Main Hardware And Software Components Computer Science Essay

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A plan is very important to check the main hardware and software components. The main focus is to ensure that the system is fully implemented and fully working and that all user requirements are met.

Test plans help a company identify what needs to be tested, what has already been tested, how a test was performed, and the progress of a the overall testing before shipping a product. Unlike a standard test, test plans are often more in depth and contain several hundred or thousands of different items that need to be tested.

In the example of the doctors practice the following techniques are used.

Integration testing; - integration testing is the phase in software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. It occurs after unit testing and before validation testing. Integration testing takes as its input modules that have been unit tested, groups them in larger aggregates, applies tests defined in an integration test plan to those aggregates, and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. This test will be very important when looking at the doctors practice. The purpose of integration testing is to verify functional, performance, and reliability requirements placed on major design items. These design items are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing, success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested and individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface. 

System testing; - in the doctors practice system testing is used to check for potential hardware failures. the following components are assessed in system testing

Computer hard drive (HDD)

A bad hard drive can cause an assortment of different issues on the system. Below are just a few of the possible issues the doctors practice may encounter.

Errors when reading, copying, moving, or deleting data on the computer.

Extremely slow.

Operating system unable to boot.

Other random errors or computer reboots.

Hard drive recovery systems can recover lost or damaged files, functional test system can check for the systems reliability and performance. There are different ways of increasing speed of the system if affected. Scandisk, Chkdsk and HDD health are different tools used to diagnose problems with the hardware.

"Although hardware failures can occur with your computer, if it is encountering errors, make sure you've exhausted all software troubleshooting. The majority of errors encountered on a computer are caused by software or hardware drivers, and not a failing hardware device."

Computer memory (RAM)

RAM (random access memory) is the computer memory which normally caused faults to computer hardware. Bad memory could cause an assortment of various issues on your computer. The following are the possible issues that might be encountered. It is very important to remember that these issues can also be caused by more than just bad memory.

System does not boot, instead you get a beep code.

Random system crashes causing BSOD, General Protection Fault error messages, Illegal Operations, Fatal Exceptions, etc.

System random reboots.

Installation of program fails.

There are several software programs obtainable that are designedto examination your computer's hardware encompassing the computer's memory. Below are a insufficient plans projected to examination your computer's memory

Memtest86 - this is for testing computer memory, Memtest86 is a x86 compatible free memory tester. Extensive user guide with simple step-by-step instructions for using Memtest86 to diagnose and troubleshoot PC memory problems

DocMemory - Another great software solution to test the computer's memory. DocMemory Pro "is an advanced self-booting PC Memory Diagnostic Software. This user-friendly software is designed to capture all possible memory failures in a PC. Rigorous test pattern is exercised on both the PC Base and Extended Memory to locate defective memory. During Boot up, DocMemory is able to determine memory capacity with its Auto-Identification feature, displaying easy to read memory related information.

Memory testers - Company offers countless disparate hardware resolution for assessing computer memory. These are the highest quality method for testing recollection but something merely probable to be utilized at computer ability

Computer motherboard & processor (CPU)

A bad computer motherboard or CPU can cause an assortment of different issues on your computer. Below are just a few of the possible issues that may be encountered. It is important to remember that the issues below can also be caused by more than just a bad motherboard and CPU.

Random system crashes causing General Protection Fault error messages, Operations, Fatal, etc.

System randomly reboots.

Just like addressed in the hard drive diagnosis, system checks need to be performed. The following is a listing of software programs available that are configured to test the computer's motherboard and CPU.

Hot CPU Tester - the main software recommendation for testing a computer systems CPU and motherboard. This is a great tool.  This is an outstanding tool. Very efficient to run and use for looking for wrecks alongside your computer. In supplement to assessing a computer, this plan additionally includes a burn-in feature for new computers or computers alongside a new motherboard or CPU.

PC-doctor - An incredible but not inexpensive resolution frequently utilized for ability centres and technicians to diagnosecomputer hardware subjects encompassing motherboard subjects

PC Diagnostics - this is a programme that proposals both hardware and multimedia resolutions for assessing the bulk of the hardware in your computer encompassing the motherboard

Computer power supply (PSU)

Although there are a little plans to aid monitor the voltage and manipulation supplied to the fans in the computer there is no multimedia utility to examination the integrity of computer manipulation supplies.

There are methods of assessing the manipulation connectors on a manipulation supply employing a multimeter/ Volt-Ohm-Meter. 

"multimeter is a device used to test and measure current,

 voltage, and resistance"

However, because of the potential destruction that can be caused to the main power supply, potentially the motherboard and the rest of components connected to it, it is very important to be careful when testing. If the power supply is bad or faulty immediate replacement should be performed.

