Location Based Services LBS In IT Sectors Computer Science Essay

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Location Based Services (LBS) are growing rapidly in the mobile and information technologies (IT) Sectors. A Location-Based Service (LBS) provides services based on users current geographical location. It is a type of mobile computing application, which considers users current geographical location. In general terms, it is an entertainment and information service, manageable with mobile device. The LBS services can be utilized by range of context, such as work, heath and personal life. LBS consist of services to recognize the location of a user or object, such as finding the nearest hospital or nearest historical place or the where about of a friend or employee. At the starting of LBS in mobile communication, LBSs were imprudent and client-server focused; users would request an application or a system for getting information and get a response. Now by using push notification mechanisms, high-speed Internet access and a move to collaboration as part of Web 2.0, the LBS is become more practical and interactive between mobile device users.

The main aim of this Project is to design and implement a geospatial application on mobile device using Java platform. This report will explain about main objective which will going to be achieve and theories behind location based services. LBS development basically depends on trends, which are running in the market that are described in detail with location acquiring technologies. This report will describe about J2ME role in mobile devices in background research section. Project plan will define about future plan of implementation of geo-spatial application using required tools. In the system requirement, it will describe about functional and non-functional requirement for LBS application development. Software layers and LBS architecture plays vital role in designing of geo-spatial application. At the last part will explain what will be the new features in this application.

2.0 Project Objectives:

The main aim of this project is to design and implement a location-based service or geospatial application on mobile device by investigating about present Location based applications available and type of technologies available for implementing of geospatial application. The main objectives of this projects is given below:

Project Time:

This project should be completed in given time duration.

Searching Requirements of Tourists:

Before Designing of any system, it is important to do proper research on requirement of users. Same in this project, before designing of Location based application, it must know that what user want from that application. System should be satisfied the basic need of users.

Research on Available LBS application:

Presently in market many location based application are running, these application provides many services to user. So for developing a any new system it is important to study old and present system related to that system. So that it is possible to create new system or geospatial application with new services and features.

Proper Selection of Tools and Technologies:

For designing of any new system it is require related tools and technologies. Same in geospatial application development, it must be chosen proper tools and technologies and do research on how these tools and technologies will help to achieve the particular task.

Design and Development of LBS application:

Design and developing a LBS application is main objective of this project. After selection of tool and technologies, designing the structure of LBS application and how to implement that design by using proper tool is the main problem. Here J2ME programming will play vital role to solve this problem.

Testing and Implementation:

The last objective is that to test and implement the developed application on the mobile device. This task will prove that the required LBS application is developed or not.

This report describes answers of several questions, which will come for implementation of Geospatial application. Theses are given below:

What types of trends are available which will help to develop more meaningful LBS?

Presently, what type of geospatial application is running in the market?

How to evaluate mobile location-based application?

How will it work , and what type of components are required?

Which types of technologies can we use to locate a user?

Which type of data sources are required and how can they used in LBS?

3.0 Background Research:

This part will define some background information about LBS. This will explains timeline of key events in past years leading to Location-based Service, classification of LBS and some typical geospatial application.

3.1 Timelines of Location Based Services:

LBS define a combination of several technologies such as location collection, map visualization and software application on mobile device. Some of the major events are given below in the development of these technologies that have led to LBS.





The white house authorizes that selected GPS signals will be phased out (Humerfelt, 2009). It was applied on 2 May 2000 (Wikipedia,Global Positiong System, 2011)

This decision gave because of highly-precision location information was needed by civilian which would be useful for navigation and other services.


In USA, mobile operators are compulsory to provide the location of 911 calls. Firstly caller was located within a cell. (Oakes, 1998)

Current location information for all mobile device users become available in US, This allowing to mobile operator to provide location-based services.


Java Micro Edition( Java ME) standard first sanctioned. (Java Community Process, 2000)

This shows a main step in allowing application developers to develop application to rum on small devices like PDA, Mobile Phone.


JSR 179 Location API finally released (Java Community Process, 2003)

First API standard, which is able to acquire current location information of mobile device.


Qualcomm found first successful test on Assisted GPS on mobile phone. (www.3g.co.uk, 2004)

By using A-GPS on mobile device, the acquiring of location information become more accurate.

