Mobile Devices And Classification Of Mobile Applications Computer Science Essay

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Mobile devices and mobile phones are becoming important and vital tools for todays life style. These devices which are small and inexpensive are not used only for voice calls; they are used also for text messages and Personal Information Management (PIM) like calendar, phonebook, notebook and etc. Also they can be used to do many functions such as sending and receiving electronic mails, browsing the web, storing different documents and accessing data remotely. Mobile devices can also be specialized with a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, removable card slots, infrared, Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Bluetooth and different kinds of cellular interfaces [25].

Today mobility is considered as a critical part of a networking strategy for companies which want to improve their productivity and be a strong competitive in the rapidly changing environments. For this purpose, IT must deal with supporting different kinds of devices such as laptops, smart phones and other kinds of mobile devices. Different challenges for IT, will increase it's productivity while at the same time will decrease many kinds of risks.

The mobile devices and their memory cards may hold sensitive and secret information such as information about financial statements, product announcement and customer records [1]. Today with coming up some mobile services like mobile banking and mobile payment, many attacks and threats have come out. Therefore it's very important and necessary to add security to such services.

Security can be achieved by attack analysis and identification of different vulnerabilities for mobile devices. Also when an appropriate design is chosen, it will effectively prevent the hardness of updating the applications [2]. Some of the targets of this project that have summarized in this chapter, are to point out some categories of mobile applications, specify vulnerabilities in the mobile device and the network that it's working in order to draw back some guidelines for secured mobile applications design, define security features available in mobile applications and address some security techniques which are linked to mobile environment.

Classification of Mobile Applications

Mobile Applications are software programs inside mobile devices or even over any wireless connection within a mobile. There are many applications regarding to mobility; this section only will focus on four classes of applications: Messaging, Web applications, Thick client-server applications and Synchronization [3].

Messaging

The messaging service includes text and multimedia messages. Short Message Service (SMS) is one of the most used services in mobile communications. It is mainly used for person-to-person communications and some mobile services like SMS banking.

SMS is a text messaging service which exists on the GSM network. From sender of the message to the destination, the text message travels among different network nodes. The main components in this network messaging architecture are: the mobile station which is consists of SIM card and the mobile equipment, the base station subsystem which includes a set of Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) and it is responsible for Over-The-Air transmission, the Short Message Service Center (SMSC) component which stores and passes messages, and the last component is the interface with other networks and services such as fixed telephony and Internet.

Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) supports the ability of receiving and processing various kinds of multimedia messages; for example messages which are using formats like JPEG, GIF, MP3, MPEG-4 and etc, are of this type. Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) can be used to create animated sequences.

The MMS exists over the General Packet Radio System (GPRS) network. When a user sends an MMS or an E-mail over the network, the MMS Relay Server (R/S) converts the MMS message to an email or other types of MMS format. This conversion depends on the provider. The message is sent to the SMTP server or the destination MMS R/S. After that, the MMS R/S sends a notification message in the format of an SMS message or WAP push, depending on the destination settings. Downloading the message can be done manually by the user or automatically according to what specified in the configuration of the device [2].

Web Applications (Thin Client-Server Applications)

Thin client applications are web based applications. WAP 1.x and WAP 2.0 are two generations of mobile browsing protocol. WAP 1.0 and WAP 1.2 were WAP forum consortium initiatives. The WAP 2.0 is the best practice which is based on xHTML and xHTML Mobile Profile languages that are W3C standards and are more popular to IT developers [2].

A WAP system consists of a WAP server, a WAP gateway and a WAP device. The interaction between the end user and the server is done through a set of Wireless Markup Language (WML) documents. Technologies which are used with WAP architecture exist on both client side and server side. The technologies that are used for the server side are Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server, Content Management System (e.g. Database Management System) and etc. On the client side, the browser can display Wireless Markup Language (WML) pages. WMLc file is a compiled version of a WML file. Like any other client side technology, WML has a scripting language which is called WML Script [4].

Thick Client -Server Applications

J2ME and .Net Compact Framework are two platforms which are used for mobile devices. At the last years, a new platform for mobiles has been introduced by Google which is called Android. J2ME is a wildly used platform which is used in mobile phones like Nokia, Sony Ericson, Siemens and Samsung. J2ME is based on configurations and identifications that are based on processor power and device memory [3].

