Microelectronics and nanoelectronics


This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.


Microelectronics and Nanoelectronics are subfields of electronics which are specific to small scale electronics which contain millions of components in a single module. These modules are normally referred to as Integrated Circuits. The size of integrated circuits has decreased rapidly whilst the number of components in the circuit has been increasing rapidly.

Before the invention of Transistors electronic circuits where made using Vacuum Tubes however these where very inefficient as they generated a lot of heat and where generally unreliable and in fact ENIAC, the first computer ever built, according to Presper Eckert (co-inventor of ENIAC) "we had a tube fail about every two days and we could locate the problem within 15 minutes." (Randall, 2006) This combined with the fact that the tubes were quite large meant that the computers that used vacuum tubes ended up being huge and required a lot of electricity to operate. In fact according to Eckert ENIAC had "voltage regulators to provide 150 kilowatts of regulated supply" (Randall, 2006) which is between 150 and 300 times the power requirements of a modern computer which is considerably more powerful in terms of what it can do. The large size of these devices as well as the complexity of their wiring meant that they could not be mass manufactured and hence they were expensive.

With the invention of transistors and later on integrated circuits the size of the devices decreased drastically and since these could be mass manufactured the cost decreased as well thus making the computer and modern electronic devices available to the masses.


Transistors were invented in the late 1950s at AT & T's Bell Laboratories by John Bardeen, Waltair Brattain and William Shockley. They shared the Nobel Prize in Physics 1956 for their work on semiconductors and their discovery of transistors. Transistors were a very important development in the field of microelectronics as they had a number of advantages on vacuum tubes particularly:

  1. They are much smaller than vacuum tubes as well as being lighter
  2. The manufacturing process can be automated thus reducing manufacturing costs
  3. They can work with low voltages and so can be used in battery operated devices
  4. They generate less heat and are generally more efficient
  5. They have a longer life and thus they are more reliable. This means that the devices can run longer without requiring maintenance
  6. They are not affected by vibrations and shocks

Integrated Circuits

MOS Transistors



Effects on Society and Economy


Unused References

  • http://www.utdallas.edu/~jblee/EE3310/History%20of%20microelectronics.pdf
  • http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf
  • http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/print/108568/Q_A_A_lost_interview_with_ENIAC_co_inventor_J._Presper_Eckert


  • Randall, A. (2006, 2 14). Q&A: A lost interview with ENIAC co-inventor J. Presper Eckert. Retrieved 01 2010, 05, from ComputerWorld: http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/print/108568/Q_A_A_lost_interview_with_ENIAC_co_inventor_J._Presper_Eckert
  • Stallings, W. (2006). Computer Organization & Architecture - Designing for Performance (7th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Writing Services

Essay Writing

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.