Computer CD/DVD disc drives

A bad disc drive can cause an assortment of disparate subjects on your computer. Below are just a insufficient of the probable subjects you could encounter. It is vital to recall that the subjects delineated below can additionally be provoked by extra than just a bad disc drive.

Error when attempting to read CD or DVD.

CD's or DVD's may not play video and audio properly.

CD or DVD programs cannot install or may encounter various errors after initial installation

There are several different ways to test your computer's disc drives if it's bad or has flaws that are causing issues with your computer. Below is a catalog of recommendations.

CDRoller - fantastic program that is utilized to examination and if demanded recover data from CD's and DVD's.

CDCheck - Another outstanding program used to aid check CD propels (no DVD compatibility) and can additionally be utilized to aid recoup data from broken discs.

CD/DVD Diagnostic - this is a diagnostic program from Infra - Dyne that is capable of testing a drive and disc, and aiding recovering to some or all data from discs that could be corrupted.

b) Produce a system documentation of your system

User documentation is a documentation to support the end users of the system. This includes both the software and hardware.

Key features in effective user documentation are that it allows the user to

find information quickly

understand information

use the information to get right results

get help if there are any problems


In relation to the task of doctors Practice Company the following will be advantages of user documentation

Allows all users to use the full potential of the computer product

Adds value to the product

Reduces the hours that a help desk might spend supporting the product

The system which is implemented in the doctors practice is very easy to use. The user can simply log in and enter the username and password and have access to the data.


The monitor is the computer hardware which displays the inputs and images without saving them to the computer memory. In the doctors practice the monitor is used together with the CPU to view various tasks and operations in the computer. Monitor needs to be configured / adjusted depending on the user needs. In some cases brightness, contrast and sharpness needs to be adjusted

CPU - Central Processing Unit

CPU contains important hardware components that are in the system. The CPU main devices include, hard drive, RAM, processor and CD/DVD drives. The doctor's practice need to make sure that all devices within the CPU are in working order and all faulty parts are addressed and replaced


Mouse is used for navigating through different programs. In order to access various functionalities of software such as opening a new file. Mouse can be moved in any direction where the user wants. Scroll up or down Selected items can be opened or closed.


Keyboard contains many keys for input. Used o enter data in the system. It contains letters, numbers and symbols and used according to user desire


Printer is the machine that is used to print the documents. Keyboard and mouse are used to locate the specific document and the expected outcome is printed on a piece of paper.


Photocopier is used to make a dublicate copy of the document. Document must be placed in the screen in the copier and lid closed.

Produce a security policy for your system

There are various threats that can affect the systems performance in different ways. Different security threats and procedures are as follows


 Computer virus is a computer program that can replicate itself and spread from one computer to another. The word "virus" is additionally usually, but erroneously, utilized to denote to supplementary kinds of malware, encompassing but not manipulated to adware and spyware plans that do not have a reproductive ability.

Antivirus software needs to be installed on the computer to combat there threats and reduce the risks of virus attacks.



Spyware is a term used to describe a software program that is intentionally installed on the computer by a user to monitor or spy on what supplementary users of the alike computer are doing. Spyware programs are frequently utilized to aid alongside pursuing users' customs and aid alongside carrying proper advertisements to a user. Spyware is installed onto a user's computer when trying to install free programs such as music sharing programs, adult web pages, and through other downloads and plug-ins on the Internet.

Therefore antispyware software's are used to detect and eliminate such potential threats


Alternatively referred to as scum ware, malware is a program that has been intentionally projected to change a user's settings lacking his or her consent, delete a contesting program, cause a contesting multimedia plan to halt working, or leave a computer open to aggressions

Most antivirus software e.g. Norton or Trojan removal software packages are used to detect and eliminate potential threats

Unauthorised access

It is very important to have a password on a system to prevent unauthorised access on the system. Depending on the level of access per user, everyone needs to have a username and a password to access the system.


Threats to physical access of the system will affect the computer files and documents and it is important to back up the files in case of damage. Backup information will be updated regularly and if the hard disc or computer itself is affected then backup can be used to keep the system working and recover lost data.

D ) Demonstrate that the system meets health and safety requirements

" the number of computers in the workplace has increased rapidly over the last few years and it is now quite normal for most staff in organisations to be exposed to computer usage. The health and safety at work lays down legal standards for computer equipment and requires employers to take steps to minimise risks for all workers. Workers have received substantial damages for injuries caused through use of computers where the employer could have foreseen the risk but did nothing about it"

( accessed 28th nov 2012)

Doctors practice surgery health and safety requirements

UK government outlines health and safety requirements in computer environments, different risks are identified and need of professional procedures is discussed. The guideline was provided by the department of works and displayed in the doctors practice surgery.

