Markup Language Is A Modern System Computer Science Essay

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document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text. The idea and terminology evolved from the marking up of manuscripts, i.e., the revision instructions by editors, traditionally written with a blue pencil on authors' manuscripts. Markup instructs the software displaying the text to carry out appropriate actions, but is omitted from the version of the text that is displayed to users. Some markup languages, such as HTML, have pre-defined presentation semantics, meaning that their specification prescribes how the structured data are to be presented; others, such as XML, do not.


HTML is short for HyperText Markup Language and is a language used to create electronic documents, especially pages on the World Wide Web that contains connections called hyperlinks to other pages. Every web page you see on the Internet, including this one contains HTML code that helps format and show text and images in an easy to read format. Without HTML a browser would not know how to format a page and would only display plain text with no formatting that contained no links. Below is an example of a basic web page in HTML code.

The syntax for html is shown below

<html lang="en"><head>

<title>Example page</title>



<h1>This is a heading</h1>

<p>This is an example of a basic HTML page.</p>



Short for extensible Markup Language, XML is a specification developed by W3C starting with the recommendation on February 10, 1998. (

XML is similar to HTML in that XML uses Tags to markup a document, allowing a browser to interpret the tags and display them on a page. However, unlike HTML, XML language is unlimited and allows self-defining tags.

Difference between HTML and XML

HTML is an abbreviation for HyperText Markup language 

while XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language.

The differences are as follows:-

HTML was designed to display data which focus on how data looks while XML was designed to be a software and hardware independent tool used to transport and store data, with focus on what data is.

HTML is a markup language itself while XML provides a framework for defining markup languages.

HTML is a presentation language while XML is neither a programming language nor a presentation language.

HTML is case insensitive while XML is case sensitive.

HTML is used for designing a web-page to be rendered on the client side while XML is used basically to transport data between the application and the database.

HTML has it own predefined tags while what makes XML flexible is that custom tags can be defined and the tags are invented by the author of the XML document.

HTML is not strict if the user does not use the closing tags but XML makes it mandatory for the user the close each tag that has been used.

HTML does not preserve white space while XML does.

HTML is about displaying data, hence static but XML is about carrying information, hence dynamic.

Task 2

What is your understanding about web authoring tools? Explore features of any two web authoring tools

Web authoring tools are used to create web content, and cover a wide range of software programs. The programs include word processors desktop publishing programs, webpage builders, website management systems and HTML editors. Any software program that can be used to create content that can be uploaded and viewed on the Internet or intranet network systems is considered a web authoring tool.

Features of two web authoring tools

The two web authoring tools I will describe are

Adobe Dreamweaver

Adobe creative suite

Adobe Dreamweaver

Adobe Dreamweaver is a proprietary web development application developed by Adobe Systems.  Dreamweaver is a very commonly used web authoring tool. It can be used for almost everything such as JSP, XHTML, HTML, PHP and XML development. Adobe Dreamweaver is a very popular choice among professional web developers


Dreamweaver, like other HTML editors, edits files locally then uploads them to the remote web server using FTP, SFTP, orWebDAV. Dreamweaver CS4 now supports the Subversion (SVN) version control system.

Graphical Interface for designing websites

Like other popular Web design software, Dreamweaver provides an easy to use Graphical user interface to help build different pages of a website. With Dreamweaver, a web designer can design a website by dragging and dropping objects as opposed to having to code it from scratch. Dreamweaver offers a WISYWIG method for web design. WYSIWIG refers to 'What you see is what you get'. It is a common terminology in software design used commonly to describe software in which content displayed during editing appears almost identical to the final output. This makes the web design process easier and more efficient as you are able to view the end result while editing the web-page.

Can be used by Web Designers as well as non-technical users

Dreamweaver has many built in features that make it relatively easy to design a professional corporate or personal website. It is popular with both, professional web designers as well as non technical users with limited web design and development experience. It makes it possible to design a website without having to code any part of it. This has also made Dreamweaver popular among non technical users. Although use of advanced features will require some web design skills and experience, basic features can be utilised simply with the help of self-thought tutorials easily available with the software and available on the internet.

Database Capabilities

Innovative web design software such as Dreamweaver is equally effective for designing static HTML websites as well for designing dynamic database driven websites. Dreamweaver works equally well for designing database driven websites.

