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XP networking includes a bridge component for network adapters that transparently connects network segments so that the home network becomes a single IP subnet. This can be particularly handy when using Internet Connection Sharing. The option has little use for corporate networks, where more sophisticating routing and bridging hardware are used.
Fast user switching
The Fast User Switching feature employs the same technology as Terminal Services but on the desktop, so that multiple users can be logged on and keep their applications open without having to log off before somebody else can use the computer. This is disabled in a domain environment and can't be used with offline files. It does require more memory (2 MB per user, plus memory for running applications, with a minimum of 128 MB of RAM recommended).
Remote Desktop also utilizes Windows 2000 Terminal Services technology, but it does so to enable users to remotely access their Windows XP Professional machine. By default, administrators can automatically connect to the remote desktop, logging out any currently connected user and locking the computer while connected (for security purposes). Additional remote desktop users can be added, but they won't be able to log off a currently connected user-the connection will be refused. When connecting directly over the Internet (rather than over a VPN), remember that this feature uses RDP (TCP port 3389), which you may need to open on any intervening routers/firewalls.
With an interface similar to most e-mail programs (Inbox, Outbox, Sent Items, etc.), the fax console is easy and intuitive to use. It includes a wizard to guide you through creating cover pages. In addition, it lets you prioritize faxes and delay sending, and you can import/export faxes to integrate with other fax programs. The Fax Monitor displays time and events related to sending and receiving faxes, including any transmission problems, and it helps determine connectivity status. This can save a remote worker from having to buy an additional fax machine.
Compressed (zipped) folders
This functionality is built around WinZip functionality, first seen in Windows Me and rarely mentioned in Windows XP documentation because it is assumed that NTFS compression makes this option superfluous. It works by marking a folder as compressed so that any files created or moved into that folder will become compressed and save disk space.
Home workers may find this useful when sending zipped files by e-mail or over the VPN, as well as when NTFS
compression is not possible because the data needs to be accessible to older operating systems on the same machine-such as when multibooting with Win9x.
You can password-protect compressed folders (accessing them afterward will prompt for a password before uncompressing), but be forewarned: There is no password recovery option.
Another powerful tool for troubleshooting, System Restore takes snapshots of the registry and certain critical system files so you can return your computer to a known working state. Although you can manually create a restore point (for example, before installing a new application/device), the system is clever enough to automatically create restore points at critical times such as when installing unsigned drivers, installing new versions via Automatic Updates, and restoring data from backup. It will also create a restore point every 24 hours (when idle) and optionally at preset intervals if configured in the registry. You can undo a system restore that doesn't resolve the problem.
It is basically used in offices, home and universities as it is easy to use and is much user friendly.
It is very easy to handle as well. A normal person can easily learn it.
Usage basically includes
Music and videos
T.v and multimedia
Web browsing and email
And many more.
Linux is basically used for the following purposes :
Nearly 60% of all websites on the Internet are run using an OpenÂ Source program
named "Apache." Most often, it's run on Linux. If you've ever surfed the web, you've (indirectly) used Linux!
Linux is based on Unix, an operatingÂ system developed in the 1970s and which is still used heavily today, especially to run the Internet. Linux is used both to run parts of the Internet, as well as to run small and large networks in corporations, offices and homes.
Since Linux is stable, secure and robust, it's perfect for storing huge databases of information.
People like us use Linux on our home and work computers, because of its stability and flexibility.
Many dozens (or even hundreds or thousands) of Linux systems can be clustered together to work on a single task (like weather forecasting, physics simulations, computer graphics rendering, etc.)
A large collection of inexpensive PCs running Linux can be just as powerful as a mainframe computer, but at a tenth of the cost.