Feb 2005

Google Maps become lives and google maps API released shortly later in June. (Google, Google history, 2010)

Google Maps released a highly interactive and user-friendly interface map for all users and its API permitted web developer to use maps on their sites.


Google released google maps for mobile devices. (Wikipedia Google map, 2011)

After that google maps became to run on any java-based mobile device.

June 2007

Apple released the first iPhone. (Wikipedia History of the iPhone, 2011)

It was the first popular Smartphone, which has features such as GPS, accelerometer.

August 2008

First App Store released for iPhone by Apple. (wikipedia App Store, 2011)

The App store and iPhone SDK provides encouragement for application developer to develop better application for iPhone users.

October 2008

HTC released first Android-based phone (HTC Dream). (Wikipedia HTC Dream, 2011)

Mostly mobile manufacturer companies adopted android operating system.

September 2010

Location-based Application "Aloqa" got over one million users. (Aloqa, 2011)

Aloqa provide real time location information related to mobile users. Aloqa joined Motorola Mobility Business.

3.2 Location Based Service:

Location Based Service is a mobile application, which depends on the current geographical position of mobile device like mobile phone, PDA(Personal digital assistant). Location Based Services are also defined as context aware services that contain the user location information to get used to the service suitably.(Kupper, 2005, pp. 1-2)

Location Based Service is mainly depends on mobile location data. Location data is that data which represents geographical position of mobile device such as latitude information, longitude information and position information. Location data is given by technologies like GIS (Geographic Information System) technology, GPS (Global Positioning System) technology and mobile network technology and that data transfer to server side for next process. At the server side, Mobile positioning Service Center monitor

Fig.3.2.a Basic Location Based Service(Xiuwan, Feizhou, Min, & Yuanhua, 2004)

Mobile device user request and Positioning Device provides current location data to server through wire or wireless communication. Mobile Positioning Service Center work on user request by using central database with current positioning data and provide valid data to mobile device user.(Xiuwan, Feizhou, Min, & Yuanhua, 2004)

Over All LBS is came by using three technologies, On the other hand LBS is an intersection of GIS (Geographic Information System) Technology, Internet Technology and mobile devices technology or New Information and Communication Technologies (NICTS). (Steiniger, Neun, & Edwardes)

Figure 3.2.b LBS as intersection of Technologies(Xiuwan, Feizhou, Min, & Yuanhua, 2004)

3.3 Trends in Location-based Services:

There are several developments has been done that will guide to a rise in location based services in the subsequent years. Following are the some development describes below:

The Web as a Platform: At the starting of Web, the web added value by connecting from one page to the other page. But user could not able to access information from websites. They could be send to other place, to access more information on a subject. From last few years, some changes have been come: websites exchange data and collect it for their users. So now RSS (Really Simple Syndication) standards is using for exchanging data between sites. (Bass, 2004) which is the most popular standard. When the information exchange is more difficult than the listing of current posts, than RSS feed does not be sufficient.

To overcome from this problem, some websites offer an API(Application Programming Interface. An API is an interface with a set of standards which is defined by it's developer, to interface between piece of software. This creates more complex communication between pieces of software. Where RSS, just represents all the results, an API can have constructs for searching, Limiting and formatting the data. Example of such type of API is the Flicker API.(Flickr, 2011)

Figure 3.3.a : Top 10 Web API's (programmableweb, 2011)

The trends described above are often combined. Several websites include content from other sites and provide their own user-generated content in the form of comment feeds, widgets that can be included in other sites, and so on.

The Maps : At the beginning of 2005, Google launched Google Maps; it was viewed as far superior to then available browser-based online mapping services. These were far more server based, and thus had longer response times. Then many hacker started hacking the interface to collect these maps into their own websites to show location information. Afterward Google opened their maps interface to the users. (Google, 2011), after that using these mapping tool developer has become to use Google map to their websites.

Besides it's web-based maps, Google introduced Keyhole. Afterward Google launched google earth by using Geographic Information System (Google, Google history, 2010). Google was also the first to release a free geo-coder (Google, Google Maps API Family, 2011). There are several websites that in some form, integrate the Google maps.

