Mac Os X Snow Leopard Computer Science Essay

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Mac OS X Snow Leopard is an operating system that developed by Apple Computer Inc. Mac OS X snow Leopard is the seventh generation which is OS X v10.6. It released on 28 August 2009 as successor of Tiger v10.4.Before that that have a lot type of previous version which is OS X v10.0 Cheetah (First Generation), OS X v10.1 Puma (Second Generation), OS X v10.2 Jaguar (Third Generation), OS X v10.3 Panther (Fourth Generation), OS X v10.4 Tiger (Fifth Generation), OS X v10.5 Leopard (Sixth Generation), OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard (Seventh Generation), OS X v10.7 (Lion) (Eighth Generation) and the latest version which is OS X v10.8 Mountain Lion. Mac OS X Snow Leopard is available in two variants which is desktop version for personal computers and a server version, Mac OS X Server.

Mac OS X Server version 10.6 Snow Leopard combines intuitively simple Macintosh

ease of use with a mature, stable UNIX foundation. It provides an extensive array of

services that support Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX client computers over a network.With Snow Leopard Server, small organizations and workgroups without an IT department can take full advantage of the benefits of a server. Even a nontechnical

user can set up and manage Snow Leopard Server for a group. Other users in the group can automatically configure their Macs to get services from Snow Leopard Server. Snow Leopard Server has advanced configuration options and management tools for IT professionals as well.

Mac OS X Server v10.6 Snow Leopard offers major enhancements in several key areas:

64-bit computing


Podcast Producer 2

Wiki Server

iCal Server 2

Address Book Server

Mail Server

Mobile Access Server

64-Bit Operating System

To accommodate the enormous amounts of memory being added to today's servers,

Snow Leopard Server has a 64-bit operating system to support up to a theoretical

16 TB of RAM. With more RAM, server applications can use more physical memory and consequently run faster. In addition, the 64-bit operating system dramatically improves the total number of simultaneous system processes, threads, and network connections that the server can use.Snow Leopard Server supports the latest 64-bit technology on today's Xserve and Mac Pro systems while maintaining 32-bit support for other systems. On all systems, Mac OS X Server can run 64-bit and 32-bit applications concurrently, address large amounts of RAM, and access 64-bit file systems and math and image libraries.


Major Components

2. Explanation of the major components of the Operating System.

Kernel is the main component of most computer operating systems and it is also a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level. Kernel managing the communication between hardware and software components. In Mac OX that is a major component called "XNU". XNU is the computer operating system kernel that Apple.Inc acquired and developed for use in the Mac OS X operating system and it released as free and open source software. Major components of Mac OS X, including the UNIX core, are made available under Apple's Open Source license, allowing developers and students to view source code, learn from it and submit suggestions and modifications. In addition, Apple uses software created by the Open Source community, such as the HTML rendering engine for Safari, and returns its enhancements to the community. Free and open-source software or free open-source software is software that is both free software and open source. It is liberally licensed to grant users the right to use, copy, study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code. Let me show you how many type of major component or free open source software that Max OS X have.

1. Bonjour

Bonjour, also known as zero-configuration networking, enables automatic discovery of computers, devices, and services on IP networks using industry standard IP protocols. It is a key component of Apple applications (e.g., iTunes and iPhoto), and devices (e.g., Apple TV and AirPort). Developers can easily leverage Bonjour from both OS X and iOS. By the way, Bonjour also makes it easy to discover, publish, and resolve network services with a sophisticated, yet easy-to-use, programming interface that is accessible from Cocoa, Ruby, Python, and other languages.

2. Java

OS X offers a standard Java environment for running Java Applets through the Safari browser or for development with the complete Java Development Kit (JDK). The JDK is automatically downloaded and installed as soon as you try to run any software that depends upon Java. With support from popular open source IDEs such as Eclipse or NetBeans, the Mac is a great platform for running and developing Java applications.

3. Unix

The most widely-sold UNIX operating system, OS X combines a fully-conformant UNIX foundation with the richness and usability of the Macintosh interface. The Unix system is composed of several components that are normally packaged together.

