Mobile Agent Technologies And Web Services Computer Science Essay

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A Web services are self-contained and self-describing application that uses standard Internet technologies to interact with other Web services (Ketel, 2009). There are four basic platform elements in Web Services. The first element is Extensible Markup Language (XML) based open standards. Second, the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is defined in XML. Third, WSDL defines a standard method of describing a Web Service and its capability. Lastly, UDDI defines XML-based-rules for publishing Web Service information (Hamad et al., 2010).

Hamad et al. (2010) claim that recently, the Web Services technology has become an industry standard for connecting distant and various resources, mobile devices have become an important part of people's everyday life because People are using mobile devices anytime and anywhere to access the Internet, check Email, or run other web applications.

Web Services are now provided to mobile devices example like cellular phones and personal digital assistants. Mobile-Services (M-Services) indicate these Web services. Although there are multiple opportunities that M-Services can provide to users but there are barriers obstruct Web services in wireless environments (Ketel, 2009).

Discussion

Mobile Agent Technologies

There are several challenges in mobile computing. The major challenges comprising wireless networking problems such as high latency connections, low bandwidth, and low quality connections. Besides that, other challenges in mobile computing are portability issues such as battery life, small memory space, processing, and display limitations (Ketel, 2009).

Agents are introduced to deal with all of these challenges. A software agent is a program that can use an individual's authority, meet and interact with other agents, and work autonomously toward a goal. There are two types of agents, which are stationary agents and mobile agents (MA).

Basically, a software agent can be defined as a computational entity. A Mobile Agent (MA) is a software agent with the capability of autonomously move form host to host. Besides, mobile agents invoke messages locally on an agent-platform. Mobile agents offer improved performance in several applications and distributed systems. They provide the advantages such as; reduce of network bandwidth requirement, because only the agent with small size is sent instead of passing large number of raw data over the network. Second, asynchronous autonomous interaction, Mobile agents can be sent when the network connection is alive and return results when the connection is re-established. Therefore, the performance is not much affected by the reliability of the network. Lastly, Information retrieval, mobile agent can migrate to the host where the service to access stays so that it enables fast local interaction with the service, at the cost of migration overhead(Ketel, 2009).

Web Services through SMS

The integration of We Services and SMS messaging can solved the problem of using HTTP to reach a mobile phone. The SMS Forum has developed Short Message Peer to Peer (SMPP) and Mobile Message Access Protocol (MMAP). An industry standard messaging SMPP is designed to simplify integration of data applications with wireless mobile networks such as PDC, GSM, CDMA and TDMA. This protocol is widely deployed in mobile telecommunications industry (Singh et al., 2009).

A standard XML-based framework for mobile messaging over SOAP and HTTP are provided by MMAP. The Short Message Application Protocol (SMAP) is a set of abstract XML operations specifically designed for short messaging. SMAP payload is typically carried within an MMAP SOAP message. Communication with GSM operator is provided through a proprietary protocol called Messaggistica Azien-dale Mobile (MAM). A gateway is build with the implementation of a pattern that subscribe accessible through Web methods. The SMS Gateway playing a role as a gateway between the mobile network and an organization intranet. The Figure 1 is showing the architecture of Web Server of SMS Gateway, reveal its functionality as a Web Services and notify client applications by issuing Web Services. It was a standalone implementation and having its own Web server without requiring integration within other Web servers. By a single gateway, there are various applications that can be made available.

Figure 1: Basic Architecture of Mobile Web Services though SMS Gateway

Conclusion

In the conclusion, the mobile agent had introduced to handle the various mobile challenges, such like wireless networking and portability issues. Besides that, mobile agent technologies had provided some advantages to improve performance in several distributed systems and applications. Those advantages are network bandwidth requirement is reduced, asynchronous autonomous interaction and information retrieval.

Besides that, Web Services through SMS integration of We Services and SMS messaging can solved the problem of using HTTP to reach a mobile phone

Multiple applications may be made available by a single gateway

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