Mobile Phones: Mobile Phone, when it was introduced only for small market: only for business class people could afford the mobile phone. But by more developing in mobile industries, it become smaller, cheaper and popular. Now mobile phones are more powerful computer than 1990s computers. While voice communication is still the main application of these devices, currently mostly phone have more function than voice transportation. Mobile phone also include data services as SMS (Short Message Service). Almost All modern phones can also be used as an internet terminal, connecting with the Internet through the mobile operator.

Presently Smartphone has changed the way of lifestyle. Mobile phone are also running on operating system as like computer operating system but in small version. Currently Android, Mac and Symbian based mobile phone are running in the market and these mobile phone not only provide voice transportation but also provide number of application services such as "Location-based Services" (wikipedia, 2011)

Location Acquiring Techniques: Last some of year many new location-acquiring techniques have been developed. But only two decades before it was not possible to access an exact location without specialized earth- surveying equipment. Currently there are three techniques are available for accessing the location information. These are given below:

GPS-based : In Global Positioning System, GPS device's position is triangulated based on signals from at least four GPS satellites based on the known position of the satellite, the time that messages from the satellite were sent and the time that they were received. Commonly Smartphone uses Assisted GPS and it is an enhanced form

of GPS. (Global Positioning System US government)

Mobile Network-based: Location information is approximated based on the cell that is servicing that particular user. (Wikipedia Mobile phone Tracking, 2011)

Wi-Fi Positioning System: In this system, the device, thereby allowing triangulation with respect to these access points, records the identities and relative signal strengths to public Wi-Fi access point. (Wikipedia Wi-Fi Positioning System, 2011)

3.4 Usage of Location Based Services:

Location Based Service provides many advantages for users and service providers. Some of the following are:

It helps in choosing the large amounts of information available on the Internet into relevant information for the users current context. So Mobile users can see and enabling those information which are suitable for them.

LBS not only provide relevant information to users but also support to take speed up decision and activities by highlighting the useful information.

It aids in reducing the amount of manual data entry, which is required by mobile users to access a services. It can automatically acquire current location information and other data by using Smartphone features.

In LBS, by using tagging feature; users can get more up-to-date localized information on their mobile device.

Users can trace their friends, employee, relative easily by LBS. It locate people with identification tag on map which use by mobile device.

LBS is also support location-based mobile advertising which is most important feature for growing the market.

LBS also provides real-time services such as current offers in shopping center relevant to user location.

By using LBS, Users can play real time location-based games. So LBS also plays a role for entertainment.(Wikipedia, 2011)

3.5 J2ME Role in Mobile Devices:

J2ME (Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition) play vital role on micro devices. It provides flexible environment for applications that run on mobile and other micro devices (printer, set-top box ,PDA and play station). J2ME also provides user interfaces ,security and networking. J2ME base application can be easily carried out many other devices. (Oracle Corporation)

J2ME has lot of different Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) and technologies, which makes micro device more portable, highly efficient and fast responsive. Presently Mostly Mobile Company and Electronics Companies manufacturing J2ME based mobile phone and other micro devices. Some are the major company as Nokia, LG and Motorola.(Jain, 2009, p. 4)

Presently, J2ME is defined in two configuration that are CDC and CDLC. In terms of configuration, Configuration defines specific class of devices which have Java virtual machine and set of Application Programming Interfaces(APIs) according to that class of devices. Profile is also a group of APIs, which provides portability other class device. It is also useful for different type of functionality. (Wilding-McBride, 2006, p. 2)

CDC (Connected Device Configuration): Connected Device Configuration have all APIs of CDLC(Connected Device Limited Configuration) with two extra package as java.ۻ packages and java.microedition.ۻ packages. CDC is used for high memory(at least 2 MB for java virtual machine) devices and high-speed network connection but lower than computer.(Wilding-McBride, 2006, p. 2)

CLDC(Connected Limited Device Configuration): CLDC supports all java-enabled mobile phone. It provides good programming environment for mobile phone. When CLDC is used with MIDP(Mobile Information Device Profile ) then it provides a good platform with extra feature to the programmer. CLDC have some basic requirement from device such as :

