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Modernization for our human race to make things much easier has always fascinated mankind to its every extent. The traditional street lighting system in our day to day lives has been manually done which is time consuming and difficult to monitor. We propose a street lighting system based on the wireless communication technologies that are to monitor and control using microcontrollers. The automatic street light control system has the provision to monitor the street lighting system automatically as per the timings programmed in the system and the programs can be modified automatically throughout the year as per the seasonal changes which is already programmed in the system.
Streetlight is a very important part of the of the country's infrastructure, the main function of the street light is to give brightness in our city's streets during the dark hours of the day and night. It ability to function for which it helps to decorate or arrange lightings of the street and even has some powerful an important effects to reduce the daily traffic accidents. So it is very much important for the public and city officials to guarantee street lighting normal on and off. In the beginning, street lighting was switched on in the nights and switched off in the morning by manual labor operation done by people themselves physically, and then the smart controller devices were used to switch street lights on and off automatically based on sunrise and the sunset times at the electric station. Although the smart controller can automatically turn streetlight on and off, in the cases of street light on at daytime and off at night often occur because the smart controller device timings which was operated manually. These increase in the improper street lighting system which always leads to some potential danger for all the street vehicle and human lives on the road. So to find out failure of the street lighting system and reduce the electric energy which is wasted, the electric department will be needed to patrol street by street all night and day which increases a lot of labor work. This increases the maintenance of everything and also the cost of the manual workers plus the wasted energy.so considering all the above reasons and streetlight malfunction anytime, so the streetlight controlled by smart controllers' can't meet with the requirements of streetlight control in a day to day basis.
Now the remote streetlight monitoring and control system is an used idea for street lighting monitoring and operation but it's also an successful idea which we are going to demonstrate. This system consists of a control center, remote terminal unit and many communication devices. The control center is responsible to control and monitor the whole street lighting system and will be responsible for a complete streets of a city. The remote terminal unit is installed at each of the streetlight transformer station and uses to control and monitor each of the remote sites. It is used in the remote streetlight monitoring and control system. An experimental system was built to study the feasibility of streetlight control using wireless sensor network.
The problem that we people are facing in the traditional street lighting system is pretty dangerous and quite a bit critical for all the human lives out there. It increases a lot of labor work plus the wastage of energy consumption, with certain times the chances of the street lights going on and off without any reason or malfunctioning, which can create vehicular accidents or it can dangerous to the pedestrians walking on the roads.it also increases a lot of maintenance work to the places where these street lights may malfunction and to find the malfunctioning of the street light in the whole street or to find where the problem is very difficult
The solution for all the problems of the traditional street lighting system is handled by wireless networks which uses sensors to control and monitor the street lights all over the streets in a city by les labor work or by making it completely automatic
There are certain traditional existing technology which are still used to control a particular lamp and also monitor it through the night this existing technology is called as the (PLC) Power Line Carrier but this PCL technology has certain limitations which it cannot overcome like noise, attenuation, load balance or the bandwidth of the line carrier throughout the day which all together leads to the failure of the communication between the networks this is the only reason wireless techniques were selected and introduced for street lighting and monitoring as well as controlling system.
Wireless networks use sensors for communication which is a recent developed technology in which thousands of scientists and researchers and technologists have given their best in making this technology a success for betterment of our human lives. This developed technology is to be known as the connection between the world of information that is in digitized format and to the real physical world. A sensor in a wireless system takes care of the detection or identification of network communications happening between nodes and grant access for communication between the nodes. These wireless systems consist of different sensor nodes as well as sink nodes that perform transportation of information through network to other user computers or end devices. These nodes make their communications with each other by using wireless mechanisms and an operating (ISM) industrial scientific and medical band. Not all the nodes have the power to send a data so it makes use of a node which uses multiple hop networks to deliver the data as displayed in figure 1.
In a wireless sensor network communication system the nodes are arranged into formed clusters every individual node is identified by one cluster and each and every individual set of cluster has a sink node which depicts itself as a controller local to all the nodes in that cluster and connects a user remotely through the Internet protocol Network.
FIG 1 : A schematic of wireless Network system using sensors
Figure NODE Architecture
The architecture of a node in a wireless sensor network shown above consists of 3 different layers the first comes the Physical layer the second is the medium access protocol (mac) layer and the third layer is the application layer all this layer in the architecture are inter connected with each other and they provide well services of interfaces to each other. The central features of a wireless networks system using sensor nodes are of low cost in nature and can be distributed in large numbers. To make a balance in the economy we need to reach all over markets at low cost so certain aspects of the wireless network using sensors has to be in a standardized to get it in the economy work there are mainly two standards which is published by IEEE first one is the low rate Wireless personal area network 802.15.4 (WPAN) and the second one is the Wireless Smart Transducer Interface 1451.5. So wherever it is it needs to follow this standard in order to design a wireless network which uses sensors for communication. There are thousands of applications which use wireless sensor technology like keyboards mouse etc. in our case an experimental application was designed to control the street lights as well as monitor and trouble shoot the street lighting system problems. The traditional street lighting system has a lot of disadvantages of labor and high cost working for the light department. But in our case using this new technology has a lot of advantages because it reduces a lot of labor work as well as low cost as well as flexibility in control and monitor of streetlights. A recent research done by a corporation Named "Echelon"" using this wireless sensor street lighting system could cut the light energy cost by 20% and also increase and give a lot advantage to road safety  and plus the added advantage of the street lights malfunction can be identified easily and be rectified as soon as possible rather than taking workloads all over and rectifying it.
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This paper presents a particular design of application of street light monitoring system which is completely based on network communication using sensors to communicate through it. This system has the ability to monitor as well as control each and every individual street light available on the streets in a city The main advantage of this system is that it reduces a lot of energy consumption with lesser management of street lights as well as the maintenance and labor cost which altogether increases satisfaction for the people around. This system has a lot of other uses as well it gives more options for communication an d reliability between the nodes for other uses.