A configuration specifies the supported Java language and also the Application Programming Interfaces (API). There are two configurations for J2ME. They are Connected Device Configuration (CDC) and Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC).The CLDC is used for less powerful devices like mobile phones and PDAs [2].

Synchronization

Synchronization means transferring of data from a computer to a device or vise versa that aims to keep the two components in a coherent state. The data synchronization software runs over some communication protocols like IrDA and Bluetooth; Bluetooth is used for high rate and remote distance connections [2].

Mobile Applications store data in a local database. The users insert, update and delete the records of data. In synchronization, the data is sent to a central synchronization server or groups of servers. The server manages the data traffic which comes from many mobile devices. For more efficiency during the synchronization, only the changes on the data is sent to the server instead of transferring whole database ; because sending entire data results in inefficient and slow performance. At the end, when the process of synchronization completes, the objective is to have same data on both the local database and the central data store [5].

The huge increment in number of mobile devices and lack of common synchronization protocols have created a problem which is known as "Islands" of data with conflicting communication ways. With increment of data stored on mobile devices, a synchronization language is needed. One of the synchronization protocols is SyncML which is based on XML technology. It supports some transport protocols such as WSP/WAP, HTTP and OBEX. SyncML platform is a client-server architecture that contains many use cases, ranging from backup and restoring the data to an automatic configuration of the device [4].

Security Vulnerabilities and Attacks in Mobile Applications

When we compare the capabilities of mobile devices like mobile phones, PDAs and other similar devices with the capabilities of non-mobile platforms like desktop computers, we consider that mobile devices have very limited resources such as restrictions in their size, memory, power consumption and a limited network coverage and low bandwidth [3]. Existence of theses constraints on mobile devices causes that the developers and designers of mobile devices ignore the implementing of security features in those devices, which results that many attacks and vulnerabilities happen to such devices. So it's very important to measure and analyze these attacks seriously. This analysis of attacks has to be implemented in early stages of every development of services.

There are different attacks and threats to mobile applications: Threats to mobile network, Threats to mobile devices, Threats due to digital convergence, Threats to authentication and identification, Threats to payment devices and etc. This section will focus on both, threats to mobile networks and mobile devices.

Threats and Attacks to Mobile Networks

According to what mentioned in [7], the threat that could be happened mostly to a mobile network is eavesdropping on phone calls and data traffic. Eavesdropping is the act of listening to a private conversation without taking the permission from the two parties [6]. To face this problem, we can use encryption for the sent information. When data is encrypted, the risk of this threat is reduced. Of course the occurrence of this threat depends on how strong is the encryption algorithm; when you are using stronger algorithm, so less probability exists that the threat of eavesdropping happens.

In GSM systems there is a possibility for eavesdropping, because some subscribers and users have old SIM cards which a stronger A5 encryption algorithm can not help. A more dangerous threat than what mentioned above is changing the mobile traffic, so that the intruder replacing the data or speech with its own information.

One of the serious attacks on network traffics or on a mobile device is Denial of Service (DOS). The most potential DOS that could happen to a network can be power failures and destroying which are done on a network device.

The user of mobile device should trust the network operator where his or her device operated. However, it can not be assumed that all operators are trustworthy. The user is vulnerable in case of forged base stations [7]. The following is some samples of attacks related to mobile networks.

Bluetooth Attacks

One popular attack is BlueSnarf; it gives to an attacker the power to connect to an OBEX push profile [26] which is used for easy exchange of business cards and other things. In most of cases, authentication is not required for this service. Once connected to the target, the attacker sends an OBEX GET request to all known file names. For example to files such as telecom/pb.vcf which is used for the phone book of the devices or telecom/cal.vcs for the calendar files. In some cases, the attacker can retrieve all the files which are either known or guessed correctly [2].

2.1.2 GSM Network Attack

In a GSM network, mobile phones have to make an encrypted connection to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS). Devices are using A5 algorithm to encrypt the communications with the BTS .There are three versions of A5 algorithm. The A5/1 is the strongest one. An attacker can make calls and sends messages when the A5 algorithm is cracked and when he found the cipher key [2].