It should be battery depended

It should have 128 KB memory for JVM and CDLC libraries

It should have at least 32 KB for Java runtime application and dynamic allocation of Object. (Jain, 2009, p. 5)

MIDP(Mobile Information Device Profile): MIDP is the set of libraries, which defines additional classes for micro devices outside of CLDC set of libraries. Presently everyone wants to create new application on his or her mobile phone, PDA. MIDP specification provides extra set of classes of libraries for targeted device. Currently in market, MIDP 2.0 specification is running on j2ME platform. Some of the useful feature are:

Application Lifecycle management

Better user interface

Secure connection


API for creating Sound

3.6 Location-based Applications:

Currently in market large number of location based applications are running. The working principle of these applications depends on user requirement like if any customer wants weather information of his current location then applications are like "The Weather channel", Quakes and Weather Bug. Anyone want to shop something then application are aloqa, live. So currently users are using applications according to their requirements and location.

Some of the Location based applications describe below which are related user requirements related to their locations:

Aloqa Application: Aloqa is the location based application which is produced by aloqa company. After installing this application on mobile device, this application acquire user current location information which is provided by mobile device GPS system and shows the services like nearest restaurant, nearest ATM, nearest facebook friend. (Aloqa Company, 2007)

Figure 3.6.a: Aloqa Apps Home Screen (Freeware, 2010)

Advantages of Aloqa:

i. Does not have user privacy related problem.

ii. Provides mapping and navigation service.

iii. Provides real time location information.

iv. Provides user location information.

v. Provides social networking using facebook.

vi. Provides contact information.

Disadvantages of Aloqa:

i. It doesn't have chatting service.

ii. It doesn't store previous location information.

iii. It uses only one social networking site facebook.

iv. It doesn't provide browser service if someone want to search about his location.

The Weather Channel Application: The Weather Channel provides weather information of user current location. First it acquires user current location information and send to the "The weather channel" server then server provides weather information like temperature, wind speed and future weather information of that location.

Google Map: This is a web mapping service application, which is provided by Google. It provides street maps, a route planner for traveling by foot, car or public transport. It also provides high-resolution satellite images for many urban and rural area but these images are not real time images. This application uses JavaScript extensively. (wikipedia, Google Map, 2011)

Google map application does not provide proper location based services. First of all it not acquire user location and does not provides information to user according to his current position. Its like a search engine for getting geographical for particular location information.

Figure 3.6.b: Google Maps on Mobile Screen (watt, 2007)

4.0 Project Plan:

The main aim of this Project is to design and implement a geospatial application on mobile device using Java platform. The basic assumption behind the Geospatial Application based on Java is to be acquiring current location of mobile device by Java, Location Application Programming Interface (API) subsequently process user requests with current location data on J2ME (Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition) Platform and provides services using graphical User Interface (GUI) on mobile device. For implementation LBS on mobile phone, all components of geospatial application will be implemented by Java language. Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME) is designed for specially for mobile devices by Sun developer. To create a geospatial application, first choose type of configuration requires. Here Connected Limited Device Configuration - profile will be considered cause of using mobile phone. Important thing about CLDC is that "minimum requirement for location API is CLDC 1.1 version and same in MIDP, it requires minimum MIDP 2.0 version. For implementation Geospatial application following steps will be considered:

Development of a IDE(Integrated Development Environment) platform by using Eclipse, JWTK, ASDK.

Creation of location database at server side.

Creation of communication between client-server by using HTTP protocol.

At last Implementation of developed application on the mobile phone.

5.0 System Requirements Analysis:

This part will describe about functional and non-functional requirement of Location-based application. For creating the location based application or geospatial application, it is important to identify the whole functional and non-functional requirement, which will be implemented for developing geospatial application.

5.1 Functional Requirements:

User requirements are viewed on mobile user exceptions of LBS. These requirements are the basis for the functional requirements of an LBS application. Therefore, the main LBS functional requirement are given below which are the basic requirement for this project or this geospatial application:

Browsing the spatial information on the city map.

Navigation services should be available so that user must be able to access direction and guidance for reaching specific location.