Working with computers

Health and safety law relating to issues for work with computers is found in the Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992, which define a 'user' as an operative who habitually uses display screen supplies as a significant of their normal work. Checklist for workstations

The DSE Regulations detail the minimum standards for workstations, which are summarised below.

The display screen should:

display well-defined acts of adequate size and spacing

have a stable image

have facilely adjustable brightness and contrast

tilt and swivel facilely to suit the user

be free from glare and reflections

use a distinct center for the screen, or an adjustable table

The keyboard should:

be tilt able and distinct from the screen to permit the user to accept a cozy working position

have a space in front to furnish prop for the labor or arms of the user

have a matt surface

Have clearly legible signals on the keys

The work surface should:

provide enough space for the user

have a low reflective surface

be of appropriate size to allow the screen, keyboard, etc to be flexibly arranged

have a stable, adjustment document holder, that ought be at the alike level as the screen and at the same viewing distance.

The work chair

This ought to have a chair that is adjustable in height, alongside a chair back adjustable in height and tilt. A footrest ought to be available.

Under the regulations, users have a right to eye sight examinations on commencing computer work and at usual intervals thereafter, at the employer's expense. Whereas examinations display that the user needs distinct spectacles/lenses for computer work, the employer have to wage for the price of a frank pair.

Computer cables

The computer cables need to be well organised and tidy to ensure no hazard comes to the users who operate or walk around the systems.

Electrical safety

The use, inspection, maintenance and repair of electrical equipment and installations in the doctors practice is legally required to be managed effectively.

The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 place a duty on employers to carry out risk assessments, which involves identifying hazards in the workplace, including those electrical.

The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989, which apply to all educational establishments, require employers to assess activities taking place on or near electrical systems that may lead to danger and/or personal injury. These regulations make it clear that the maintenance and repair of electrical supplies have to be grasped out by competent persons. Below is a projected programme of Visual checks of electrical equipment

The following questions could be asked:

Is there damage to the plug being used?

Any loose or bare wires on the electrical component or equipment?

Are any parts of the equipment appear missing?

Is it noisy?

Is there a burning smell?

Is the equipment becoming hot when it is running?

Inspection and testing

The Health and Safety Executive advises the following.

A catalog of all electrical supplies is coordinated, that could be seized room-by-room or department by department.

The catalog is periodically notified by a competent person who ought to scrutinize the equipment. Obsolete, redundant or defective equipment ought to be removed and be properly overhauled or disposed of.

Fixed electrical installations need to be inspected and tested by a qualified person at least every five years. There needs to be more frequent inspections when installations are subject to damage or abuse.

A test certificate documentation that confirms the date and results of the inspection and test.

All electrical equipments including socket outlets and other fittings e.g. lights, should be chosen remembering the use and abuse to which they may be subjected.

e). Explain how to customise operating systems

Once the operating system is installed on the machine, it can be optimised according to user specification needs. In the doctors practice the system used is windows vista as an operating system which is easy to customise and make changes. Windows vista allows us to change the appearance and functionality with the help of a few clicks

To customise the vista operating system, the user needs to click on the taskbar and go to properties and following dialog box will appear

The tool bar can be customised with various options

There are various options for each program or control on the taskbar. We can chose the appropriate and click OK to make the necessary changes.

We can also customized the display by right clicking the desktop and go to properties

Evaluate the performance of the selected system.

"Regular monitoring of your PC is as important as monitoring your own health. This is because PC problems that may that may be small and controllable in the initial stages may go out of control if left unattended. Evaluating the performance of your PC at regular intervals helps in diagnosing its functioning and any possible issues. It is also useful for finding the exact statistics related to performance so that nessesary steps can be taken,if required,on time so that you do not need to bother about finding computer support service providers to get things sorted out" ( http://ezinearticles

Tasks were needed to be carried out in relation to the doctor practice surgery needs and ensure the system performance is as expected. Various software's were used to automatically troubleshoot and repair Windows performance problems. Improve, optimize and speed up the computers and make slow running PCs faster.

The following issues were addressed

Power plan is set to power saver

More than one user is logged on to this computer

Multiple anti-virus programs are running (Norton)

Several programs are running when Windows starts

Running advanced visual effects (like Vista transparency)and running multiple programs at once may affect performance

Feedback was required in order to understand the user needs and if the system addressed their issues.

The following issues were achieved

Short response time for a given piece of work

High throughput (rate of processing work)

Low utilization of computing resource(s)

High availability of the computing system or application

Fast (or highly compact) data compression and decompression

High bandwidth / short data transmission time

We found that the selected system performance is on quality standards and all issues were addressed.