4. Webkit

WebKit is the open source web browser engine at the heart of Apple's Safari web browser on Mac, Windows, and iOS. It also provides a system-level framework engine that powers Dashboard, Mail, and many other OS X apps. WebKit is a layout engine software designed to allow web browsers to render web pages. WebKit powers the Apple Safari and Google Chrome browsers. As of July 2012 it has the most market share of any layout engine at over 40% of the browser market share according to StatCounter. It is also used as the basis for the experimental browser included with the Amazon Kindle e-book reader, as well as the default browser in the Apple iOS, Android, BlackBerry Tablet OS, Bada, Tizen and webOS mobile operating systems. WebKit′s C++ API provides a set of classes to display web content in windows, and implements browser features such as following links when clicked by the user, managing a back-forward list, and managing a history of pages recently visited.

WebKit's HTML and JavaScript code originally began as a fork of the KHTML and KJS libraries from KDE, and has now been further developed by individuals from KDE, Apple Inc., Nokia, Google, Bitstream, RIM, Samsung, Igalia, and others.Mac OS X, Windows, GNU/Linux, and some other Unix-like operating systems are supported by the project.

WebKit's WebCore and JavaScriptCore components are available under the GNU Lesser General Public License, and the rest of WebKit is available under a BSD-form license.[1]


3. Explanation of unique features of the Operating Systems

Unique Features "Mac OS X Snow Leopard"

Mac OS X v10.6 also features Microsoft Exchange Server support for Mail, iCal, and Address Book, new 64-bit technology capable of supporting greater amounts of RAM, an all new QuickTime X with a refreshed user interface and more functionality that used to be only available to QuickTime Pro owners. There is also some additional new features in Snow Leopard Server which is:

- Wiki Server 2, which improves its online collaboration with the ability to view wiki content on iPhone and preview attachments with Quick Look on any modern browser;

- the new Address Book Server, based on the CardDAV open standard, which provides a central location for users to store and access personal contacts across multiple Macs and synchronized iPhones;

- iCal® Server 2, based on the CalDAV open standard, which includes web-based calendar access and the ability to view meeting invitations and details on iPhone using iPhone OS 3.0;

- a new Mail Server engine that supports push email so users receive immediate access to new messages;

- QuickTime® X HTTP Live Streaming, which allows dynamic adjustment of movie playback quality to suit the available network speed;

- NetRestore, a new feature in System Image Utility, that allows easy custom image restore over a network; and

- iPhone Configuration Utility, which simplifies the setup of multiple iPhones with configuration information, security policies, mail settings and certificates needed to connect to and communicate with enterprise systems.

- ActiveSync and Exchange 2007 support

The biggest new feature in Snow Leopard is support for Exchange, Microsoft's popular e-mail, contact, and calendar server. Last year, iPhone got the support for Exchange and now it is the turn of Mac to make ActiveSync and Exchange 2007 native to the OS. That means Apple's e-mail, calendar, and contacts apps work nicely with Exchange 2007 server, giving users the same capabilities as Microsoft Entourage but with the better-designed, less-memory-intensive apps - Mail, iCal, and Address Book. If you're syncing your iPhone to the same Exchange server, all those calendar events will sync up automatically

- Expose integration in the Dock

The Mac OS X Dock makes it easy to access applications, open documents, and common folders, a concept Windows 7 is stealing in its retooled taskbar. Open documents are even more easily accessed in Snow Leopard, thanks to the integration of Exposé. Now when you click and hold an app icon in the Dock, you get preview windows for each of its open documents, allowing you to switch easily among them or to close them, all without having to clutter your screen with document windows. I never cared much for Exposé in its traditional role (providing hot corners and shortcuts to open application windows), but I love the Dock-integrated Exposé functionality that Snow Leopard adds.[2]

- Video and Audio Converter Software

That's also a video or audio software with unique features for Mac OS users. If you're Mac OS user, now you can get free application to convert FLV video into video or audio. Not like other video and audio converter software, FLV Crunch is able to convert huge video or audio file, and also support with RealTime Media Player file. Besides, this software is also able to change your video amount as you wanted or suits the size existed. You can also change frame rate from video you will convert.