Users should be able to access to catalogue data such as able to access names of restaurants and their menu, price ranges, opening timing. Catalogue data should be spatially referenced, so that catalogue can be shown on the map and able to see direction for reaching them.

Users should be able to access the map and catalogue data based on their current location. If user face any system problem for acquiring location so that he/she must be able to enter his/her location manually. The system must be able to deal these requests through geo-coding procedure.

User must be able to personalized access so that they can easily specify type of information requirement.

Every user want browsing information at very fast speed so user must be able to run various queries like nearest café, nearest hospital.

Users must be able to access their friends or relative current location.

Geographical information should come as textual description.

Current status of the user must be represented as form of picture and text.

User should be able see the graphical representation of a route from one place to another place.

Navigation Guidance must be in text form and possibly as voice form.

5.2 Non-Functional Requirement:

The limitation of mobile computing, create restrictions for several point of view in development of geospatial application. The properties of mobile networks are: strong bandwidth variability, relatively low bandwidth, long latency, unpredictable disconnection and communication autonomy. The properties of mobile devices are: small display screen, limited computing capability, limited input capabilities, limited power and small memory size. So all the restrictions have to be taken very carefully into account when designing geospatial application. There restrictions cover in non-functional requirements, which are described below:

Geospatial application should not use mobile network very intensively

LBS should be able to work offline.

In LBS, user interface must be user friendly, very simple and amount of shown information content should be limited and well described.

All information related to location should be reliable. Incorrect or missed data can easily lead to create problem such as court examination.

Software should be reliable for both side server and client sides.

For developing LBS, appropriate algorithms and method should be used with very precisely.

The user privacy should be considered as one of the main requirement because this is a major issue in LBS development.

Locating method must provide accuracy subject to the requirements of the geospatial application and cost should be affordable.

Try to locate mobile device current location as large as possible so that user can access more information. It should also be possible to find in advance where the device can be located.

The location method should not create too much signals within the mobile network.

Manual adding location method support to a terminal and using it should be minimum.

LBS application should be able to locate a large group of users at the same time.

Users should be able to control their location privacy.

LBS application should be able to run on several types of terminals like PDA, Mobile Phone.

6.0 System Design:

This part will describe about Client to Server model of LBS, LBS Layers, System specification and System architecture with HTTP communication.

6.1 Server-to-User Model:

Server to User Location Based Services is mainly based on server side. Centralized Location Server deals with user current location information, which is provided by Gateway Mobile Location Center (GMLC). The two major drawback of this type of LBS is user totally depend on mobile network operator for 3rd Party Application Services and privacy of user location. User cannot access 3rd Party Location Based Services directly to Application Services Provider. Server-to-User Location Based Services provides Push and Pull both types of services.(Zundt, Deo, Naumann, & Ludwig) The main reason of considering server-to-user model is that to provide the maximum services to the user.

Fig 6.1.a: Server-to-User Location Based Service(Zhou, Tang, Fan, & Wang)

6.2 Tools for LBS development:

This project is developing software application on mobile device so that it requires some software and hardware tools. For creation of Geospatial application following tools is required.

Eclipse Software Development Kit(SDK): Eclipse SDK is a wide platform for developing application in different computer language. Eclipse SDK consists Integrated Development Environment (IDE), Java Development Tools(JDT) , and extensible plug in system for creation application. Eclipse SDK is mostly written in JAVA. This is the main cause to use this SDK for this project. It is designed to run on

multiple operation system (specific code for each OS). (Mens, Fernandez-Ramil, & Degrandsart, 2008, p. 387) Eclipse is the combination of elements called subsystem of eclipse that are used in different plug-ins. Eclipse SDK run by small engine. The Plug-in provides extension to eclipse for adding new subsystem like this project will use ME plug-in. Eclipse Architecture defines main runtime component. Platform Runtime shows connection point and plug-in model according to user working platform. It also keeps information about plug-in. Resource management keeps projects, files and folders in file system provided by tool system. Workbench User Interface provides working environment to the developer. It supplies tool kit for creating user interfaces. It mainly provides subset of UI plug-in for creating application. Debug support defines debug model which is not depend on language. Other utilities plug-in provide searching, comparing resources, updating server.(Eclipse Organization, 2006)

Fig. 6.2.a Eclipse SDK Platform Structure: (Eclipse Organization, 2006)

Java Wireless Toolkit(WTK): Java Wireless Tool Kit (formerly known as Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition Wireless Tool Kit) . By using this tool kit developer are developing J2ME based applications. This Toolkit provides to test and execute the applications of mobile device by using emulator on personal computer. (Jain, 2009, p. 141), This project is considering mobile phone based location based service so Java Wireless Tool Kit for CLDC is considering rather than CDC. Three main component is used by Java WTK(For CLDC):

User Interface: Generates tasks for creating MIDP applications.

