Microsoft Windows And Linux Flavors Computer Science Essay

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Both Windows and Linux come in many flavors. All the flavors of Windows come from Microsoft, the various distributions of Linux come from different companies (i.e. Linspire, Red Hat, SuSE, Ubuntu, Xandros, Knoppix, Slackware, Lycoris, etc. ).

Windows has two main lines. The older flavors are referred to as "Win9x" and consist of Windows 95, 98, 98SE and Me. The newer flavors are referred to as "NT class" and consist of Windows NT3, NT4, 2000, XP and Vista. Going back in time, Windows 3.x preceded Windows 95 by a few years. And before that, there were earlier versons of Windows, but they were not popular. Microsoft no longer supports Windows NT3, NT4, all the 9x versions and of course anything older. Support for Windows 2000 is partial (as of April 2007).

The flavors of Linux are referred to as distributions (often shortened to "distros"). All the Linux distributions released around the same time frame will use the same kernel (the guts of the Operating System). They differ in the add-on software provided, GUI, install process, price, documentation and technical support. Both Linux and Windows come in desktop and server editions.

There may be too many distributions of Linux, it's possible that this is hurting Linux in the marketplace. It could be that the lack of a Linux distro from a major computer company is also hurting it in the marketplace. IBM is a big Linux backer but does not have their own branded distribution. Currently there seem to be many nice things said about the Ubuntu distribution.

Linux is customizable in a way that Windows is not. For one, the user interface, while similar in concept, varies in detail from distribution to distribution. For example, the task bar may default to being on the top or the bottom. Also, there are many special purpose versions of Linux above and beyond the full blown distributions described above. For example, NASLite is a version of Linux that runs off a single floppy disk (since revised to also boot from a CD) and converts an old computer into a file server. This ultra small edition of Linux is capable of networking, file sharing and being a web server.

Graphical User Interface

Both Linux and Windows provide a GUI and a command line interface. The Windows GUI has changed from Windows 3.1 to Windows 95 (drastically) to Windows 2000 (slightly) to Windows XP (fairly large) and is slated to change again with the next version of Windows, the one that will replace XP. Windows XP has a themes feature that offers some customization of the look and feel of the GUI.

Linux typically provides two GUIs, KDE and Gnome. See a screen shot of Lycoris and Lindows in action from the Wal-Mart web site. The web site has examples of many substantially different Linux GUIs. Of the major Linux distributions, Lindows has made their user interface look more like Windows than the others. Here is a screen shot of Linux made to look like Windows XP. Then too, there is XPde for Linux which really makes Linux look like Windows. Quoting their web site "It's a desktop environment (XPde) and a window manager (XPwm) for Linux. It tries to make easier for Windows XP users to use a Linux box." 

Mark Minasi makes the point that the Linux GUI is optional while the Windows GUI is an integral component of the OS. He says that speed, efficiency and reliability are all increased by running a server instance of Linux without a GUI, something that server versions of Windows can not do. In the same article he points out that the detached nature of the Linux GUI makes remote control and remote administration of a Linux computer simpler and more natural than a Windows computer.

Is the flexibility of the Linux GUI a good thing? Yes and No. While advanced users can customize things to their liking, it makes things harder on new users for whom every Linux computer they encounter may look and act differently.

Text Mode Interface

This is also known as a command interpreter. Windows users sometimes call it a DOS prompt. Linux users refer to it as a shell. Each version of Windows has a single command interpreter, but the different flavors of Windows have different interpreters. In general, the command interpreters in the Windows 9x series are very similar to each other and the NT class versions of Windows (NT, 2000, XP) also have similar command interpreters. There are however differences between a Windows 9x command interpreter and one in an NT class flavor of Windows. Linux, like all versions of Unix, supports multiple command interpreters, but it usually uses one called BASH (Bourne Again Shell). Others are the Korn shell, the Bourne shell, ash and the C shell (pun, no doubt, intended).

MS-Windows Text mode Linux Text Mode


For desktop or home use, Linux is very cheap or free, Windows is expensive. For server use, Linux is very cheap compared to Windows. Microsoft allows a single copy of Windows to be used on only one computer. Starting with Windows XP, they use software to enforce this rule (Windows Product Activation at first, later Genuine Windows). In contrast, once you have purchased Linux, you can run it on any number of computers for no additional charge.

