Mobile Use And Location Based Services Computer Science Essay

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Today, where everything is going mobile and users are becoming more adaptive to the technology, there is a new area which is being explored by researchers around the globe. It is known as "Location Based Service" also called "Context-Aware Service." Such an application increases people's interactions with the mobile devices. A human-cantered approach will be adopted for the project to achieve better user experience. The synergy of mobile technology such as wireless capabilities, Global Positioning System (GPS) devices, microphone, camera, accelerometers, and ever-increasing device density will lead to people-centric applications. Currently, the researchers are trying to incorporate social networking over the handheld devices. The three important aspects of context-awareness are: where you are, what resources are nearby and who you are with. This project will describe an approach of a building blog service for a context-aware environment. The focus of this mobile application will be to send one message relevant to the context of the location which will be published on multiple websites at the same time. This document provides the realization of such a model framework with system-level service architecture, as well as early implementation of the framework. The report will discuss the architecture, implementation and show how this new approach can be used for applications for tourists, micro-news, micro-alerts, marketing, and social collaboration.




What are location based services?…………………………………….9

About the TECHNOLOGY……………………………………………10


LOCATING METHODS………………………………………………15




How to overcome the cons?..............20






In the era on internet and technology, we find practically everyone uses a mobile phone. The first generation of mobile devices were focused on placing phone calls and provided limited access to data in an offline environment. Mobile phones quickly gained access to wireless data applications, but small displays and difficult data input mechanisms reduced the likelihood of these devices being used for enterprise applications. PDAs such as Pocket PCs and Palm Pilots gained access to wireless networks, but the lack of bandwidth and poor coverage forced many of the applications to work in an offline as well as online environment. These applications were not able to identify their current location, but by enabling users to input their current location and or select from a list of frequently used locations, companies could overcome many of the device and network limitations.

The confluence of several factors are significantly increasing the deployment of mobile applications, which will likely result in the rapid adoption of location-based services. These factors include the emergence of phone and PDA hybrids called smart phones, which have local storage, richer displays and better input mechanisms, faster and enhanced mobile data networks and low-cost positioning devices.

These mobile phones, PDA are of great use due to their mobility. The scientists are adding up high end advanced features in this small device. The day is not far when people are going to be mobile addict, becoming more dependable on the mobile phones. They are going to highlight exciting motivation factors in the development of location based service. Few related products researches and examples which justifies the use of this context-aware computing. There are various ways of taking advantage of positioning technology; it can be used to merely track the users' or objects which are beneficial for the collaborative group. In addition to this a user can save specific location and information related to the location for e.g. Picture and addresses. The application includes many important considerations while designing such as environmental, technology to be used (e.g. Bluetooth, Radio Frequency, Infrared Red, Wireless Internet 802.1x), efficient connectivity, battery life of the device, detailed maps.

 As third generation mobile networks become reality by means of location Based Service (LBS) information, context and services using positional technologies can be provided which is promises new revenue or operators and service providers. A context-sensitive mobile device can be used for applications with information of location, altitude, orientation, temperature, velocity, biometrics etc.

Without an appropriate location-aware mobile application development framework, many basic services will end up being re-implemented in each application, and cooperation between different location-aware applications will be difficult.

Location-based services answer the question of 'where' one is, 'what; is around and 'how' to get there. They determine the location of the user by using one of several technologies for determining position, then use the location and other information to provide personalized applications and services. As an example, consider a wireless 911 emergency service that determines the caller's location automatically. Such a service would be extremely useful, especially to users who are far from home and don't know local landmarks. Traffic advisories, navigation help including maps and directions, and roadside assistance are natural location-based services. Other services can combine present location with information about personal preferences to help users find food, lodging, and entertainment to fit their tastes and pocketbooks.

There are two basic approaches to implementing location-based services:

Process location data in a server and deliver results to the device.

Obtain location data for a device-based application that uses it directly.

