Mobile Telephony Wide Area Coverage Computer Science Essay

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The design of the first products that look like today's mobile phone started with Motorola and their innovative work with the launch of the walkie-talkie, which is used in 2nd world war by the American military. In December 1947 DH Ring and WR Young issued a Bell Laboratories' article entitled "Mobile Telephony - Wide Area Coverage". In this article they discussed the concept of a cellular network in which the country could be divided up into small counties.

In 1983 the UK Government declared the establishment of two licences for mobile phone operations. One is British Telecom and Securicor and became known as Cell net. The other was given to a joint venture between Racal Electronics and Millicom and this became Vodafone (Voice and Data over the telephone).

These early systems used analogue technology operating at 800MHz and based on the American Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) or the Motorola derivative, Total Access Communication System (TACS). This latter version was known as ETACS in Europe and JTACS in Japan. Each call was assigned a separate frequency which had major suggestions on bandwidth allocation.Some early examples of these first generation analogue mobiles were the Motorola 4500X and Panasonic EBJ-1114.

In the mid of 1990s the Internet, thanks to the manufacture of the World-Wide-Web, which was starting to become a serious mass market communications medium and information resource. This powered a drive towards further levels of data and voice amalgamation and that isended in the launch of the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) in 2001. The GPRS is a packet-switched technology which allowed multiple users to share the same bandwidth, transmitting only when they have data to send. It created the next generation of mobile network which became known as 2.5G. A procedure such as the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is permitted on mobiles and by this different websites to be viewed on mobiles.

Literature Survey on Mobile Telephones:

Pew Internet & American Life Project show that those ages from 12-17 had cell phone ownership and they left behind their adults in the ownership of mobile phone .The Project first survey is began from teenagers about their mobile phones in its 2004.This survey showed that 45% of teens had a cell phone and from since that time, mobile phone use has go upgradually among teens ages 12 to 17 to 63% in fall of 2006 to 71% in early 2008.

In contrast of these teenagers, 77% of all adults and 88% of parents had a cell phone or other mobile device at a similar point in 2008. From the survey report of April 2009 Cell phone ownership among adults has risen to 85%. The Project is currently conducting a survey of teens and their parents and will be releasing the new figures in early 2010.

Four different teen data sets were used to produce this report, along with data from four adult-only tracking surveys. Unless otherwise specified, the data in this report comes from the Teens, Gaming and Civics survey, fielded between November 2007 and February 2008. The Parent and Teen Survey on Gaming and Civic Engagement, sponsored by the Pew Internet and American Life Project and supported by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, obtained telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 1102 12- to 17-year-olds and their parents in continental U.S. telephone households. The survey was conducted by Princeton Survey Research International. Interviews were done in English by Princeton Data Source, LLC, from November 1, 2007, to February 5, 2008. Statistical results are weighted to correct known demographic discrepancies. The margin of sampling error for the complete set of weighted data is ±3.2. so we analyse from this survey that mobile phone increases its popularity from time to time and gradually increase the usage of mobile in all sector of ages. It is not only used by adults but it is also used by teenagers according to this literature survey. Mobile phone is a basic requirement of everybody in today's life because we easily communicate with people at any time. So mobile telephone is one of the big inventions of ancient time according to this survey.

Why one needs this device?

We need this device to save our precious time and to make our life easier. Mobile phones have become very common that every person owned a handset. People now started understanding the value, easiness and comforts of having a handset. Mobile phones are very important invention and a very easy way to communicate with the people. By the end of 2010 the surveys shows that more than half of the world use this device for their daily use. We use this device because in this modern era most of the dealings are take place on mobile phones. It is one of the biggest technology of science by which we easily communicate with the people all over the world. The main goal of any successful business is to keep in touch and communicating with their clients and customers and by the help of this device we make it easy. On the other hand mobile phone have many usage like it helps in emergencies, keep in touch with friends and family at any time. Now a day's mobile gives comfort and safety. Safety is mentioned as if we need help in emergencies at any time we just make a call.