Linux on a daily basis at home and in the office
Until recently, Linux was reserved for self avowed hackers and enthusiasts. This was mainly because Linux was not very user-friendly. Now, with an intuitive graphical user interface or GUI, Linux is as user friendly as Windows. You do not need to be a rocket scientist to use Linux with the GUI. In fact, a Linux Desktop looks much like a Windows Desktop . Linux has at least a dozen different highly configurable graphical interfaces, which runs on top of a Xfree86.
multitasking: several programs running at the same time.
multiuser: several users on the same machine at the same time (and no two-user licenses!).
multiplatform: runs on many different CPUs, not just Intel.
multithreading: has native kernel support for multiple independent threads of control within a single process memory space.
runs in protected mode on the 386.
has memory protection between processes, so that one program can't bring the whole system down.
demand loads executables: Linux only reads from disk those parts of a program that are actually used.
shared copy-on-write pages among executables. This means that multiple process can use the same memory to run in. When one tries to write to that memory, that page (4KB piece of memory) is copied somewhere else. Copy-on-write has two benefits: increasing speed and decreasing memory use.
virtual memory using paging (not swapping whole processes) to disk: to a separate partition or a file in the filesystem, or both, with the possibility of adding more swapping areas during runtime (yes, they're still called swapping areas). A total of 16 of these 128 MB (2GB in recent kernels) swapping areas can be used at the same time, for a theoretical total of 2 GB of useable swap space. It is simple to increase this if necessary, by changing a few lines of source code.
a unified memory pool for user programs and disk cache, so that all free memory can be used for caching, and the cache can be reduced when running large programs.
special filesystem called UMSDOS which allows Linux to be installed on a DOS filesystem.
read-only HPFS-2 support for OS/2 2.1
HFS (Macintosh) file system support is available separately as a module.
CD-ROM filesystem which reads all standard formats of CD-ROMs.
TCP/IP networking, including ftp, telnet, NFS, etc.
Netware client and server
Lan Manager/Windows Native (SMB) client and server
The UNIX Operating System is available on machines with a wide range of computing power, from microcomputers to mainframes, and on different manufacture's machines. No other operating system can make this claim. We see the reasons of popularity and success of UNIX.
The reasons are
The system is written in high-level language making it easier to read, understand, change and, therefore move to other machines. The code can be changed and complied on a new machine. Customers can then choose from a wide variety of hardware vendors without being locked in with a particular vendor.
The System hides the machine architecture from the user, making it easier to write applications that can run on micros, mins and mainframes.
UNIX is a multi-user system designed to support a group of users simultaneously. The system allows for the sharing of processing power and peripheral resources, white at the same time providing excellent security features.
Hierarchical File System:
UNIX uses a hierarchal file structure to store information. This structure has the maximum flexibility in grouping information in a way that reflects its natural state. It allows for easy maintenance and efficient implementation.
UNIX has a simple user interface called the shell that has the power to provide the services that the user wants. It protects the user from having to know the intricate hardware details.
Pipes and Filters:
UNIX has facilities called Pipes and Filters which permit the user to create complex programs from simple programs.
UNIX has over 200 utility programs for various functions. New utilities can be built effortlessly by combining existing utilities.
Software Development Tools:
UNIX offers an excellent variety of tools for software development for all phases, from program editing to maintenance of software.
It is used for everything in the computing community. Mainly, for
heavy duty stuffs like scientific studies,
high end engineering(CAD, stuffs like that),
recently Apple computing jumped abroad with Mac os X, these are real unix. they cost you a bunch of money, range from the cheapest from sun $995(basic, look and feel of unix) to an IBM AIX $20,000+++ stuffs used to design airplanes, weapons etc.
Perfect integration of hardware and software.
Since the software on every Mac is created by the same company that makes the Mac itself, you get an integrated system in which everything works together perfectly. The advanced technologies in the operating system take full advantage of the 64-bit, multicore processors and GPUs to deliver the greatest possible performance. The built-in iSight camera works seamlessly with the iChat software so you can start a video chat with a click. Your Mac notebook includes a Multi-Touch track pad that supports pinching, swiping, and other gestures. And the OS communicates with the hardware to deliver incredible battery life by spinning down the hard drive when it's inactive, by intelligently deciding whether the CPU or GPU is best for a task, and by automatically dimming the screen in low-light conditions.