Figure: location based service system equipment



In this electronic world there are so many gadgets to carry cell phone, PDA, laptop and GPS, this is an attempt embed all the functionality in a single device with the desired functionality.  The device can be used as cell phone, writing notes keeping track of appointments, checking emails, if you are a regular traveler use it as a GPS. Location awareness service helps you to tag your choice coffee shop, friends in the same area, playing games using the Bluetooth technology. For tourists who love to travel and explore different parts of world, photographers who click the pictures and upload directly on the as an electronic web album. The News agencies can use to track the location of the incidence. The application in the Geographic Information System is beneficial for example to mark the sewage system. Traffic Police officers can use to monitor the position of each other sends important messages and traffic status.


In the new Web 2.0 technology, users want to share information immediately, update status frequently, share their best moments with their friends, capture images, and geo-tag information on the websites. On social networking websites, there are blogs users post messages and posts of individual interest. During the research phase in developing the context-aware mobile application, it was noticed that either the user has to visit particular websites to post messages or install applications for websites like facebook independently on the cell phone to blog. Once the application is launched, the user can post a message or can update his/her status. The innovative approach to this application is to implement a common platform for posting messages on multiple blogs, from the phone during transit, which might be relevant to the location. Mobile blogging is particularly helpful to tourist and travelers when accessibility to a computer or a PC with Internet connection is limited . The traveler can take a picture of anything, send text, and with the help of a GPRS or Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) enabled phone, can easily upload pictures with text description directly to his/her blog . This requires a suitable blogging platform or website with necessary plug-in or a feature capable of receiving such emails and web-posting. A common platform is required that would support websites like Blogger, Facebook, and Flickr to update their status by sending one message which will be reflected on multiple sites or blogs. A client application will be designed to run on the mobile, which communicates to the mobile2blog server, which will have a handling code for the one-to-many behavior for publishing the content. This application has many advantages such as disaster alert, commercial, military, and personal. The algorithms are designed to push and pull the content from the mobile platform to the server and post the message on the blog. During the cycle, the user authentication is done, then the input text is searched in the database for deriving the result by keyword lookup in the CSV database. After the device location is determined, a comparison is done between the current location and the text to get the closest match in the result. The closest match to the keyword and location will be published with the data on the websites. As an example, a message: "the pizza is delicious" gets appended with"@vile parle(west),juhu". The user does not explicitly mention the location, but the precise location is automatically added in context of the message. Evaluations will be conducted based on the user experience for using the blogging application from the human computer interaction point of view.


Research Areas Analysed

During the phase of research for the potential topic for the thesis, there was an exposure to diverse applications applicable for different fields for different environments for different goals. A thorough reading was done in the field of insurance, home automation systems, location based services, and micro-blogging.

A scenario was analyzed from the auto insurance industry. There could be mobile client applications for the insurance adjuster, insurance sales agent and client registered for the insurance company. An instance was studied for the client model, where a user gets into a car accident. The user at that particular moment takes pictures and records a clip by the time police arrive and uploads them to his insurance identification account using his cell phone. This way, the insurance company has the correct data corresponding to the time and location from where the user has uploaded the information. In addition, all the information has been watermarked or tagged with relevant time and location context.

For the adjuster model, in case of a natural disaster, the adjuster has to go to the affected region for a survey to estimate the severity of damage to the property. In this scenario a mobile handheld device would be helpful to capture movies and pictures at the site of a particular client property and upload them to the insurance server in the absence of the communication system. This helps the insurance company to reduce the time for claims settlements for all the clients affected by the incident. This would keep the client happy, resulting in servicing more clients in less number of days and thereby delivering a better quality of service compared to the competitors.

In the home automation field, there is a lot of advancement in managing the home applications when one is on the move or away from home. Research has been carried out for merging mobile devices with home automation systems. This field emerges from an integration of the mobile application platform to the home automation system. The high level architecture is as shown in figure 1.1.1. Efforts are made to make this convergence of technology work in real time using the GPRS network and Wi-Fi on the cell phone [1]. It involves a lot of hardware and software integration of the technology to work and communicate together.