Today's handsets are not only intended for communication but they are providing various other services which are essential in everybody's life like internet facility, gaming and music for amusement purpose, talking via text messages etc. These astonishing features have made life so easy that no one can even think to live without a mobile phone. Everyone look for latest technology mobile phones, latest features and smart looks. To achieve these requirementsproducers continuously producing handsets of customer's demand. No one can considerto live without a mobile phone. These have become our life's essential.

As we noticed that the speed of life has changed day by day, competition is increasing and everyone is in a race. In this time the mobile phone manage your number of tasks. So everyone needs mobile phone for their daily use and it is just a successful and prosperous invention.

How these devices work?

Mobile phones work using "cells". Each cell has a base station at its centre. The base station directs and takes calls from your phone. Your phone communicates with the base station using radio waves.

As your phone moves from cell to cell, your calls are transmitted from the nearest base station.

Mobile telephones are two-way radios. When you talk into a mobile telephone, it picks up your voice and converts the sound to radiofrequency energy. The radio waves travel through the air until they reach a receiver at a nearby base station. The base station then sends your call through the telephone network until it reaches the person you are calling.

When you receive a call on your mobile phone, the message travels through the telephone network until it reaches a base station close to your phone. The base station then sends out radio waves that are detected by a receiver in your telephone, where the signals are changed back into voice or data.Base stations are designed for a number of different purposes, such as to provide coverage to a wide area or to increase capacity in a heavily congested area. Base stations are divided into three "cell" categories.

Macro cells.

They are the main structure for mobile phone networks and work up to a theoretical 22-mile range. In reality, they usually cover a much smaller area, possibly as little as a mile or two, because the signal strength is reduced by buildings, trees and features of the landscape.


They are used to improve the capacity of the main network, especially in areas where the volume of calls is high, such as in airports and shopping centres. They emit less power than the macrocells and have a range of only a few hundred metres.

Pico cells.

They are situated in buildings and give dedicated coverage and capacity to a very small area such as a particular floor in a building.

Mobile phones get power from batteries, which can be recharged from mains power. Nickel metal-hydride batteries or lithium ion batteries are used for mobile phones. Many mobile phones have recently shifted to using lithium-polymer batteries as they are light in weight and offer flexibility in their shapes. Under the mobile phone battery places a small microchip known as the Subscriber Identification Module, which all of us know as the SIM card. This small chip stores the mobile phone's configuration details and the information about the phone.

When a mobile phone is turned on, it lists with the change that can alert the mobile phone of incoming calls. The mobile device attends to the signals being sent by the immediate base stations and changes smoothly between sites. A device can switch between networks without disturbing an on-going call by transporting a call from one station to another. This process is known as a handoff. 

Types of devices available in market:

The demand of mobile phone isincrease so much so that people choose mobile phones to landlines. There are different types of mobile phones available in the market. Different phones function on different systems and each has its own positive and negative side.

Analogue Phones:

Analogue is the unique type of cell phone. Analoguemobiles are less luxurious and are offered as a free encouragement to sign up for facility. They are common worldwide and can be used in 95 percent countries. Nevertheless with the obtainability of digital phones, analogue phones are losing its importance. One of the major problems of analogue phones is that the sound quality is not loudest and the minute rate tends to be much higher than the substitutes.

Digital Phones

Digital phones are fairly better than analogue phones in relations of quality service, customer safety and capability to support next generation services. Digital offers aimproved quality of sound as compared to analogue phones. They offersuperior network of signals and have much cheaper caller rates. Unlike analogue, digital phones work by sample pieces of wave and sending it in the form of data. One of the biggest disadvantages of digital phones is that it creates problems if you are going to use it in some other country. As far as analogue phones are worried it will be a safe and better product for traveling cross-country.

PCS Phones

PCS is unknown but personal communication service. PCS phones are by and large very similar to digital phones. Personal Communication Service (PCS) operates at a speed of 1850 MHz They are new participants in the market and have furnished the structures of digital technology in its place of analogue. Professionals have forecastlowest of 23 million users of PCS by the end of the era.