Emulator: This is simulated mobile phone which is used for testing of applications.

Utilities: Its include other important functionality such as text messaging console and cryptographic functions.

The Java wireless Toolkit for CDLC develop MIDP application with building, packaging, running, monitoring and singing features.

GPS enabled Mobile Phone: A Mobile Phone can make and receive telephone call by using communication networks and this is the main feature of mobile phone. Presently mobile phone also support more additional services such as SMS(Short Message Service) or MMS(Multimedia Messaging Services), GPS(Global Positioning System) and many more. This project need GPS enabled mobile phone for acquiring user current location information such as latitude, longitude, timing information. Presently in market, mobile phones is working on some operating system such as Android, Symbian, iOS(Apple) and mostly Smartphone's has GPS service. This project will consider Android based GPS enabled mobile phone.

6.3 LBS Layers Design:

This part represents a discussion of LBS layers, which all are used in Location Based Service Based on Java Architecture. This system has three layers of Location Based Service architecture. First Layer represents LBS Application Layer where user can generate request by Request Agent Component, browse some information by Browser Agent Component and

acquire position information by Positioning Agent Component. Second layer represents LBS Middleware Layer, which is J2EE based web service. Here Key Components are Service Manager Framework, Mapping, Routing, POI(Point of Interest) Directory and Geo-Coding. At last, third layer represents LBS Database Layer. It provides database service to second layer of LBS architecture. Here LBS component are Spatial Data Base, POI Data Base and No Spatial Database.(Zundt, Deo, Naumann, & Ludwig)

Fig.6.3.a LBS Layers Architecture (Zundt, Deo, Naumann, & Ludwig)

First Layer LBS Design: First Layer of LBS Components are based on Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition Platform (J2ME), which provides working environment on mobile device to user. User Interface(Graphical User Interface) provides platform for user where user can work on LBS application. By using User Interface, user can generate request, browse data related to data. The detail of each LBS Component is given in next part.

Positioning Agent: In LBS Architecture, Positioning Agent component play key role. Position Agent provides location information to server via mobile device. There are several method or technologies for acquiring location information by positioning device. Presently three types of technologies are used for acquiring location information.

Global Positioning System(GPS) Technology: GPS uses satellite for acquiring mobile device current position(Latitude, longitude and altitude) and timing information's. This all information's send to positioning device. It is not affected by weather conditions and it cover whole earth. (Global Positioning System US government)

Mobile Network Based Technology: Mobile Network Based Technology is used for acquiring position of mobile device by service provider network. This positioning technology depends on network area. (Wikipedia, 2011)

Wi-Fi Based Technology: Wi-Fi based positioning technology uses Wi-Fi signal of network provider for acquiring mobile device location information's. User uses this technology where High building or large obstacle create problem for receiving GPS signal. (LBS insight, 2008)

Request Agent: Request Agent provides user to start a application or request to start a application such as show me shortest path for railway station, start location based gaming, start open social networking on current location. This part of LBS plays as Push Mode services.

Browser Agent: Browser Agent provides user to search information (information related to user current location and related to particular object on that place) from server database. Some of the browser information like "show movie name which is running on nearest theater" , "show current discount on particular shop".(Zundt, Deo, Naumann, & Ludwig)

Second Layer LBS Design: Second Layer of LBS also call LBS middleware is based on Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition(J2EE) where server provides web services for user. In this layer, when server receive request from user then server select service manager according to user request. Service manager have four part which are described below.

Mapping: This service manager handles requests, which are related to map. Mapping Service manager fetches data from spatial database and provide mapping services to user device.