As of January 2005, the upgrade edition of Windows XP Home Edition sells for about $100, XP Professional is about $200. The "full" version of XP Home is about $200, the full version of XP Professional is $300. Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition with 10 Client licenses is about $1,100. Because they save $100 or so on the cost of Windows, Wal-Mart can sell a Linux based computer for $200 (without a monitor) whereas their cheapest Windows XP computer is $300.

The irony here is that Windows rose to dominance, way back when, in large part by undercutting the competition (Macs) on cost. Now Linux may do the same thing to Windows. 

You can buy a Linux book and get the operating system included with the book for free. You can also download Linux for free from each of the Linux vendors (assuming your Internet connection is fast enough for a 600 MB file and you have a CD burner). Both these options however, come without technical support. All versions of the Linux distribution are free. 

You can purchase assorted distributions of Linux in a box with a CD and manuals and technical support for around $40 to $80 (some distributions may be less, others may be more). Regular updates and ongoing support range from $35 a year for a desktop version of Linux to $1,500 for a high-end server version. August 2004 Red Hat started selling a desktop oriented version of Linux for under $6 per user per year.

After the initial cost (or lack thereof) of obtaining software, there is the ongoing cost of its care and feeding. The head technician at oil company Amerada Hess manages 400 Linux servers by himself. "It takes fewer people to manage the Linux machines than Windows machines." Microsoft commissioned a study that (no surprise) found it cheaper to maintain Windows than Linux. However, one of the authors of the study accused Microsoft of stacking the deck by selecting scenarios that are more expensive to maintain on Linux.

I don't know if there will ever be an objective measure of the ongoing care and feeding costs for Linux vs. Windows. If there were however, it would have to consider:

Dealing with bugs in the operating system

Dealing with bugs in application software

Dealing with viruses, worms, Spyware, etc.(big advantage to Linux here)

Dealing with software upgrades to new versions (both the OS and applications)

(II) Interoperability features of Ubuntu with the existing MS Windows Workstation

Using and advocating free software for around six years. When studying and then working as a freelance writer, migrating an office seemed so simple -- draw up a list of comparable programs and, over a reasonable period, move your staff across. But over the past few weeks I've been trying to use Fedora Linux on my desktop PC in a Windows-based office, and whilst most things work just fine, it's far from the seamless integration I was hoping for.

Installing Fedora Linux was easy, but getting it to play with the Windows 2003 login server was really difficult. In Windows XP you just go into the system properties, enter the domain that the servers use, and authenticate against it. You can then log in with your network username and password -- easy. In Fedora you have to follow, which is far from easy, and I've struggled to make it work consistently.

Navigating the shared folders works pretty seamlessly. I can browse the network and add any folders to Places. Unfortunately I can't view or modify the file security settings, so I have to open a remote connection to the server using GNOME's rdesktop client to change permissions!

One of my most common tasks is working with Microsoft Office documents. is perfectly adequate for most tasks. I miss some functionality, such as the "keep text formatting" option when you paste text into a document or spreadsheet. In the chart component, you can't currently display both the number value and percentage for each section of a pie chart, which is a pain. I also haven't noticed any document locking features, as in "this file is read-only while Angela edits it." Finally, the layout and formatting isn't spot on, which forces me to spend time fiddling with other people's documents before I can use them. On the bright side, when creating a form in Writer, I really appreciated the excellent PDF export functionality, which produces a PDF document with a working form. I'd otherwise have to buy a charity license for Adobe Acrobat Professional for that simple feature.

The other black hole for an office worker's time is email. Evolution can work with Microsoft Exchange using the Outlook Web Access feature (basically webmail) as a sort of proxy. I had to fiddle and retry the configuration a few times to get it to play smoothly, but email now works fine. My calendar shows up too and I can subscribe to other users' calendars, though displaying their contents is sluggish; it sometimes takes 10 seconds just to show a day's appointments. We have some shared calendars in the public folders, but I can see them only if I've already made them a favourite from Outlook in Windows. When I accidentally removed one from my profile, I had to log in to a Windows machine to put it back in place.

Contacts in Evolution worked OK, but I found some strange glitches. For some reason it has mixed-up names and email addresses, so sometimes I send something to a colleague but the autocomplete feature has his name next to another Jonathan's email address. When I go to look at the address book, Exchange's Global Address List is initially empty, and only fills up with entries when I start typing a name, whereupon it autocompletes matching entries in the list.