Elegant interface and stunning graphics.
The most striking feature of a Mac is its elegant user interface, made possible by graphics technologies that are built to leverage the advanced graphics processor in your Mac. These technologies provide the power for things like multiway chatting, real-time reflections, and smooth animations. Fonts on the screen look beautiful and extremely readable. A soft drop shadow makes it clear at a glance which window is active and which ones are in the background. You can preview just about any type of file using Quick Look, and because the previews are high resolution, you can actually read the text. Built-in support for the PDF format means you can view or create PDFs from almost any application in the system
Highly secure by design.
Mac OS X doesn't get PC viruses. And with virtually no effort on your part, Mac OS X protects itself from other malicious applications. It was built for the Internet in the Internet age, offering a variety of sophisticated technologies that help keep you safe from online threats. Because every Mac ships with a secure configuration, you don't have to worry about understanding complex settings. Even better, it won't slow you down with constant security alerts and sweeps. And Apple responds quickly to online threats and automatically delivers security updates directly to your Mac.
Built for compatibility.
The versatility and power of Mac OS X make it compatible in almost any environment, including Windows networks. It works with virtually all of today's digital cameras, printers, and other peripherals without the need to manually download separate drivers. It opens popular file types such as JPG, MP3, and Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint documents. In addition, Mac OS X includes built-in support for the industry-standard PDF format, so you can read and create PDFs from almost any application in the system - perfect for sharing work with colleagues whether they use a Mac or a PC. If you want to run Windows on your Mac, you can do that, too. And Mac OS X Snow Leopard is the only operating system with built-in support for the latest version of Microsoft Exchange Server, so you can use your Mac at home and at work and have all your messages, meetings, and contacts in one place.
Reliable to the core.
The core of Mac OS X is built on the same ultrareliable UNIX foundation that powers industrial-strength servers, helping to ensure that your computing experience remains free from system crashes and compromised performance. Even upgrading your Mac to the next version of Mac OS X is reliable and easy. It checks your applications to make sure they're compatible and sets aside any programs known to be incompatible. If a power outage interrupts your installation, it can start again without losing any data. Best of all, upgrading doesn't require reformatting your drive; you can keep all your compatible applications, files, and settings. And if something goes wrong when you're using your Mac, Time Machine is there to keep automatic backups of everything on your drive.
Fully featured, fully loaded.
Mac OS X comes in a single, full-featured version that includes a large collection of beautifully designed applications. They not only let you surf the web, conduct video and text chats, manage your contacts, and accomplish other day-to-day tasks - they also work together to make you more productive and let you have more fun.
The field of application of this operating system is digital photography, 2-D and 3-D animations, video processing, streaming, audio processing, and platform for DTP, web design, office applications.
1. Supports QuickTime/VR
2. monolithic Kernel
3. Read/Write FAT, FAT32, ISO9660, UDF
4. well proven TCP/IP Stack
5. graphical user interaction with the finder
6. graphical representation by Quickdraw
7. central password administration
Few Versions and Features:
Mac OS X 10.0 came out in March 2001. To install are 128 MB RAM (256 MB RAM starting from Mac OS X 10.3.9) and 1.5 GB hard disk space (3.0 GByte starting from Mac OS X 10.2) provided. Mac OS X 10.5 requires at least 512 MB RAM and 9 GByte of free disk space, HFS+ file system.
Considerable performance and comfort improvements were carried out in version Mac OS X 10.1. The surface reacts quicker at user interaction, the system start was accelerated and the OpenGL performance increased noticeable.
Mac OS X 10.3 has now a GUI in metallic scheme and the optimized Finder. The use and access in heterogeneous networks was further simplified. Files can be provided with etiquettes, the compression format ZIP is now directly supported.
Mac OS X 10.4 features are the fast, system-wide and index-based search function named Spotlight, the Dashboard for easy access to small programs, The Automator for the simplified composition of Apple scripts for the automation of tasks.
