Microprocessor and central processing unit

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A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC).

These microprocessors can be used in making various types of electronic machines, generally named as SIMPLE ROBOTS.

A microprocessor is defined as a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit. Continuing developments in microprocessor technologies have resulted in microprocessors being used in many devices and applications, from aviation, security systems, household appliances, to mobile phone technologies. Within this project, the microprocessor is a PIC microcontroller, a programmable device that is able to store sets of instructions and carry them out when the program is run. This process is called microprocessor programming.

We can actually take the help of a microprocessor in making autonomous mobile robots. In particular, the major issues investigated are cognitive behavior, and motion. Cognitive behavior addresses problem solving using sensory inputs and desired goals. Motion deals with aspects of movement in the real world from simple fixed-base robotic arm movement to autonomous rovers in unknown environments.

To build a simple robot we need :

  1. Application Program.
  2. Instruction Set Architecture.
  3. I/O Interfaces.
  4. Micro-architecture.
  5. Logic Gates.
  6. Circuits.
  7. Devices.
  8. Language.
  9. Micro-controller.

Peripherals required are:

Input devices

  • Mechanical - strain gauges, keyboards, mouses
  • Electrical - Field probes, network cables
  • Magnetic - Tape heads, disk heads
  • Optical - wands, cameras
  • Sound - microphones

Output devices

  • Mechanical - impact printers, card punches
  • Electrical - Network cables
  • Magnetic - Tape heads, disk heads
  • Optical - CRT, projectors
  • Sound - speakers

Description of some examples of simple robots:

Horizontal beam, saving space and eliminating the need for a separate control cabinet. The wider horizontal beam also creates a robust support for the robot, working to stabilize the system and minimize vibrations. The Series Compact robot can handle payloads up to 15 kg and offers frequency configurations. Also, the Series Compact?s bearing system is said to require less lubrication, reducing maintenance.

The next-generation microprocessor control uses the same user-friendly graphical programming as previous Wittmann robots, eliminating the need to retrain operators already familiar with Wittmann controls. The control can also interface with downstream auxiliaries. An emergency stop unit can be removed to prevent changes

Sensors act as eyes Controller interprets current state, remembers past state, computes control action Avoider: no history required Wall-follower: make sure distance to wall stays constant Maze-solver: use sensors and motor run time to estimate position Controller sends pulses tell servos when and how to turn.

Robots set to use x86 microprocessors:

We could see x86-based processors such as Intel's Atom competing against various ARM-based solutions. These processors are on their way to ramping up in mobile devices and in home consumer electronics, and will be applicable to lower-cost personal robotics as well. As shipments of such processors' grow, their falling prices would make them increasingly attractive. We would likely see very small, lower-power x86 processors used as the main processors, alongside ARM processors.