Support for CSS, JavaScript and XML

Advance support for handling JavaScript, Ajax and Xml is another reason behind the success of recent versions of Dreamweaver. Ajax is a popular new technology that is used widely in development of modern websites. It combines JavaScript, CSS and XML to update website content without requiring a new page or reloading of the page. The new Dreamweaver CS series includes built in support for handling new web design approaches including Ajax. This has proved for experienced web developers and designers who are able to utilise the latest technologies in designing websites.

Dreamweaver includes professional support for handling CSS Styles. The built-in CSS Panel makes it easy for a web designer to create and edit style sheets.

Group Working

Dreamweaver also offers Group working capabilities. This can prove particularly useful for a Web Design Company or a Team of web designers. It allows a designer to 'Lock' a page to prevent other team members from overwriting or editing the same part of the web page. The notes feature of Dreamweaver on the other hand allows web designers to keep a note of their changes.

Built in FTP

Dreamweaver has built-in FTP software that allows web designers to manage the completed files on server with ease. Traditionally a Web Design Company or a web developer would use different software tools for designing a website and for updating files on the server. Dreamweaver makes this easier by combining FTP capabilities into its design software.

b) Adobe Creative suite

Adobe creative suite is another important web authoring tool. Its products include WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get), text web page editor, graphics software, video software and more. Adobe Creative Suite has various different versions which all suit to web developers. There are many features which increase the reliability of an authoring tool but some of the most important features of Adobe creative suit are listed below.

HTML validator

Without a built in validator the designer cannot write a valid code which means the designer can't be sure what he/she s writing is going to work. HTML validator is a very important feature in creative Suite, however many text editors don't include a HTML validator e.g. boxer text editor and crimson editor

CSS and Accessibility validators

If a web editor does not have CSS and Accessibility validators its possible the wrong code code could be written or be inaccessible. This feature in Creative Suite is new and lots of web editors don't have this feature.

New filter panel for fast file selection

Bridges let you clear the clutter and focus on what is critical by providing direct access to the important information about the project files

Enhanced preview panel for convenient viewing

Quickly display an image in a full-screen preview panel and use the new loupe tool in zoom in and inspect details. It displays images side by side in the preview panel for easy comparison

Combines files into stacks

Simplifies and focus view of assets by combining files into stacks. Stacks compress multiple images into a single thumbnail with a single click and expand them again just as easy.

Advanced compositing

Creating an outstanding image often means joining the best features of numerous versions of that image. New tools in Photoshop CS3 make this common task faster and easier. Auto assign layers command quickly analyzes details and moves rotates or wrap layers to align them perfectly

Enhanced control panel

Keep tools at fingertips and free up screen real estate by accessing anchor-point controls, clipping masks, envelop distortions and more from the context sensitive control panel.

Colour coding and tag completion

Colour coding is very important when working on the text editor. Colour coding is used to see what you are writing. live colour dialogue box provides tools for dynamically applying colours to artwork

Task 3

What features are important to consider when selecting any web authoring tool

All web editors have either a text editor to edit the HTML tags or wysiwyg editor to edit the pages visually. The main important features are

HTML Validator

It's not possible to write a valid code if the editor doesn't have a built in validator and it's not certain that everything will go well. Several text editors do not include an html validator such as boxer and crimson editor

CSS and Accessibility validators

CSS and Accessibility validators are used so that the codes are not written wrongly. If a web editor does not have CSS and accessibility validators it is possible that mistakes could be made in the code writing or inaccessible pages, this is a new feature

Colour coding and tag completion

Colour coding is important when working on the text editor. Colour coding is used to see what s being written. Tag completion is used to get the right attributes and mae sure the designer is writing the right spelling of a tag.

FTP, FTPs, and site manager

Once the web page is created it needs to be sent to web hosting provider. Ftp built into the editor makes it easier. Good web editors include some type of site manager that can upload multiple of files, compare live files to the files on desktop, and keep the site up-to date automatically. FTP's should be used because of security concerns.

Version control

Version controls allows check in and checkout files. This makes it simple to correct the errors quickly and work as a team on project

Search and replace

There are only some editors that do not have some form of search and replace, but numerous do not allow for search and replace across multiple files. The best editors enable the search and replace across all open files, all files in a directory, or even all files in a project/site.