2.1.3 Localization Threats

Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are becoming popular systems which are used by people either for personal use or for commercial movement reporting. Nowadays many mobile devices are equipped with these systems. One of GPS devices which is used for personal navigation is called TomTom. According to what mentioned in the TomTom website, the GO 910 model was infected by a malware in the year 2006. Such malware inside the device with GPS capabilities allows the hacker to disclose all the movements of the person who is under attack and some times this can lead to a terrorist attack [2].

2.1.4 The WAP/GAP

Gateway is a network point which is placed between two different networks. Its function is to convert the data from one format to another format to be used in the other network in which is connected to. To make sure that all of the communications are safe between a device and a server in a network, encryption is used. As we said, Inside the gateway data is converted from one format to another. In time of conversion, the data is in its clear format and any attack can happen in this time. This is known as "WAP GAP" [2].

Threats and Attacks to Mobile Devices

Different types of threats exist on mobile devices. According to [7], the main threat could be stealing and tampering with the device. This threat happens to the mobile devices may be because they are small in size and portable. Today mobile devices are used for doing business which put the information security in a range of various risks.

Users of mobile devices, face many problems with compromised SMS and MMS messages, spam, WAP and Internet pages and also with malwares that are distributing very fast. The Java software which is used in mobile phones will help spreading of viruses and malwares because of using a general purpose programming language. Some threats will be from the Internet such as Trojan horses, spyware and key loggers. In case of spyware, the threat looks for some files and sends those files to the address that is identified inside the spyware program.

There are many questions about the level of security in old implementations of Bluetooth. As an example, the BlueSnarf attack can access the calendar and phone book of a mobile device and get information from them. It can also make calls to the desired numbers and send messages to them. This could be because of existing of some errors in software of the device or bad implementation of Bluetooth specifications. Threats that are connected to WLAN are similar to the ones which are coming through Bluetooth.

There are many situations that allow appearance of threats, for example existence of different software, some maintenances of software like updating anti-virus software and backup of information. The developer of mobile phones can decrease the risk of such threats by improving the reliability of services [7]. The following is some samples of attacks on mobile devices.

2.2.1 Discharging Batteries with Bluetooth Attack

When a mobile phone receives a data, it must send an acknowledgement to the sender device to confirm the reception. A malicious device doesn't do such thing. So the sender will send the data again and again. This operation will discharge the battery of the device and at the same time increase the bandwidth consumption [2]. There are some physical constraints on the mobile device itself; one of them is the limited power for their batteries. The existence of this constraint on the mobile applications effects in occurrence of such attacks.

The attack to the battery power also can be done by using an insecure service like MMS and insecure interaction between the Internet and cellular data networks.

These types of attacks will be done in two stages. First the attacker provides a list of mobile devices which includes the cellular numbers of the devices, their IP addresses and information about the model. This will be done by using the MMS notification message. Second the attacker will send UDP packets continuously and uses PDP context retention and the paging channel. Since the person who is under the attack doesn't know that his battery is discharging, this attack is unique of its type [8].

2.2.2 SIM Card Attack

In GSM networks, applications are provided by service providers. When a user wants to get access to these services, he has to use his Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). SIM card is responsible for Authentication. Any flaw or error in the security of these cards requires too much time to be removed .These flaws make possible the attackers to get access to the available services by taking the identity of others through using their SIM card. These types of attacks can result Denial of Service for the legitimate users [2]. Actually because of the physical constraints that exist on the SIM cards, this attack can be happened.

2.2.3 User Interface Limitation

The limitation of user interface can increase the risk of threats to mobile devices. When the screen is not clear and is so small, the user may send any SMS text messages without his knowledge. Also keypad input is very important for entry of passwords. If the password is easy like manufacture's default, the device will be in an insecure situation. On the other hand when the password is very difficult and complex, if the user has to enter it continuously, he may give up from an application [2].

2.2.4 Physical Attacks

Physically a mobile device can be theft or lost. Sensitive information will be stored inside the mobile phone and can not be plugged like a memory stick. The secret and sensitive information like contacts books or other applications such as access parameters for mobile banking can be disclosed. In mobile phones which are using J2ME platforms, the applications and data are stored in the Record Management Store (RMS). The RMS is not encrypted, so it can be easily accessed by a file browsing application such as FExplorer software [2].