Figure 1.1.1: Architecture for Networked Home Monitoring System [2]

The complete real time home/office system at the architecture level is shown in figure

1.1.2. The system is divided in to three major parts,

Command flow from Mobile-to-PC via GPRS network

Command flow from PC to hardwired digital circuitry via PC-parallel port

Interface of home/office appliances with hardwired digital circuitry via device controller[1]

Figure 1.1.2 The Control Flow Diagram [1]

Figures 1.1.3 and 1.1.4 show the generic sequence diagram of the case where the mobile controller generates the request for status of the appliances at home/office. Figure 1.1.2 shows the generic sequence diagram of the case where a mobile controller change the status of a device [1]. This case shows a request generated from a mobile controller to update the status table at the Home/Office PC [1]. In this application, there are hardware limitations, making a prototype difficult to design and implement. The base station hardware decoder box, which is the central point of connectivity between the cell phone and all the home appliances, was expensive and also required to be connection to the main circuit breaker at the home.

Figure 1.1.3 Sequence Flow for getting status of devices [1]

Figure 1.1.4 Sequence Flow for updating status of device [1]


Architecture and Design Considerations

Figure 1 : block diagram

Figure gives a rough description of the end goal of the simulated prototype of the project on the basis of which the actual prototype was developed. The client-server architecture is shown in figure 1. The micro-blog data will be pushed from the cell phone to the micro-blog server which will maintain the blogs. This will be then sent to the web blog through internet. A localization API with GSM cell triangulation will be consulted to get the approximate precise location of the user. This approach of using the location API and excluding the use of GPS was one of the design considerations. Using this approach this application can work on many mobile platforms, such as Symbian and Windows Mobile, without the use of GPS sensor chips embedded in the cell phone. This indirectly addresses the problem of low battery life, preserving power for other applications which use GPS. The message in the text format is saved by the client application, appended with the location, and transported to the backend mobile2blog server application. The server application will first authenticate the credentials of the user and then connect to the main blog service provider account. Here the message, along with the location, is pushed from the backend mobile2blog server to the website hosting the blog. The application first stores the location of the mobile and the message text. There are two levels of precise location prediction algorithm are performed. The first search is based on the keyword and the second search is based on the closest location. Both used to predict the accurate location of the user.

Once published, the application also has the capability to delete the most recent message in case of a wrong submission. In this case we use the pull technology where the posted content is deleted from the blog completely by not keeping any imprints of the post. The beauty is while deleting, the user does not have to go to each blog website where the message is posted. Instead, the application can pull the content in a couple of steps to delete the comments from multiple websites. Multiple websites refers to testing on more than two websites on which the message is published. For example, multiple blogs of football season which fans follow on regular basis, a blog among office co-workers, one among school classmates, and one among club friends are common interest blogs but are among different groups, so by using this application, users can actually send one message which will be published on all the blogs assuming they use the same user credentials and have the privilege to comment on posts on the respective blogs.

The content distribution over the physical space is achieved by the mobile2blog server which authenticates the user credentials. This server has the capability to "push" the content with the location-specific details from the phone to the blogs. The push operation is triggered after the authentication of the username and password is verified. This way, secured authentication is used to safeguard identity theft scams or spam attacks, as user identification has to pass through the SSL tunnel. The content is only posted on the blog where the user is authorized as author and/or allowed to comment on the posts.


Control Plane Locating:-

Sometimes referred to as positioning, the service provider gets the location based on the radio signal delay of the closest phone towers which can be quite slow as it makes use of the 'voice control channel. Sometimes LBS services use a single base station, with an inaccurate radius to determine a phone's location [4]. New phones and PDAs typically have an integrated A-GPS chip.

For a successful LBS technology the following conditions must be satisfied:

Coordinates accuracy requirements which are determined by the relevant service

Lowest cost possible

Minimal impact on network and equipment(s)

Several categories of methods can be used to find the location of the subscriber, the standard solution is GPS-based LBS. Sony Ericsson's "Near Me" is one such example, used to give the exact location. However it can be expensive for as the user would have to invest in a GPS-equipped handset which is based on the concept of trilateration, a basic geometric principle that allows finding one location if one knows its distance from other, already known locations.