FLV Crunch has simple and easy to be used interface. To convert a video, you'll just have to drag and drop the video into FLV Crunch software, or you can also click on "Add" menu.After you finished add a video which you want to be converted, then select video format you wanted by click on dropdown.Then, you can change the video frame you wanted in "Frames per second" menu. However, if you don't want it, you can pass it. After you finished setting Frames per second, now you can set Bitrate from video you will convert, but one more time, you can pass it and let it into default options. If you want to change the video size you will convert, then you can use "Resolution" menu, there are width and height you can set as the device you owed. You can also select Resolution directly from the dropdown menu which provided video type for iPod, iPhone, VGA, Standart and also High.[3]

Much of Snow Leopard's focus has been internal. For example, Apple has revamped the kernel, included apps, and much of the OS itself to be 64-bit (to allow virtual addressable memory of 16 exabytes and physical addressable memory of more than 32GB). But until apps are rewritten for 64-bit and the new Mac models support that kind of memory, there's little immediate benefit -- ditto for multicore enablement in the Grand Central Dispatch engine. But the revamped QuickTime X and Java engines should result in faster processing of streaming media and Java applets (such as on Web sites).Putting aside these important but long-term changes, here are Snow Leopard's most immediately beneficial new features and enhancements.

- Malware Check

While malware has long been an almost daily annoyance for Windows PCs, Mac users have become accustomed to not worrying about malicious software. But few instances off late have pressed for a need to detect and contains the off malware or trojans which make their way to Mac systems. Apple provides this first line of defense by introducing a built-in system that detects malicious software and attempts to protect users from inadvertently damaging their computers.[4]

- Stacks Get Even Better

Dock stacks viewed as grids now have a scroll bar if there are many items. You can also move up and down the folder hierarchy within the stack. And when you select a stack or right-click on a Dock item, you'll notice that the contextual menu that pops up has changed.[5]

- Automation Location Detection

Snow Leopard changes the time zone for you automatically, using Wi-Fi mapping to figure out where you are. This is particularly useful when you are traveling and iCal can also be set to adjust the times to the current time zone automatically, so your calendar always reflects the current times.[6]

- QuickTime X

The new version of Apple's QuickTime multimedia architecture in Snow Leopard is calledQuickTime X. QuickTime X can record from your Mac's camera or screen, and the results can be trimmed and shared to iTunes or YouTube. [7]

- Automatic Text Replacement

Snow Leopard lets you specify such substitutions via the Keyboard system preference, so you have a common set of substitutions available to all applications. Programs have to be modified to specifically support it; but once they are, they'll all share the same substitution list, which you can see in the Text tab of the Language & Text pane in System Preferences. [8]

- Smart Eject

The screenshot above must give you an idea on how useful this new feature is. In Leopard, disks often couldn't be ejected, because a file was in use by an application. Snow Leopard indicates which app is causing the problem. [9]

- Dock Expose

This feature simply links Expose to the Dock. Holding down on an app's icon triggers Expose for that application's windows, and if you drag a file onto an app, you can then select which window you want to drop it into. [10]


Mac OS X Snow Leopard

4. Discussion of the pros and cons of any suggested application software.

When Mac OS X 10.6 "Snow Leopard" was introduced, the operating system improved performance and saved storage space compared to the operating system it replaced and introduced a handful of new features as well. Although Snow Leopard abandoned those using PowerPC-based Macs -- some of which had been sold just three years earlier, and that is considerably sooner than Apple historically abandoned older hardware -- it continued to support Mac OS X software written for the PowerPC processor via the "Rosetta" framework, and there was little reason for the majority of Intel-based Mac users to not spend the money for the upgrade.

Other more minor features may be valuable to some and less valuable to others. Just about everyone should find "FileVault 2" which provides full disk encryption valuable and many will find "AirDrop" to wirelessly send files to nearby Macs valuable. Individual features like a high-resolution cursor at larger sizes for those who have difficulty seeing or improved Simplified Chinese recognition may be quite valuable to some and not needed by others.Still other features, like a "leather" new look for iCal and a "full-screen Photo Booth" that "makes you feel as if you're in an actual photo booth" only are valuable to the most vapid.Basically, the "pros" are potentially valuable features and the largest "cons" are the loss of backwards compatibility and cost of replacing older software, if possible. Any individual may have different pros and cons, but an attempt at what are likely to be the most common follows:


Multitouch gestures and "Resume" functionality may be time saving.

