proposed work is based on an object which carries an RFID reader module, this module reads low-cost passive tags installed next to the object path. A positioning system using a Kalman filter is proposed by them. The inputs of the proposed algorithm are the measurements of the backscattered signal power propagated from nearby RFID tags and a tagââ‚¬"path position database. 
Lars Kulseng, Zhen yu, Yawen Wei, and Young Guan described secure tag search problem in low-cost RFID systems. They proposed number of lightweight protocols based on LFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register) and PUF (Physical Unclonable Function). The protocol proposed by them can prevent adversaries from learning tag identity and from impersonating RFID reader and tag. In their work, they were able to confirm the feasibility of the design presented by them. Although their tests were conducted in a FGPA (field programmable gate array) environment, an ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) implementation would perform similarly, as they have confirmed. 
Smart transportation system is the concept of intelligent transportation which hold a huge range of systems and applications. Smart electric vehicle (EV) charging, real-time traveller information, city wide traffic monitoring, transit signal priority, and centralized fleet vehicle management can all be categorize as forms of intelligent transportation systems or smart transport. What makes them prudent is the use of embedded intelligence to connect vehicles to each other and connect them to infrastructure and with central operational sites too. Transportation systems are also contemplate smart when they are applied to obtain smart policy goals in the urban environment, such as enhanced mobility, reduced fuel consumption, and improved safety, economic competitiveness. 
Jichang CAO, Lin SHU, Zhengding LU defined the anti collision algorithms for a radio frequency U-card system. The RF-UCard system is a contactless smartcard system which has multiple chip operating systems and multiple applications. A multi-card collision may occur when more than one card within the readerââ‚¬â„¢s read field and thus it lowers the efficiency of the system. They presented a novel and enhanced algorithm to solve the multi-card collision problems in an RF-UCard system. The proposed SDA algorithm assigns a synchronous dynamic coordinative scheme that dynamically adjusts the frame size in the reader and the respond probability in cards to maximize the efficiency to identify the card and processing. 
Kurra Mallaiah defines the mini DES (digital encryption standard) algorithm for RFID security. The MiniDES symmetric key algorithm is appropriate for RFID tag security. It considers the type of security attainable in RFID based devices with a small amount of rewritable memory, but it has very limited computing capability. The writer aim is to show that MiniDES algorithm is efficient and sufficient to provide the security for the RFID based systems, there is no need for very complex cryptography algorithms which requires very high power of computational power. In RFID system MiniDES providing the authentication and provide the validity of tag is done in the microcontroller itself. Lower complex and light weight cryptography algorithms like miniDES are more applicable for low power RFID based embedded systems. 
Vinay Deolalikar, Malena Mesarina, John Recker, Salil Pradhan defined the clustering algorithms for RFID based system. They suggest two main algorithms which solve the clustering problem of RFID systems these are min max algorithm and Eigen-analysis based algorithm for clustering that are simple and do not need extensive computation. The accent suggested by them is based on simplicity. The algorithms can be implemented without the assistance of any sophisticated software, and in smaller network scan even be implemented by hand. 
Sindhu Karthikeyan and Mikhail Nesterenko describe the RFID security ways without extensive cryptography. They define the secure tag identification and tag sequencing algorithms for secure against known cipher text attacks. The secure tag identification algorithm is used to safe the tag and reader communication from the intruders and the tag sequencing algorithm is used for in multiple-tag version, the reader find out the keys of all the tags present. Over and above, each tag learns the position of its key in the order in which the keys of the tags participating in the identification session. This scheme can be called multiple tag sequencing. Once the tag comes to know about its position, after that the second phase of the identification algorithm can be proceeding in sequence. The reader broadcasts the messages for the tags in the order of their keys. Each tag receives the message sent particularly to it and ignores the rest. 
GENG Shu-qin, WU Wu-chen, HOU Li-gang and ZHANG Wang introduced the anti collision algorithms for multi-tag RFID. They defined the tree based protocols in which the collision occurs within a timeslot, the colliding tags are randomly separate into two subgroups by freely selecting 0 or 1, until all tags are identified. Those tags which select 0 transmit their IDs to a interrogator right away. Suppose a collision occurs again, then the collided tags are spited again by selecting 0 or 1. The tags that select 1 wait until all the tags that select 0 are successfully identified by the interrogator. Or in case if all the tags those select 0 are resolved, the tags those select 1 send their IDs to the interrogator. That procedure is repeated again and again until there is no further collision. They also defined the slotted aloha algorithms which are used to reduced the collision in RFID system. 
Christy Chatmon, Tri van Le and Mike Burmester describe the secure anonymous RFID authentication protocols. They proposed the three anonymous authentication protocols (YA-TRAP, A 1-pass and2-Pass optimistic anonymous RFID authentication protocol, which are used to prevent the RFID system from unauthorized tracking and monitoring, impersonation or cloning, and information leakage. these algorithms are based on security schemes like hash functions and pseudorandom functions because of that schemes these protocols are more efficient and scalable. 
Tao Cheng, Li Jin describes the Analysis and Simulation of RFID Anti-collision Algorithms. They introduced the binary tree algorithms and ALOHA algorithms, are based on simple anti-collision method of TDMA (Time division multiplexing).ALOHA algorithms have many advantages versions like Slotted ALOHA, Framed Slotted ALOHA and Dynamic Framed Slotted ALOHA. They defined the simulation of anti-collision algorithms and their results, in the simulation different parameters of the algorithms are used to examine the performance of the algorithm and several results are presented. And they proposed the advanced DFSA (Depth First Search Algorithm) algorithm which is better than the DFSA and binary tree algorithms. 
Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi, Ivan Visconti, and Christian Wachsmann describes User Privacy in Transport Systems Based on RFID E-Tickets. They analyzed the vitality of current proposals for privacy protection of e-tickets and examine the applicability of privacy improving RFID-based protocols. They introduced the anonymize and issued protocols which provide the authentication and privacy of E- ticketing system. They also discussed suitable security and privacy requirements for e-tickets and point out the shortcomings of existing proposals. Then propose solutions for practical privacy-preserving e-tickets based on cryptographic techniques and RFID technology. 
The problem on toll road RFID tags is Privacy, Anonymity and Individual Liberty. Toll road is a built road for which the user of the road is required to pay a fee or toll. TO solve these problems we use smart sensors which Smart Sensors are used digital wave radar for vehicle detection. Smart Sensor measures the vehicle volume, occupancy, speed and classification. The collected information is NOT used for law enforcement purposes. We use this information to produce the speed map and to produce travel times displayed on the dynamic message signs on the freeways.