Denial of Service Through Malformed Content

When a defective SMS or an improper formatted web page is sent to a mobile device, Denial of Service (DOS) attack can occur. This can be happen by downloading a malicious content from a server or through an XSS injection. For example, when a mobile device receives a header broken SMS, some applications of the user become victim of this attack. DOS attack allows attackers to get access to the system resources which resulting in the crashing of an application and therefore denying of the service to the legitimate users [2].

Spamming

Spam means filling the Internet with many copies of the same message in a way to force people to open a message even they don't want to receive it. Spamming also covers the mobile world by using SMS and MMS. The text-based spam can be detected by using some tools. Because of this, the attackers have released a new type of spam that is image-based. Five billion image-based spam messages can be sent everyday which most of them can not be detected by the traditional spam filters.

An additional spoofing vulnerability is SIP invite message which occurs for some mobile phones. For example, Vonage VT 2142-VD phone from MOTOROLA can receive SIP INVITE message without any authentication. In this case the phone will make a call to the spam source and then makes a communication with it. These types of attacks reported in some phone devices such as Motorola and Black Berry [2].

Security Services and Requirements in Mobile Applications

Authentication and Identification of Users, Devices, and Services

The authentication service uses certificates. The cryptographic certificates based on trusted third party. In a global public key infrastructure, to verify and accept a service in a node X, the acceptance of certificate in a node N is required. A common method which is used for network browsing is "https:" certificate verification that uses the encrypted channel "TLS/SSL". Email systems use the S/MIME certificate. Distributing the keys and identities in a global public key infrastructure, is done by a traditional SIM card. The user of a mobile phone is authenticated by a SIM card and can get access to the services through it.

A special code which is called "IMSI" code is used for users of GSM networks. It is part of SIM card and is used rarely because of some security reasons. Instead a code that is called TMSI which is created from IMSI is used. The TMSI code is sent to the user through a secured channel and replaced after every use. SIM card includes a shared private key with its home network.

There are some new technologies for authentication that are still under experiments. One example is Host Identity Protocol (HIP) that is based on separation of location from authentication. In this technology the address and the identity are separated from each other, therefore a device can change from one transport layer to another .The applications of the user only recognizes cryptographic identities. Others are handled in a transport layer where different kinds of addresses can be used.

Digital Signatures and Certificates

Signed information can be identified with a digital signature. The signature is created with a key that only the person who signs a document has to know about it. Non-repudiation can be achieved by using the digital signatures, which verify the signed information, the origin of the sender of the document (Who signed it) and the integrity and completeness of the information.

Digital signatures use various types of algorithms for the propose of compression; for example they use MD5 with 128 bit check sum or SHA (Secured Hush Algorithm) with 160 bit. Digital signatures also can prove the origin of data, while the signer uses its private key for compression. The signature will be added to the message then it will send to the receiver. The receiver will decrypt the message using the public key of the sender. After the receiver will do a compression method on the encrypted data; if the compression matches the original compression that is received, the receiver now can be ensured of the integrity and origin of the data.

The encrypted keys also use digital signatures. A certificate is a signed key which is issued by a certificate authority that allows the identification of the key owner. Usually certificates have a limited validation time. They are used for authentication of service provider or to ensure the origin of a service. Most of certificates are based on X.509 standard, which defines the form and content of a certificate.

Digital signatures in a mobile device are located in the SIM card. Nowadays SIM cards consist of microprocessor, ROM, I/O port, RAM memory and a file system; therefore applications which are required reliability can be built on SIM cards.

Restriction of Media Distribution and Encryption of Saved Data

Copying files in the digital world is very easy. The rights owners try to find a way for protecting the content from copying but every time the users break it. Converting the files from digital to analog is a vulnerability at which copyrights can be broken. In other words, protection of a copyright in a digital environment does not avoid copying of the files and has no effect on piracy and hacking.

The most important solution offered by the standardization communities is Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) that has OMA (DRM) Digital Rights Management standards and it is used for protecting the copyrights.

One of the most important standards is Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) which uses a simple language to define the rights of a copyright. It is an open standard and is free for use. OMA has adopted it in its DRM standard through using of OMA ODRL profile.