GSM Localization:-

GSM localization is another option. Finding the location of a mobile device in relation to its cell site helps to find out the location of an object or a person. It relies on various means of multilateration of the signal from cell sites serving a mobile phone. Various techniques like time difference of arrival (TDOA) or Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD) give the geographical position of the device. [4]

Other methods:-

Local-range technologies such as Bluetooth, WLAN, infrared and/or RFID/Near Field Communication technologies are used to match devices to nearby services. This application allows a person to access information based on their surroundings suitable for using inside closed premises, restricted/ regional areas.

Another method is an operator- and GPS-independent location service based on access into the deep level telecoms network (SS7), which enables accurate and quick determination of geographical coordinates of mobile phone numbers by providing operator-independent location data and works also for handsets that are not GPS-enabled.

Many other Local Positioning Systems are available, mainly for indoor use. GPS and GSM don't work very well indoors, so other techniques are used, including Bluetooth, UWB, RFID and Wi-Fi.

Tower reports

When an accurate GPS location is absent, service providers may record the location of the nearest tower. Checking needs to be done if the LBS is used to determine tower locations are used to determine cell phone locations.



Advantages for mobile users:

1. Using LBS we can increase the diversity of applications

2. Information quality is improved

3. Information is accurate, real time

3.1. Most detailed and dynamic routing information and directions

4. Service speed is increased

5. We can get information on our demand

6. We can increase the product value

7. LBS services are not so expensive

8. It enhanced the personalized custom services

9. The efficiency is maximized

10. LBS improves the social life of mankind, and improves the standard of living

11. LBS is user friendly and it provides the real time information

12. LBS applications are most reliable and very fun to use

Advantages for networks:

LBS services are highly accurate and high-quality services, those enables us to recoup your 3G infrastructure investment faster

Helps in enabling 2.5G and 3G services

LBS help in developing value added services

It will increase customer loyalty & retention of them

It will generate the faster returns on investments

LBS is related to all the mobile data devices all around the world

LBS will attract the youth market in all over the world

Gained greater revenue through extra SMS & MMS

LBS will reach a broader audience

Advantages for developers and systems partners :

LBS gives extremely flexible information and is sufficiently malleable

Description: :data-on-phone.jpg

Figure shows LSB application


GPS cell phone tracking is a very powerful system or tool. But still it has some disadvantages & many limitations.

Privacy issues:

The communication system is changed very drastically. Now cell phones have changed its complete look. Cell phones are used to remain keep in touch with our closed ones no matter what time is it. Now the GPS system is added to the cell phone technology, now we have the ability to locate people. It seems like a extremely cool idea but it can destroys the privacy issue of some people. There is also the concern about identity theft. There are no governmental laws about tracing people hence the criminal activity is also possible.

Financial cost :

As we already know , the price tag of cell phones are quite in big range , but still the good quality phones with good brand like IPHONE or BLACKBERRY are with higher prize tag. In addition to this the phones with GPS systems are having quite high prize tag. But still it is a standard function in new coming cell phones.

Other disadvantages of mobile phone tracking :

GPS enabled phones cannot be tracked when the cell phone is switched off

We can disabled the GPS tracking system with the feature call "hide" after that the phone cannot be tracked

The reception problems also affect the tracking of phones using GPS; Signals can be lost in elevators or in forests


Efficient localization accuracy

Issue: Designing a location based application without use of GPS was a challenge. The objective of the application was to append the content with precise location information. GPS phones are expensive and users have complained about low battery life. It is true that the new iPhone and Nokia N95, with inbuilt GPS, batteries drain quickly compared to the phones without GPS. The idea of designing a location based application without the use of GPS emerged during the designing phase of LandMark based application phones with built in GPS are very expensive. A wide range of mobile phones have Java J2ME JSR 179 API, support which can be used as a base to build the application

We can overcome the issue by Alternate localization scheme used with the location API's being compatible for different mobile operating system platforms. The application was developed considering the Symbian OS the most stable with support for location API. The new Android also explored and developed the application. It had excellent integration API with Google Gears using cell triangulation to get the location. But moreover, there is only one phone on the market to test the application on the phone. After a little testing and research, it was found that there are many bugs, and it is not stable. SUN J2ME JSR 179 [24] was one of the best stable APIs to be used.


Issue: Appending the location with the content of the post discloses the whereabouts of the bloggers, thus presenting a challenge with respect to location privacy.