Another irritation with Evolution is that it doesn't understand links to files in a Windows format. We always send links in our office rather than attaching files, so now I have to read from the link and manually navigate to the folder in Nautilus, rather than just clicking and having the folder or file open. Worse, when I want to send out an email message with a link to a file, I have to copy in and then rework the Nautilus URL to make it look like a Windows URL; in Microsoft Office I just add the Web toolbar, copy the address, and paste it straight into the email body.

Overall, I managed to get most things working, certainly enough for my day-to-day work. But it would probably take me the best part of an afternoon to set up a new PC for a colleague to use Ubuntu, whilst it takes me about 30 minutes with a computer that has Windows XP pre-installed.

But the integration just isn't as slick and easy as I had hoped. With each step I have had to spend more time messing around with settings, or just working around missing functionality, than I do in Windows XP. I'm sure some of my stumbling blocks have answers, but they weren't there by default, nor easy for me to find. This poses a problem for my organization: the only way to make a migration really work would be to switch the servers first to eliminate compatibility issues, and then to do a really comprehensive refit of the desktops with lots of retraining.

(III) Installing Fedora Core Linux and setting up SAMBA workgroup server

Fedora 9 (codename Sulphur) and it's the most breathtaking version of the Fedora operating system.

For this installation, we used the Install DVD, because it contains all the software you'll ever need. However, the DVD edition has about 3 GB in size and, if you don't have the necessary bandwidth to download it, then we strongly recommend you get one of the KDE or the GNOME Live CD editions. Burn it on a blank disc with your favorite CD/DVD burning application, then insert the disc in the optical drive of the computer on which you want to install Fedora and boot from it. You'll be presented with a very nice Fedora artwork GRUB splash and some options. At this stage, we simply suggest you press Enter, and wait for the system to load.

Select the 'Skip' option when you're asked if you want to check the media before installation and press the Enter key on your keyboard

Anaconda (the Fedora installer) will load and you'll see the welcome screen. Click 'Next'.

Choose your language.

Choose your keyboard layout.

A warning message about the hard drive partitions may appear. If so, click the 'Yes' button.

It's time to setup your network. If you have a DHCP network (dynamic IP address) you can click Next right now, but if you have a static IP address (ask your provider if you're not sure) click the 'Edit' button and follow the instructions below.

- If you have an IPv4 address, make sure it's enabled. If you have an IPv6 address, make sure it's enabled too (if you don't have an IPv6 address, uncheck the 'Enable IPv6 support' option).

- Check the "Manual configuration" option and enter your IP address and the Netmask (ask your provider if you don't know them). Do the same for the IPv6 address (if you have one).

- Click OK once you've finished.

- Select the 'manually' option.

- Optional, you can setup the system's hostname (e.g. jiaying.linux.fedora).

- Enter your Gateway and Primary/Secondary DNS servers (ask your provider if you don't know them).

When you're done with the network configuration, click 'Next' and you will be asked to select your location (country/city).

Once you've selected your timezone, click next and you must enter the root (System Administrator) password. The longer, the better (WRITE IT SOMEWHERE OR MEMORIZE IT).

Here comes the partitioning part! If you have an empty hard drive, all you have to do is click 'Next' (make sure the "Remove all partitions on selected drives and create default layout" option is selected). If you don't have an empty hard drive and you still want to install Fedora 9 on your machine, then make sure you select the "Use free space on the selected drives and create default layout" option (10 GB minimum of free space is required). Click 'Next'

Encryption is supported in this release and you can enable it with a single mouse click, by checking the "Encrypt system" option!

Click the 'Write changes to disk' button when asked.

The hard drive will be formatted and the partitions will be created.

Now you can select the desired packages

Hit the 'Next' button and everything will be done automatically from now on, just sit back and watch how the partitions are formatted and the software packages are copied to your hard drive, or you can read the latest news while enjoying a cup of coffee. The installation process will take about 8-10 minutes (depending on your computer specs and the selected packages).

When the installation is over, you will get a "Congratulations, the installation is complete" screen. Click the 'Reboot' button and your computer will automatically restart.

Remove the DVD from your optical drive and your brand new Fedora 9 Linux operating system will start for the first time.

If you've chosen to encrypt your filesystem, then you'll be prompted for the passphrase..

The system will boot.

And, before you reach the Fedora desktop, you must do a one-time general system configuration. That's it! Now log in to your new Linux operating system and enjoy the ultimate, spectacular, breathtaking Fedora 9 Linux distribution!