Routing: This Service manager handles request, which are related to route information of any location. It also use spatial database for its services.

Point of Interest (POI) Directory: Point of Interest service manager handle requests, which are related to user interest such as find nearest restaurants, particular location, offers in nearest shopping mall. This service manager fetches information POI database related to user request and transmits on user device.

Geo-Coding: Geo-Coding Service manager provides location information like postal address, street name, and city name. Geo-Coding is a technique by which geographical coordinates allocate street name, address and other information related to that location. It uses Non-Spatial Database for perform its function and provides results on mobile device.(Zundt, Deo, Naumann, & Ludwig)

Third Layer of LBS Design: Third Layer LBS Component shows database structure which is used by second Level LBS component. It provides data for Mapping service manager, Routing Service Manager, POI Directory Service Manager and Geo-Coding Service Manger by using corresponding Spatial Database, POI Database and Non-Spatial Database. (Zundt, Deo, Naumann, & Ludwig)

6.4 System Architecture:

While designing of LBS application, there are several part to be considered, Each part communicate with each other as shown in figure. In this LBS system, client retrieves and passes its location to the sever end. When user wants to access local location information, the client request this information from the server. The server identifies the relevant location information of the user, and sends it back to the client. Then finally client will becomes able to see information on his/her display screen.

Figure: 6.4.a: Overview of LBS Architecture

This system will work in two parts first a relatively thin client and other a server, which has certain advantages. The client only requires displaying the processed results, and doesn't require doing the extensive filtering and searching in the large databases.

All communication between client(user) and the server and all 3 interfaces. Will use the HTTP protocol. This communication has several advantages such as HTTP is the only protocol that has to be supported by J2ME mobile phones and is best supported by GSM networks. Other protocols are possible in MIDP 2.0, but are optional, and isn't necessary supported by the mobile phone manufactures. HTTP protocol has the highest chance of getting through. Also a standard implementation is present in J2ME, leading to less implementation problem and HTTP is used for websites, a ordinary

web server can be utilized for serving the data, removing the requirement for the development of a own special server. Thus easing the development process. (Network Working Group, 1999)

7.0 Evaluation:

There has been previous research in context aware and location based system. Example are: Aloqa, The weather, Guide, which all developed a working location aware guide. These systems however have several disadvantages for a general usage that are discussed in background research section. As considering one disadvantage of Aloqa application it does not stores last location information. This application totally depends on Internet connectivity if Internet connection goes down then user can't see last information. One more thing it does not provide another search engine like google, yahoo. It totally depend on Aloqa server. This project will resolve these problem and will develop more meaningful tourist guide. For using above thesis a system can be build to realize the functionality described in this report. That integrated system can show interesting facts about users current location, location surroundings and the people closest to application user. That system has to be location based then it will make most sense to a portable system. As mobile phones have many interface issues so HTTP based interface will be deployed in the application.

This geo-spatial application will combine data from different sources. These include: the user's location, the time of day, and data sources related to the user current location such as events, hospital information, historic information and so on.

8.0 Conclusions:

This report has shown that with current technologies it is possible to build a Geo-spatial application for mobile phone. Such a system can work in a wide area on many devices. It describes clearly about main objectives, which must be completed in project time. The background research shows that different types of market trends, timeline of different type of technologies in this field of raising the LBS application. By using location-acquiring techniques, application developer can access the real time location address. This report also describes about the functional and non-functional requirement for developing this LBS application and these requirements fulfill the basic need of tourist related to information. "What was the activity for this project" it described in the project plan. Server-to client model communication use HTTP protocol, by using this protocol user can access the server database and can get information related his/her location. For designing of LBS application, it is important to design all layer of LBS application. Java is an Object Oriented Programming Language and J2ME plays vital role for creation of geospatial application on mobile devices. Java wireless toolkit and eclipse SDK software tools provides platform for deploy location based applications. By using different types of Application Programming Interface (API) Packages developer can develop Location Based Application with more features. This project will solve out the two problem of current available application. This project will provide a another search engine so that user will not be depend on the application server for searching location information and another thing it will provides memory backup mean it will store last location information. This report leads to develop a application with removing problem of current available Location Based Applications.