Examples of Data Saving and Encryption

Today, the amount of memory for mobile devices has growing continuously and many methods and tools are used to save different kinds of data. Other memory storages can also be used for the mobile phones for saving more amounts of files and pictures; for example the users of mobile phones can use a USB memory stick for their devices.

Many encryption programs exist that are general use and used for some smart phones and PDAs. They are used to encrypt the data in the internal and external memories. These programs use access control which is protected with a password and also with a 128 bit data encryption. Psiloc Secure Storage is one of its examples.

One of the examples of mass memory is SD memory card which uses the Content Protection for Recordable Media (CPRM) technology .It is defined by consortiums like IBM, Matsushita, Intel and Toshiba. The features included are: (1) Device authentication is required before getting access to the SD card, coping from a PC to the SD card is limited only to three copies and the data which encrypted can not be decrypted with out using a key. (2) When using the SD card, the add-ons can be attached to the card slot like camera, Bluetooth, GPS and etc.

Privacy

Privacy means that an end user has the right to use information that concerning him, can get access to his information when it is necessary and every time he needs, can get information from the parties that manage it. It means the right of a person to decide when, where, how and for what purpose the information which is about him, is given to others.

In mobile phones the privacy is done by using session keys. When an Internet is added to a mobile use, privacy protection is different in the IPv4 and IPv6.The user identity is handled by using public crypto keys. Identification of most users is through SIM card that they are using [13].

Access Control

Any information sharing system must have the capability to decide who can access the information for how long of time. Not only it has to identify how and when, but also has to define that under which conditions and constraints the data can be used. There is no doubt that mobile devices need this service.

When considering security services, we notice that they are interdependent. For example, in the access control service the user should be authenticated by the authentication service. The access control service can ensure confidentiality by restricting the access to only the users who are authorized. Therefore, when implementing the access control on the mobile devices, other security services also should be considered.

Access control on mobile devices can be achieved by the combination of the security services like authentication and authorization. These security services and their related features are shown in table 1.

Authentication

Authorization

Others

Passwords

File Masking

Encryption

Biometrics

Access Control Lists

Synchronization

Auto Logout

Roll-Based Access Control

Table 1.1: Security Services and Related Features for Access Control [9]

Features which can classified as authentication are passwords, biometrics and auto logout. A password means a private value that should only known by the authorized people and this value used to authenticate them. Biometrics is a hardware based solution which examines some physical characteristics of authorized users in order to authenticate them and auto logout is a device log out after a given limited time to a user. This feature is used for purpose of conserving power and energy of the device.

Some features which can be classified under authorization are: file masking, access control list and role-Based access control. File masking means that a system masks or hides some records or files in order to protect them and only can be viewed by users that are authenticating themselves. Access control lists is a matrix of permissions for a specific object that is associated with its authorized users and in roll-based access control, permissions for users are linked with roles and users associated with these roles. In this case, users may receive the permissions according to roles that they are assigned to.

Some other features are encryption and synchronization. Encryption is a mechanism used to encrypt the sensitive data. It is part of confidentiality service and synchronization used for data backup and restore. It is used also for setting of a mobile device.

Note that, not all the mentioned features exist for mobile devices. The password control is the one which always exists. However biometric controls like fingerprint readers are become common for these devices. In mobile devices, access control is done through a password or a biometric measure. When the password is correct, full access will be given to the user. It means first authentication, then authorization.

The operating systems of mobile devices have similar features which are a modular design and security services such as authentication and encryption. The modular design allows the manufactures to implement some features of mobile devices. Encryption services usually are used for communications which could be done by using some applications to encrypt the data.

The above features are not the only features of the operating system; there is a feature called code access security. This feature is used to avoid some untrusted codes to get access to the resources that may affect the integrity of a mobile device [9].

Non-Repudiation

Non-repudiation means collecting and maintaining some evidences regarding to an event or action in such away that any of the parties can not deny the occurrence of that event or action.

As an example consider a mobile payment transaction. In this case, to ensure that a buyer (b) sends messages to a seller (s), b or s can not deny this transaction. The evidence of this transaction is generated by wireless PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) in away that b or s can not repudiate the sending or receiving of the order purchases. The broker of the transaction operates as a mobile agent for b and sends the encrypted purchase order to s [10]. PKI is considered as the best solution to e-commerce and mutual authentication [11].