Linux Workgroup Server (SAMBA) Configuration

Then open graphical samba configuration tool by pointing and click to System menu button (on the Panel bar) -> Administration -> Server Setting and click on Samba, or you can open the graphical Samba configuration tool using x-terminal (x-term/GNOME terminal) and type in 'system-config-samba'.

show the Samba Server Configuration (system-config-samba) tool window.

Click on Preferences on the menu bar to open Server Setting window.

In the Server settings window, on  the basic tab, you can setup or rename the samba Workgroup and short Description for the workgroup.  Make sure that the name of samba Workgroup did not match any Workgroups or any Domains on your network.

Then on the Security tab you can setup the configuration for:

Authentication Mode:

Authentication Server:

Kerberos Realm:

Encrypt Passwords:

Guest Account:

For the Authentication Mode, you can setup your samba server to:

ADS - Samba server act as a domain member in Active Directory domain.

Domain - Samba server relies for primary or backup domain controller to passes the username and password.

Server - Samba server verify the username and password on another samba sever, if fail then the samba server use the User authentication mode.

Share - Samba sever only prompt for username and password when only user connect to specific share directory.

User - User authentication mode (default setting), the samba user must provide username and password on a per samba server basis.

Samba Security Server Settings example.

To enable user to access the files and printer share on the Samba Server you need to create user for Samba Server.  The step by step procedure below show how to add user to Samba Server using the graphical Samba Server Configuration tool,


1. To create samba user go to Preferences tab, then click on Samba Users to open the Samba Users window.


samba users


On the Samba Users window, click Add User button to open the Create New Samba User window.


add samba user


Provide the necessary information for samba user on Create New Samba User window.


Unix Username: Click and choose the username from local Fedora Core system user Windows Username:  Provide the windows username for the samba user; make note that the Windows Username will be map with the Unix Username when user log in to the samba server.  Note: You can use same username for both Unix Username: and Windows Username:.

Samba Password:  Provide the password for samba user in order enable them to login to samba server.  Note: The password don't have to match the local Fedora Core user password neither the password from local user on Windows system.

Confirm Samba Password:  Retype the password.


Then click OK button to proceed.


create new samba user


The screenshot of list of Samba Users available on the system. Click OK button after done with the samba user creation.

To add share directory / folder for Samba, You can click either the Add Share button or go to and click File -> Add Share from the menu on the Samba Configuration window


open add share buttonopen add share from File menu


On the Create Samba share window, on the Basic tab, you can configure the samba share directory, share name and directory description.  Remember that we already create the directory named smb_share, now click Browse button and point to the directory that we create earlier, then point and click the Access tab to proceed.


Samba share configuration:

Basic tab on Create Samba Share windows


On the Access tab, you can specify the user that can be allow to access the share directory, you can select the user from the list or you can click the radio button to Allow accecc to everyone.


samba allow access to specific user


Samba share directory.


samba server share directory

list of samba users

[[email protected] samba]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/smb start

Starting SMB services: [ OK ]

Starting NMB services: [ OK ]

View share from client

The most important thing is to understand that everything is keyed to the user name. When you boot up the client machine, you need to get logged in with the correct user name.

Now, you ought to be able to browse the network by double-clicking Network Neighborhood (or My Network Places).

If you get an error at this stage, you're most likely not logged on. See the Troubleshooting section for how to proceed.

You can now browse the contents of the XP Professional machine by double-clicking it.

You may now look in the individual shares.  If all is well, you'll see the shares that the user has permissions for, yet you ought to get an Access Denied error (below) if you attempt to access other shares. In this example, we're logged in as Fraser and can access the Boys' stuff, but not the Girls' stuff (right).


Various Costs with performance, security, support and maintenance for Fedora Core 9

Got x86_64 installed and working; seems to be a little smoother than the 32 bit version of Linux.

Notice that browsing through Firefox is a little slow on Fedora 9. This is because Firefox 3 has enabled by default IPv6 which causes Firefox to first resolve an IPv6 address and after the connection fails it switches to IPv4.

To make all mp3 files open by default with Rhytmbox right click on an mp3 file and select 'Open with Other Application.

Fedora 9 comes with Transmission as a default torrent client.

Pretty good ftp client with ssh support. For GNOME users gtk based partition manipulation program.

Fedora 9 will autodetect the Windows Partitions (FAT32, NTFS) that may have in computer's hard disk and it will place an icon of them on the desktop. Moreover ntfs-3g is installed by default which means that read/write access in NTFS partitions also.