Apple released the successor MacOS X 10.5, Leopard at the 26.10.2007. With more than 300 innovations MacOS offers the user an enhanced user interface with virtual desktops, a fast file preview and Dock with 3D effect. As a file system ZFS is optionally available. For the surfing on the Internet the Apple Safari 3 Web browser is included. Backups can be made, managed and restored in a simple way with "Time Machine". Time Machine makes every hour the day automatically a file backup and every day a snapshot for the duration of a complete month. Lost files are recovered easily over the display of a dynamic time line of those snapshot. The security of the operating system and applications is improved by 11 enhancements.
Mac OS X 10.6 is a Mac computer with Intel Core 2 Duo processor with at least 1 GB memory and 5 GB free space ahead. It supports up to 16 TByte memory, it is optimized for multi core processors, and is a pure 64-bit operating system.
Symbian Operating System
Symbian features multi tasking and memory protection, like other operating systems (especially those created for use on desktop computers). EPOC's approach to multitasking was inspired by VMS and is based on asynchronous server-based events.
Symbian OS has the following features
Symbian uses a micro kernel , has a request-and-callback approach to services, and maintains separation between user interface and engine. The OS is optimized for low-power battery-based devices and for ROM-based systems (e.g. features like XIP and re-entrance in shared libraries). Applications, and the OS itself, follow an object-oriented design:
Later OS iterations diluted this approach in response to market demands, notably with the introduction of a real-time kernel and a platform security model in versions 8 and 9.
There is a strong emphasis on conserving resources which is exemplified by Symbian-specific programming idioms such as descriptors and a cleanup stack. There are similar techniques for conserving disk space (though the disks on Symbian devices are usually flash memory). Furthermore, all Symbian programming is event-based, and the cpu is switched into a low power mode when applications are not directly dealing with an event. This is achieved through a programming idiom called active objects. Similarly the Symbian approach to threads and processes is driven by reducing overheads.
The Base Services Layer is the lowest level reachable by user-side operations; it includes the file server and User Library, a plug and play which manages all plug-ins, Store, Central Repository, DBMS and cryptographic services. It also includes the Text Window Server and the Text Shell: the two basic services from which a completely functional port can be created without the need for any higher layer services.
Symbian has a micro kernel architecture, which means that the minimum necessary is within the kernel to maximize robustness, availability and responsiveness. It contains a scheduler , memory management and device drivers, but other services like networking, telephony and file system support are placed in the OS Services Layer or the Base Services Layer. The inclusion of device drivers means the kernel is not a true microkernel. The E K A 2 real-time kernel, which has been termed a nano kernel, contains only the most basic primitives and requires an extended kernel to implement any other abstractions.
Symbian is designed to emphasize compatibility with other devices, especially removable media file systems. Early development of EPOC led to adopting FAT as the internal file system, and this remains, but an object-oriented persistence model was placed over the underlying FAT to provide a POSIX-style interface and a streaming model. The internal data formats rely on using the same APIs that create the data to run all file manipulations. This has resulted in data-dependence and associated difficulties with changes and data migration
Symbian operating systems are designed for mobile devices and smart phones, with associated libraries, user interface, frameworks and reference implementations of common tools widely used in mobile applications. Cell phone companies like Nokia Specially use them. Very powerful for general purpose development. Designed from the start for mobile devices, the Symbian platform is a real time, multi-tasking OS specifically architected to run well on resource-constrained systems, maximizing performance and battery life whilst minimizing memory usage. The Symbian Foundation maintains the code for the open source software platform based on Symbian OS and software assets contributed by Nokia, NTT DOCOMO, and Sony Ericsson, including the S60 and MOAP(S) user interfaces. Portions of the platform's source code have already been moved to open source, under the Eclipse Public License. By mid-2010 this process will be complete, making the platform code available to all for free. Close to 300 million Symbian OS-based units have been shipped and Symbian holds more than a 50% market share globally.