Mapping Usually Refers To Map Making Computer Science Essay

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Mapping usually refers to map-making where it represents of an area of land or sea which showing physical features and it often used instead of cartography. Mapping term is sometimes used for geospatial data collection like remote sensing. There a many type of mapping for example topographic, bathymetric, cadastral, photogrammetric mapping, remote sensing, etc. From all type of the mapping, photogrammetric is the best mapping because it gaining trustworthy information about physical features and the environment. It can cover from large into small area.

Mapping also can be representing in 2D and also 3D. The photogrammetric technique is often used as data generation and also processing. For data generate will carried out two overlapping aerial photograph. Data processing will be carried out by software. In photogrammetric, 3D model can be generated using 3D stereo model and I also can be generated by various technique.

Some of photogrammetric software consist or provide a different accuracy of 3D model like Erdas Imagine, Topcon PI 3000 Image Master, Leica Photogrammetric Suit and others. However digital photogrammetry like software make the photogrammetric become easier, faster, simpler and also give a low cost. According to ERDAS (2002), this photogrammetric technique is closely integrated into remote sensing and GIS.

According to Anuar Ahmad (2012), Digital photogrammetric method involves processing the digital images of aerial photograph using computer. The digital images can be captured directly using digital camera or scanned from aerial photographs. In digital photogrammetry, many tasks can be highly automated. In this study, there will be used two kind of digital photogrammetric software known as Leica Photogrammetric Suite (LPS) and PHOTOMOD.

LPS can be defined as a photogrammetric software application on imagery and it also used for extracting information from imagery. This imagery may be come from remote sensing, airborne/aircraft cameras, or ground-based cameras. For PHOTOMOD, it is planned for remote sensing data through photogrammetric processing. PHOTOMOD also allows in exploring wide-ranging possibilities and performance. Next data will be used is ground control point which will establish using Global Positioning System (GPS).

By using photogrammetric software, it is to empower users to change raw imagery into dependable data layers required for all digital mapping, 3D visualization and GIS analysis. This will evaluate for capabilities of selected software producing technique for 3D mapping. This study will be benefit for any application for example Location Based Service (LBS), Augmented Reality, 3D city model, etc.

Problem Statement

Nowadays, users cannot deny there a lot of software to process the raw data for photogrammetric. All of them have advantages and disadvantage in creating the quality product. Some of it gave different accuracy which is high or level accuracy. In these studies, it will evaluate for capabilities of selected software producing technique for 3D mapping. This will give some of user choichoosing the best software for processing the photogrammetry data.

Next problem is about the data input where the current aerial photograph is not been up-to-date. It may be happen because of costing, time and also the equipment. For example costing like the surveyor need to book an aero plane for taking the photograph, if there happen any mistake it need to fly again and it used a lot of money.

Aim

The aim of this study is to produce 3D GIS maps and evaluate their accuracy using different photogrammetric software (LPS, PHOTOMOD, DVP etc.).

Objective

To conduct GPS survey for ground control points.

To produce digital GIS map using photogrammetric techniques and software.

To compare the capabilities of selected photogrammetric software for producing 3D GIS Map.

Scope of Study

This study will focus on comparing the capabilities of the selected photogrammetric software for producing 3D GIS map. For some reason, one of the software maybe users friendly, more accurate, give high resolution mapping or so on.

Study Area

The studies area will carry out on Shah Alam city and possible to cover around UiTM.

Software

For these studies, it is using two different type of software. The software will be use is Leica Photogrammetric Suite (LPS) and PHOTOMOD.

Data Required

In this study, the data will be involved Aerial Photograph and Ground Control Point using Global Positioning System (GPS).

CHAPTER 2

PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SOFTWARE FOR 3D GIS MAPPING

Introduction

In this chapter describes the theory, application of GIS in 3D mapping by using photogrammetric software.

Mapping

Mapping usually refers to map-making where it represents of an area of land or sea which showing physical features and it often used instead of cartography. Mapping term is sometimes used for geospatial data collection like remote sensing. There a many type of mapping for example topographic, bathymetric, cadastral, photogrammetric mapping, remote sensing, etc. From all type of the mapping, photogrammetric is the best mapping because it gaining information about physical features and the environment. It can cover from large into a small area.