At First, install some libraries needed by Sun' Java. Open a console and type:

su -c 'yum install compat-libstdc++-33 compat-libstdc++-296'

When the libraries are installed create the neccessary links by typing:

su -c '/sbin/ldconfig'

Now to go to sun's java site. Click on the download button next to 'Java Runtime Environment (JRE) 6 Update 6'.

Fedora 9 uses default which provides automatic network detection and configuration for the system. However some users may experience problems especially in case they are using static ips. Generally is most useful for modern laptops, where the user may move between wireless networks, and plug in to a variety of wired networks. Therefore, do not apply the following unless you have problems connecting to your Local Network with a static IP or through DHCP.

A common problem relevant to that each time boot Fedora ethernet card is inactive. Moreover, even if create a wired connection it isn't properly initialized when login and therefore don't have ethernet and internet access. In that case continue reading.

Task - 2

Current VPN technologies for Hardware and Software

Virtual private networks, or VPNs, extend the reach of LANs without requiring owned or leased private lines. Companies can use VPNs to provide remote and mobile users with network access, connect geographically separated branches into a unified network and enable the remote use of applications that rely on internal servers.

VPNs can use one or both of two mechanisms. One is to use private circuits leased from a trusted communications provider: alone, this is called a trusted VPN. The other is to send encrypted traffic over the public Internet: alone, this is called a secure VPN. Using a secure VPN over a trusted VPN is called a hybrid VPN. Combining two kinds of secure VPN into one gateway, for instance, IPsec and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), is also called a hybrid VPN.

Trusted VPNs

Over the years, implementations of trusted VPNs have moved from raw private circuits leased from telecommunications vendors to private IP network circuits leased from Internet providers. The major technologies used for implementing trusted VPNs over IP networks are ATM circuits, frame-relay circuits and Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS).

ATM and frame relay operate at the data link layer, which is Layer 2 of the OSI model. (Layer 1 is the physical layer; Layer 3 is the network layer.) MPLS emulates some properties of a circuit-switched network over a packet-switched network, and operates at a layer often referred to as "2.5" that is intermediate between the data link and the network. MPLS is beginning to replace ATM and frame relay to implement trusted VPNs for large corporations and service providers.

Secure VPNs

Secure VPNs can use IPsec with encryption, IPsec with Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), SSL 3.0 or Transport Layer Security (TLS) with encryption, Layer Two Forwarding (L2F) or Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). [Editors' note: an earlier version of this article incorrectly stated that IPsec worked inside of L2TP, while the reverse is true]. Let's go over each of these briefly.

IPsec, or IP security, is a standard for encrypting and/or authenticating IP packets at the network layer. IPsec has a set of cryptographic protocols for two purposes: securing network packets and exchanging encryption keys. Some security experts, for instance, Bruce Schneier of Counterpane Internet Security Inc., have considered IPsec the preferred protocol for VPNs since the late 1990s. IPsec is supported in Windows XP, 2000, 2003 and Vista; in Linux 2.6 and later; in Mac OS X, NetBSD, FreeBSD and OpenBSD; in Solaris, AIX and HP-UX; and in VxWorks. Many vendors supply IPsec VPN servers and clients.

Microsoft has included PPTP clients in all versions of Windows since Windows 95 OSR2; PPTP clients are in Linux, Mac OS X, Palm PDA devices and Window Mobile 2003 devices. The company has also included PPTP servers in all its server products since Windows NT 4

Benefits and security risks of VPNs

A VPN can erase geographical barriers for a company, enable employees to work efficiently from home and allow a business to connect securely with its vendors and partners. A VPN is usually much cheaper to own and operate than private lines.

On the other hand, the use of a VPN can expose a company to potential security risks. While most VPNs in use are now fairly secure in and of themselves, a VPN can make it more difficult to secure the perimeter of a network properly. It is incumbent upon network administrators to apply the same security standards to computers connecting to the network via VPN as computers directly connected to the LAN.

Combining the use of two VPNs simultaneously can potentially expose one company's network to another's. In addition, using remote control software such as PC Anywhere, GoToMyPC or VNC in combination with a VPN can expose the company's network to the malware present on a remote computer that is not itself connection to the VPN.

Reliability, scalability and performance of VPNs

Because secure VPNs rely on encryption and some of the cryptographic functions used are computationally expensive, a heavily used VPN can load down its server. Administrators typically manage the server load by limiting the number of simultaneous connections to what the server can handle.