This can be overcome in this way : It is assumed that the user is allowing the application to cache the location automatically, it is appended to the content of the message in the prototype, and that location detection method is assumed to be accurate. The application gives the precise location of the user. We are also assuming location API to be as accurate as GPS and that the name of the place, address, city, and state get appended to the content.

Privacy matters have gained attention with the onset of intelligent location based services. On the positive side, location detection would be useful in terrorist attacks and natural disasters to locate users or criminals. Commercially it is easy to use and provides instant and personalized information. The location information is more accurate in the suburban areas compared to the rural areas. Suburban areas have more cell towers compared to rural areas. This enables the phone application to identify more precisely the location of the user from triangulation, whereas the accuracy drops considerably in remote areas because the distance between cell towers increases Applications or services like paying by phone while grocery shopping, paying for parking, and paying for parking, and, if security is maintained, even phone banking would be possible.


Issue: There are spam scripts which post unwanted, unauthorized content over blogs if the blogs are open for anonymous feed and don't use authorization codes.

This has an approach of login credential authentication with the website hosting the blogs. As the provider uses secured tunneling, it is guaranteed that only authorized and approved members of the blog are able to post the comment. Therefore, not everyone is able to post or delete messages. If, during the post, username and passwords are incorrect, the application will not post the message and will return warning message, "Username and password incorrect. Please check your credentials".

Content Accuracy

Issue: Keeping the consistency in publishing the content as it is being sent by the user from the mobile device.

The initial approach was to store the content in the database. The server read the data from the database and published the content on the blog. During the design phase, some inconsistency and complexities while storing the data and retrieving the data from the database. Over a period of time, the data could just keep growing. As storage is expensive, this approach was not feasible or scalable. Therefore, the content coming from the mobile device was cached. With successful authentication, the content passed directly from the phone client code to the server code and pushed to the blog. There is no storage required. Therefore, the length of the message is irrelevant. Furthermore, it also does not require information management system. The blog hosting provider manages the content.



Imagine Jim is on the beach in Florida. He wants to share his experience about finding a parking space at the Italian restaurant where he had lunch and at other interesting facilities near the beach. He starts the application, types the text and presses "add a post." If the internet user doesn't know what beach he is talking about, Jim's location is posted with comments. Furthermore, the user can recall Jim's post after a couple of months, when the user plans on visiting the same location. He can use the reference of the location and plan his trip to visit the same beach which Jim visited couple of months earlier.


Blogs have been always looked upon as one-2-many from the perspective of one individual posting the messages to the readers of the blog. For instance, imagine a reporter has to post a message immediately and has more than two blogs to post on. It would be tedious to go to each one separately and post the comment. In this example, the concept of one-2-many posts is helpful. The news reporter can send one message post and within the matter of minutes, it will publish on all the blogs that reporter is authorized to post. For example, Larry King and Anderson Cooper of CNN have their own CNN blog, but they might have their personal blogs, as well as actively writing for some group blogs, so they can use these kinds of applications. This could also be helpful in an emergency situation such as accidents, or natural disasters. [5]

Social Collaboration:

This could be a good tool for those who have interest in technology and sports event. Another application would be carpooling. The user can associate two or three carpooling blog sites to his account, and post a message while away but well in advance to share a ride to particular destination. Recent research in the mobile computing industry has shown that rural villagers have high financial and logistics issues around the world, particularly in Africa. This application can be used in many ways to bridge the gap between villagers and the b-world. The application also has values as educational purposes, where teachers can share notes with their students. The application can also be enhanced to view the update on the blog or pull the updated content from the blog.

Wireless Emergency Services

Earlier the caller, during an emergency, had to describe an exact location so that the agency could transfer the call to the correct local emergency services required. This was a regular problem, as with the voice call the exact location of the cellular phone isn't normally transmitted, and with the exponential growth of cellphones, such calls were frequent occurrences. Wireless Emergency Services (WES) refers to the use of mobile positioning technology to pinpoint mobile users for purposes of providing enhanced wireless emergency dispatch services (including fire, ambulance, and police) to mobile phone users requiring help.