Auto Save and Versions, once software support is more significant, definitely will save time and reduce hair pulling episodes.

AirDrop makes it quicker and safer to share files with those nearby.

Improved Accessibility and Text features including significant non-English language additions.

FileVault 2 improves security with full disk encryption, not just the Home directory. Time Machine backups are encrypted as well.

Enhanced AppleScript and Automator functionality should be welcomed by programmers.

Slick new "add your signature" functionality in Preview makes it possible to add your signature -- or the signature of a parent, always welcomed by every secondary school student -- to a PDF using a built-in webcam to take a picture.[11]


Abandons Mac OS X software written for the PowerPC processor that works fine with Snow Leopard. Some applications are impossible, difficult, or expensive to replace.

Abandons early Intel Macs, some of which are just four years old, requires more RAM, and is about the same speed as Snow Leopard. Abandons the Apple USB Modem as well, which may matter to a small number of users.

Gestures, scroll direction and visibility changes, resize window changes, and other interface modifications may frustrate long-term Mac users. Feelings are strong enough that third-party "fixes" are available for some of these "features."

Support for AirDrop is limited to a fairly small number of recent Macs. [12]


Mac OS X Snow Leopard

5. Description of the user interface of the Operating System with some screen shots.

There's been a lot of enhancements, tweaks, and improvements to the user interface and graphic of Mac OS X 10.6, commonly know as Snow Leopard. After a huge release like Leopard, which brought very radical change to the way our favourite OS looks, feel, and works including redesign of its icon and user interface theme.

i) Major Changes

The most obvious change in Snow Leopard's out-of-the-box appearance is the refined Aurora desktop background. I've seen a lot of people sticking with Aurora as their background of choice while Leopard was out, preferring it massively over the old 'blue swooshes' designs. Snow Leopard continues the pink/purple space theme, but refines it by making the whole a lot softer and with less interfering big stars.

ii) Time Machine's icon

Another change, which might be minor to some, is the redesign of several icons. No, it's not very apparent on the surface, but the small sizes of a lot of icons have been completely overhauled, giving them a crisp appearance at 16, 32 and 48 pixels. Time Machine's icon is a nice example:

iii) Quicktime

QuickTime X has received so many changes it requires a section of its own. I think most of you will be aware of the big changes, like its compact window mode and new controller look (which appear in iTunes 9 as well), but there's some smaller changes that are very nice to expose


Mac OS X Snow Leopard

6. Description of suitable environment to run the Operating System.

Virtual environment or Vware Fusion is the suitable environment run in Mac OS X Snow Leopard. VMware Fusion is a software hypervisor developed by VMware for Macintosh computers with Intel processors. Fusion allows Intel-based Macs to run operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, Linux, NetWare or Solaris on virtual machines, along with their Mac OS X operating system using a combination of paravirtualization, hardware virtualization and dynamic recompilation. Fusion, made possible by the Apple-Intel transition, marked VMware's first entry into Macintosh-based x86-virtualization. Fusion utilizes Intel VT present in the Intel Core microarchitecture platform. Much of the underlying technology in Fusion is inherited from other VMware products, such as VMware Workstation, allowing Fusion to offer features such as 64-bit and SMP support from the first beta version onward.[13]

Mac OS X Snow Leopard


As what you can see, Mac OS X Snow Leopard is really a good and nice operating system. For me, I will prefer to use Mac OS than Windows because Mac OS can't even attack by virus, Trojan or malware. Mac OS really did a good and strong protection for their operating system.

In other hand, For all of us using Mac OS X, Snow Leopard extends 64-bit operations into more of Apple's own applications and brings a raft of performance enhancements and development tools that will benefit users down the road. Snow Leopard saves nearly 7 GB of disk space, a big benefit for the little SSD drives used in some MacBook Air models. Security improvements, though imperfect, are still welcome. QuickTime X is a nice start, if still a work in progress, and you may still need the "old" QuickTime 7 Pro that hasn't quite been eliminated yet. Snow Leopard's improved Finder benefits everyone, and the few bugs it has should be easy for Apple to quash in coming months, if the rewritten Finder is as robust as advertised.

At the end, I think Snow Leopard was the best OS they've made so far and I have no desire to turn my laptop into a smartphone by installing to other operating system.