When the number of people attempting to connect to the VPN suddenly peaks, for example, during a storm that disrupts transportation, employees may find themselves unable to connect because all VPN ports are busy. That gives administrators motivation to make key applications work without requiring the VPN, for instance, by setting up proxy servers or Internet Message Access Protocol servers to enable employees to access e-mail from home or from the road.

Deciding between IPsec and SSL/TLS for a given scenario can be complicated. One consideration is that SSL/TLS can work through a NAT-based firewall; IPsec cannot, but both protocols work through firewalls that do not translate addresses.

IPsec encrypts all IP traffic that flows between two computers. SSL/TLS is specific to an application. SSL/TLS uses expensive asymmetric encryption functions to establish a connection, and more efficient symmetric encryption functions to secure a running session.

In a real-world remote application, administrators may decide to mix and match protocols for the optimum balance of performance and security. For example, clients might connect to a Web-based front end through a firewall using a browser secured by SSL/TLS; the Web server might connect to an application server using IPsec; and the application server might connect to a database server across another firewall using SSL.

The scalability of VPNs can sometimes be improved by the use of dedicated server hardware. To cover that, however, we'd have to wade through the competing claims of VPN vendors: perhaps a subject for another day.

Design a suitable VPN using appropriate ISP for National Bank

List the Hardware and Software requirement for National Bank VPN

SonicWALL VPN Devices and Software

VPN is Based on the IPSec Standard

Traditional remote access required companies to lease expensive, dedicated data lines or maintain modem banks, telephone lines, and pay telecommunication usage charges to support dial-up users. The prohibitive costs of dedicated data lines forced most small and medium organizations to use slow, dial-up connections for remote access. Even this option was expensive and complex to deploy.

With the advent of affordable broadband and standards-based VPN, organizations can bypass these expensive and complex remote access solutions. A VPN delivers remote access via ubiquitous Internet connections. With today's VPN technology and broadband connections, companies of any size use the Internet to securely extend the reach of their network resources. With the advent of ubiquitous Internet access and VPN technology, remote access is handled through the same connection used for Internet service.

Working Smarter with VPNs

SonicWALL VPN enables simple and cost effective remote access for telecommuters, branch offices, partners and others you want to give access to your network resources. SonicWALL's IPSec-based VPN seamlessly operates with SonicWALL Internet security appliances to create an integrated security and remote access solution. Because SonicWALL VPN is based on the IPSec standard, it's compatible with other VPN gateways, including Check Point Firewall-1, Cisco PIX, Nortel Contivity and Axent Raptor. SonicWALL VPN is easy to set up using the streamlined Web-based interface incorporated in every SonicWALL Internet security WALL VPN router

Integrated Security and VPN Solution

SonicWALL delivers integrated security and VPN solutions tailored to the needs of an organization. VPN Appliances are an integrated VPN gateway and security platform that can be seamlessly snapped together like LEGOsâ„¢ to create a cost-effective, modular security and remote access solution to for supporting the distributed workplace. SonicWALL's renowned ease-of use enables small and medium organizations to deploy an enterprise class security and VPN solution within the constraints of limited IT resources.


Operating System

Utilizing SonicWALL's feature-rich SonicOS operating system, SonicWALL VPN appliances offer a choice between absolute ease-of-use for basic networks and ultimate flexibility for networks with more complex needs. SonicOS Standard allows rapid deployment in basic networks with a user-friendly Web interface and powerful wizards. Building upon SonicOS Standard, SonicOS Enhanced is an optional software upgrade that provides advanced features including WAN ISP Fail-Over, Object-Based Management and Policy-Based NAT, for more complex network installations. With integrated support for SonicWALL's portfolio of optional security services, VPN appliances provide rock-solid network security, powerful performance and low total-cost-of-ownership in a flexible, scalable solution.

 VPN Management

Global Management System (GMS) allows your organization to define, deploy, and enforce security policies across the distributed network from a central location. Via a secure VPN tunnel, a single administrator can manage remote SonicWALL VPN Appliances to ensure uniform security and VPN policies are pushed to all remote sites. This centralized management of your security and VPN system eliminates the user from the security management matrix to ensure uniform policies across all your remote sites.