Technology for Wireless Emergency Services - In order to implement WES in the US, mobile operators need the following:


Wireless 911 application

Location manager middle-ware application

Coordination with PSAPs regarding locations/routing to emergency service jurisdictions

9-1-1 (phonetically expressed as "nine-one-one") is the emergency telephone number for the North American Numbering Plan (NANP).

Wireless enhanced 911 (E911) services - an illustration

Special privacy legislation permits emergency operators to obtain a 9-1-1 caller's telephone number and location information in all North American jurisdictions. This information is collected by mapping the phone number to an address in a database. This database function is known as Automatic Location Identification (ALI). The local telephone company generally maintains the database, under a contract with PSAP.

Newer technologies have made it easy to locate a person using a cellular phone to make a 911 emergency call. This is particularly important in emergency conditions where the caller is not able to speak or cannot identify his or her exact location.

How do wireless 911 services work?

Wireless service providers link all the 911 emergency calls from the nearest cellphone tower to one of the networks operated by landline telecommunications companies. All these companies are responsible for connecting the calls to a 911 call centre that gives a specific geographic area and then the operators dispatch police, fire or ambulance for help. [1]

The new enhanced features make use of the wireless-location technologies to improve the ability of emergency responders to locate the position of a person using a cellphone to call 911 service. Wireless service providers make use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) or triangulation technology and then they automatically transmit the caller's location to call centre operator. This allows emergency responders to determine a caller's location generally within the radius of 10 to 300 metres from the mobile phone. [2]



Tracking a cell phone can help recover a lost or stolen device. It can also help the user find his location when traveling or keep track of a family member or loved one. A phone owner can track a cellular phone using a global positioning satellite, or GPS, chip. The chips are already installed in many newer phones and can be bought and installed in older phones.

Mobile phone tracking tracks the current position of a mobile phone even on the move. To locate the phone, it must emit at least the roaming signal to contact the next nearby antenna tower, but the process does not require an active call. GSM localisation is then done by multilateration based on the signal strength to nearby antenna masts. [7]

Mobile positioning, which includes location based service that discloses the actual coordinates of a mobile phone bearer, is a technology used by telecommunication companies to approximate where a mobile phone, and thereby also its user (bearer), temporarily resides. The more properly applied term locating refers to the purpose rather than a positioning process. Such service is offered as an option of the class of location-based services (LBS).

Until recently, tracking with Global Positioning System technology required the purchasing of expensive software and hardware. Now, cellular service providers do the needful of helping us keep up with the whereabouts of our family, friends. However, for this we need the right kind of mobile phone which should be connected to the right kind of network having the right service.

GPS-enabled mobile Phones:

A variety of GPS-enabled phones (Motorola, blackberry) and tracking services are available now a days. [7]

Wireless Networks

A mobile phone may have GPS and know exactly where it is, but it cannot tell anyone else where a person is, until he/she is connected to a wireless network. Networks used for GPS tracking are primarily those operated by cell phone carriers. It is more likely that one will select a cell phone provisioned to communicate in a certain way on a specific wireless network. LBS providers have agreements with wireless network carriers to receive information from a mobile phone and make it accessible to users via a web site or call center. [6] Most all LBS providers can tell the last known location approximately, but beyond that, services offered will often differ depending on the type of mobile phone and the capability of the service provider.

Important notices:-

Permissions and Privacy

Simply tracking someone without their knowledge can get one in trouble. The subscriber must give permission and the mobile phone must be enabled for tracking.

Tracking Application "Persistence"

The tracking application on a mobile phone must be changed to enable by its user. Depending on the equipment, the application may remain - i.e. enable when the phone is turned on after having been turned off. The feature is handy if one doesn't want to instruct the person using the cell phone how to turn tracking off and on.

Passive Tracking

Some tracking devices record location of data internally so that it can be downloaded later on. This is also known as data logging, which provides location of data when the device travels outside the wireless network. Passive tracking is not a common in built feature in phones but more better java-enabled phones, PDAs, and other devices have this feature.