Photogrammetric mapping

Photogrammetric mapping can be described as a process of collecting geographic and information about physical ground features and the environment by recording, measuring and interpreting of aerial photographic images. Photogrammetric mapping also can be representing in 2D and also 3D. In photogrammetric, 3D model can be generated using 3D stereo model and also can be generated by various technique. To generate 3D model, it can be using aerial photogrammetry and close range methods. The photogrammetric technique is often used as data generation and also processing. For data generate will carried out two overlapping aerial photograph. The data processing will be carried out by software.

Photogrammetric Software

According to A. Ahmad (2011), Digital photogrammetric method involves processing the digital images of aerial photograph using computer. The digital images can be captured directly using digital camera or scanned from aerial photographs. In digital photogrammetry, many tasks can be highly automated. Some of photogrammetric software produce or provide a different accuracy of 3D model/map such as Erdas Imagine, Topcon PI 3000 Image Master, Leica Photogrammetric Suite (LPS) and others.

However digital photogrammetry like software make the photogrammetric become easier, faster, and simpler and also give a low cost. According to ERDAS (2002), this photogrammetric technique is closely integrated into remote sensing and GIS. In this study, there will be used two kind of digital photogrammetric software known as Leica Photogrammetric Suite (LPS) and PHOTOMOD.

Leica Photogrammetric Suite (LPS)

LPS can be defined as a photogrammetric software application on imagery and it also used for extracting information from imagery. This imagery may be come from remote sensing, airborne/aircraft cameras, or ground-based cameras. LPS where usually used in raw imagery processing over the creation of geospatial data products for example 3D features, Orthophoto and Digital terrain models (DTM).

PHOTOMOD

One of the digital photogrammetric software will be used in these study is PHOTOMOD. This software was one of first photogrammetric software where it design as off-the-shelf PCs and developed by Racurs Company from Russia. Nowadays, this software was recognized as most popular photogrammetric software at Russia.

PHOTOMOD can be describing as intended for remote sensing data photogrammetric processing. PHOTOMOD also allows in exploring wide-ranging possibilities and performance. The advantages using this software were the data processing workflow not dealing with third party products, It also support variety of input device and also specialize in 3D controllers, and it had high level of automation for the photogrammetric operation.

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

Introduction

There are several stages of methodological process that used in this project. It start from data input as Aerial Photo as a base map. Then the data collecting by establish GCP's using GPS and after that the data will be process using different software such as PHOTOMOD and LPS. Lastly will be the result and analysis where the result of comparison of photogrammetric software capabilities.

Methodology

DATA INPUT

(Aerial Photo)

DATA COLLECTING

Establish Ground Control Points (GSP's)

DATA PROCESSING

PHOTOMOD and LPS software

RESULT AND ANALYSIS

Ground control coordinate (x,y,z)

3D maps of Shah Alam

Comparison table of photogrammetric software capabilities

Data Input

For data input, the aerial photograph of the study area will be used. Before it can be used, it need to scan and save/ stored in Tagged Image File Format (.tiff). This is because of the quality of image remind high without lose the quality of the image.

Acquisition of Aerial Photograph

Aerial photograph is the photograph that taking the image of the ground from some of high position. Even though aerial photograph were present as "bird's - eye" view but it still not a type of maps. It has four types of aerial photographs and there are Oblique photographs, Vertical photographs, Combinations and Orthophotos.

In these studies, the aerial photographs were developed by Department of Surveying and Mapping Malaysia (DSMM). This aerial photographs were acquired in 2004. Fig. 3.1 shows the Aerial photographs of Shah Alam where it cover UiTM Shah Alam.

C:\Users\user\Desktop\Images\L14eph30i.tif

Figure 3. : Aerial Photographs of Shah Alam

Establishment of Ground Control Points

Before starting the data process, ground control points should be collect first. From the definition, ground control points is a point that been located at known location on the earth surface which is used as the references on the images data sources. According to IES (2008), the basic premise for GCP's and check points is that should be of a quality three better than the specification, that is 0.8m RMSE for the 2.5m RMSE specification.

To establish the control point, the control points need to locate at the target area which easily to identified. The control point should be in open space where there no disruption such as multipath. After that, the coordinate of the control point will be establish or observe by GPS.

Data Processing

The data processing using different photogrammetric software may be has same step. It has various processing steps which start from an orientation to feature extraction from Digital Terrain Model (DTM). It have three important processes in orientation there are Interior Orientation, Relative Orientation and Exterior Orientation.

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