VPN Project Schedule for National Bank

Task No

Task Descriptions



Feasibility for Rural Development of National Bank

2 weeks


Network Planning Design for National Bank

4 days


Collecting Hardware and Software for Bank Network

2 weeks


Setting Up Bank Network

1 month


Installation and Setup of Network Operating System

2 weeks


Setting up VPN for National Bank

1 week


Running and testing VPN

2 weeks


Testing and training to Bank Staff

2 weeks

The responsibilities and level of service required from ISP

The VPN Service classifies ISP services into:

Service areas - broad areas, shown on as below:

Communication and collaboration

Data and file management

High performance computing

Information services


Security and identity management

For selected services, a full description is provided, as follows:

Service summary

Service details

Prerequisites and set-up information


Applying for the service

Availability and restrictions

Service use and liaison

Task - 3

Correct Report on Virus and Security Policy

The principal variation between a Trojan horse, or Trojan, and a virus is that Trojans don't spread themselves. Trojan horses disguise themselves as valuable and useful software available for download on the internet. Many inexperienced clients download and execute/install them, simply to understand their fault later.

A Trojan Horse is typically separated into two parts - a server and a client. It's the client that is cleverly disguised as significant software and positioned in peer-to-peer file sharing networks, or unauthorized download websites. Once the client Trojan executes on computer, the attacker. The person running the server, has a high level of control over computer, which can lead to destructive effects depending on the attacker's purpose.

A Trojan Horse virus can spread in a number of ways. The most common means of infection is through email attachments. The developer of the virus usually uses various spamming techniques in order to distribute the virus to unsuspecting users. Another method used by malware developers to spread their Trojan Horse viruses is via chat software such as Yahoo Messenger and Skype. Another method used by this virus in order to infect other machines is through sending copies of itself to the people in the address book of a user whose computer has already been infected by the virus.

Types of Trojan Horse Viruses

Trojan Horses have developed to a remarkable level of cleverness, which makes each one radically different from each other. For an inclusive understanding, we have classified them into the following:

Remote Access Trojans

Remote Access Trojans are the most frequently available Trojans. These give an attacker absolute control over the victim's computers. The attacker can go through the files and access any personal information about the user that may be stored in the files, such as credit card numbers, passwords, and vital financial documents.

Password Sending Trojans

The intention of Password Sending Trojan is to copy all the cached passwords and look for other passwords as you key them into your computer, and send them to particular email addresses. These actions are performed without the awareness of the users. Passwords for restricted websites, messaging services, FTP services and email services come under direct threat with this kind of Trojan.

Key Loggers

Key Loggers type of Trojans logs victims' keystrokes and then send the log files to the attacker. It then searches for passwords or other sensitive data in the log files. Most of the Key Loggers come with two functions, such as online and offline recording. Of course, they can be configured to send the log file to a specific email address on a daily basis.

Destructive Trojans

The only purpose of Destructive Trojans is to destroy and delete files from the victims' computers. They can automatically delete all the core system files of the computer. Destructive Trojan could be controlled by the attacker or could be programmed to strike like a logic bomb, starting on a particular day or at specific time.

Denial of Service (DoS) Attack Trojans

The core design intention behind Denial of Service (DoS) Attack Trojan is to produce a lot of internet traffic on the victim's computer or server, to the point that the Internet connection becomes too congested to let anyone visit a website or download something. An additional variation of DoS Trojan is the Mail-Bomb Trojan, whose key plan is to infect as many computers as possible, concurrently attacking numerous email addresses with haphazard subjects and contents that cannot be filtered.

Proxy/Wingate Trojans

Proxy/Wingate Trojans convert the victim's computer into a Proxy/Wingate server. That way, the infected computer is accessible to the entire globe to be used for anonymous access to a variety of unsafe Internet services. The attacker can register domains or access pornographic websites with stolen credit cards or do related illegal activities without being traced.

FTP Trojans

FTP Trojans are possibly the most simple, and are outdated. The only action they perform is, open a port numbered 21 - the port for FTP transfers - and let anyone connect to your computer via FTP protocol. Advance versions are password-protected, so only the attacker can connect to your computer.

Software Detection Killers

Software Detection Killers kill popular antivirus/firewall programs that guard your computer to give the attacker access to the victim's machine.

Prevention and Security Policy

The best way to prevent a Trojan Horse Virus from entering and infecting your computer is to never open email attachments or files that have been sent by unknown senders. However, not all files we can receive are guaranteed to be virus-free. With this, a good way of protecting your PC against malicious programs such as this harmful application is to install and update an antivirus program.