Assisted GPS (AGPS)

Some mobile phones can receive information on the GPS satellites, which increases the speed of fixing of the initial position. AGPS information also helps in finding the satellites and getting the positions in conditions which are difficult. To have AGPS features, services must be set to provide the AGPS information to the mobile phone and the mobile phone must be able to process the AGPS information.


Geo-Fencing is used to describe a feature that enables mobiles to start tracking when it has entered or exited a predefined region, avoiding tracking which is not required when people are close to their homes or offices. Geo-Fencing may also mean that an alert is sent when their phones cross a virtural fence. [7]

Speed Alerts

Some LBS providers provide email or SMS message alerts when specified speed limits are exceeded.

Tracking Map Quality

Mostly location services don't produce their own maps. Instead they purchase or license the mapping products from other companies. Several services use Mapquest maps. Indeed, Mapquest can produce a map for only about anywhere in the world, but your service provider's license may be limited to United States. Microsoft MapPoint and Tiger map data are also popular for applications in the United States. If choosing between LBS providers, compare what the maps will look like.

Usage Costs

The cost for people trackers GPS, include device costs setup and activation fees, and also network access subscriptions. Also, the location service may charge for each location report or allot few reports and charge on it a premium for over use depending on the plan.

Mobile to Mobile Tracking

Some tracking solutions enable one to access tracking maps on a cellular device.

Service Position


Time Accuracy

Frequency of Access

Driving Conditions Monitoring

100 meters



Road Hazard Detection

10 meters

> days


Road Map

100 meters



Table 1: Approximate accuracy requirements of telematics services [8]


One of the key challenges identified was the technological advancement required in the cell triangulation to give the precise location if the user is indoors. The messages are LandMark geo-tagged, but the location accuracy is highly dependent on the matches between the message content and the location. On the other hand, accurate indoor location cannot be obtained even with a GPS chip since it does not work without satellites. Not many mobile phones have integrated GPS, and those that do consume a lot of battery life and have privacy concerns. It was considered that an application independent of GPS which could achieve location detection would be beneficial.

The application was evaluated by building and deploying a prototype implementation on the emulator. The prototype was simulated due to the limitation of the less accurate cell localization method outdoors as well as indoors. Preliminary experience of the users was highly appreciated, positive, and promising. Some concerns such as privacy, indoor location detection, and user psychology, are open issues. I believe that context-aware mobile blogging represents a promising model for the mobile collaboration in social networking, emergency situations, and the expression of personal feelings in the form of status updates.


Applications could be associated with social networking websites for real-time status update or post user experience on Facebook, Flickr, and Twitter. It can further be useful for data mining. For example, predictive analysis based on location specific, most frequent landmarks visited, and commercial marketing aspects. Designing intelligent databases with detailed information details id required. For example, which movie is being played at camera 12, at what time could be identified and appended to the messages; this could also lead to landmark based directions, landmark based advertising, and landmark based tourist assistance. This data could be used for research to understand the user usage patterns, data mining for further enhancement of location based applications, human behavioural study, and predicting the future functionalities in mobile space. A new way of providing directions in combination with landmark based points of interest (POI) and street names is the new area of research. Furthermore, this application could be enhanced by adding the geotagged location on the map with additional details. This map location is displayed next to the message on the blog in a small square box with a pointer, also known as geoblogging [5]. For example, a ball game is played at the San Francisco stadium. People going to watch the game can use this application to post their experience of the match on the official game blogs, personal blogs, and school blogs. This data could also be directly represented on a graphical map when someone sends a comment, or used for data mining for predictive analysis. The application is used in a collaborative mode to alert others of an unexpected condition which may exist. For instance, if a stadium parking lot is full, the user can alert other user friends to divert them to another parking lot.

Location based mobile application will be an important subsystem when location detection accuracy increases. The launch of Access Point Base Station, a small cellular base station is meant for residential and small business environments which incorporate the functionalities of a base station. This might assist in attracting more location based services for the operators and developers at a greatly reduced cost. Landmark based application can achieve real-time monitoring operations and precise positioning. The novelties of landmark based application include low price, data-driven operation, GSM network location detection, and the demand for expansibility. It can be expected that improvements in position precision and regulations would further propel the supply and demand for indoor and outdoor location based services without the use of GPS.