PKI links public keys with the respective user identities through what is known as Certificate Authority (CA). For each CA the user identity must be unique. The Certificate Authority also known as the Trusted Third Party (TTP) [12].

Conclusion

Nowadays, mobile devices and PDAs may hold sensitive organizational and personal information. Also, with coming up some critical mobile services such as mobile payment and mobile banking, it's very important and necessary to make these devices and applications safe and secure. With the occurrence of such evolutions in the mobile communications, several attacks and threats come out and everyday attackers and intruders are trying to find out various ways to break down the secrecy and confidentiality of such systems.

To implement security and secrecy in the mobile applications, we need to analyze the vulnerabilities, constraints and attacks that exist on them. This will help us to provide guidelines for designing of the mobile applications which are safe and secure for using.

First of all we began with some categories of mobile applications. We only focused on four types of them that are Messaging, Web Applications, Thick Client-Server Applications and Synchronization. The messaging service includes both text and multimedia messages. SMS and MMS are the most popular messaging services used in mobile communications. Web applications also called Thin Client-Server Applications, which are mainly web-based ones. WAP 1.x and WAP 2.0 are the leading generations of mobile web. In the thick client-server applications, J2ME and .Net Compact Framework are the leading platforms. Synchronization is a computer to device data transfer which aims to keep both components in a coherent state.

We also list some security vulnerabilities and attacks in mobile applications regarding to mobile networks and the mobile device itself. Also we provided some samples on each one. From physical aspect we mentioned some constraints on mobile devices such as small display unit, limited processing, power limitation, low bandwidth and limitations on network coverage.

In the last section, we pointed out security services such as Authentication, Digital signatures and Certificates, Encryption of saved date, Access Control and Non-repudiation and some of their associated techniques exist in mobile applications. Example of current technologies that exist for authentication includes using SIM, USIM and Passwords. For digital signatures and certificates we can use browser signatures and different memory encryption programs can be used for encryption of data. Access control on mobile devices can be implemented with a combination of authentication and authorization. Wireless PKI (public-key infrastructure) mechanism can be used for non-repudiation service.

The outcomes of the previous study are summarized in the following tables. Table 1.2 shows some mobile device features and their effects as constraints on security services. It shows if there is any relationship between them or not. Table 1.3 depicts some techniques and mechanisms can be used for implementation of the security services in the mobile devices.

Constraints/Security Services

Authentication

Access Control

Non-Repudiation

Integrity

Confidentiality

Small Screen Size



N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Limited Input Keypad



N/A

N/A

N/A

*

Limited Processing











Limited Power Batteries











Low Bandwidth











Limited Network Coverage











Limited Storage

N/A



N/A

N/A



Table 1.2: Relationship between Some of Mobile Phone Constraints with the Security Services.  means that the corresponding constraint will hurt that security service and N/A (Not Applicable) means that there is no any effect on that security service. * shows that there is an indirect relationship.

Mechanisms or Techniques/Security Services

Authentication

Access Control

Non-Repudiation

Integrity

Confidentiality

Digital Signature



N/A





N/A

Password



N/A

N/A

N/A



Certificate







N/A



SIM Card



N/A



N/A



Encryption



N/A

N/A





Key Management





N/A

N/A



PKI



N/A



N/A

N/A

Access Control List

N/A



N/A

*



Table 1.3: Some of Techniques or Mechanisms are used for Security Services.  means that the corresponding Technique or Mechanism is used for that security service and N/A means that that technique or mechanism is not used for the corresponding security service. * shows that there is an indirect relationship.

Providing security for mobile applications is very complicated and requires considering many aspects in the mobile communications and also there are many problems with ad hoc requirements in the mobile devices. Therefore we try to help the designers and developers of mobile applications by defining functional requirements such as authentication and encryption in the mobile applications and devices, explain some non functional requirements like the constraints and limitations that could be exist on the battery of mobile devices and the response time of such devices.

We are going to provide the designers and developers with an easy representation of these requirements and we will specify an ontology for securing the mobile devices. As a result the ontology will provide them with some requirements in the system to take in concern when they are designing and developing the security in the mobile applications.

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