Literature Review On A Local Sensor Network Computer Science Essay

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The author Gast, M (2002), the network arrangements for the interaction of the computers with other network devices by utilizing the radio frequency signals are called as the Wireless networks. In nowadays the wireless network has been more popular due to its flexibility, easy to setup features and no cabling issues for the users.

The basic foundation of the wireless network is based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. For the general network connection wireless network includes the various stations to exchange a conversation through the radios, then that frequency of the station could be in the 2.4 GHz or 5GHz of bandwidth. The frequency of the stations will not be constant this could be varying from the range of the interaction in the 2.3.GHz to 4.9GHz of band width. Generally wireless network is considered as the Wi-Fi network to WLAN network.

The major protocols of the wireless network Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). For every access of the internets should have the specified Internet Protocols (IP) address. For the IP address the DCHP will allocates the network routes to process automatically according to the user requirements.

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From the above description it states that the wireless network is the process of the transferring the data through the radio frequency signals for the other network devices. For the wireless network it had the general basic grounds and some of the IEEE standards for the effective and un-interrupted network for the users. The wireless network will be ranged from the bandwidth of the 2.4 GHz or 5GHz. The frequency of the stations will not be constant this could be varying from the range of the interaction in the 2.3.GHz to 4.9GHz of band width. The major protocols of the wireless network are Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

2.2. Features and concepts of traditional methods:

Concept of the wireless Network:

The author Brandon James Carroll, (2009), the concept of the wireless network has been entering in the 1990s, but the technology of was being from the 1800s. According to the research of the infrared light way to the electromagnetic wave theory this wireless network has been done. By the Heinrich Hertz (1857 to 1836) made the discoveries for proving the electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light and that could be carried on these waves. By the researcher James Maxwell (1831 to 1879) had done the in-depth research on the electromagnetic wave theory. Then the Michael Faraday (1791 to 1869) discovered the associated electromagnetism research with the help of Andre-Marie Ampere (1775 to 1836).

These discoveries are interrelated to the wireless local area networks (WLANs). For the WLANs the data has to be broadcast through the wires such as the Ethernet cable by the means of the electrical signals. Then the researcher Hertz has been discovered the airways to send the information as the electrical signal without use of the cables that meant to be the wireless. The relationship of the WLAN and LAN is the connection with cables. All these technologies are discovered by the authors Herschel, Ampere, and Hertz they have been completed the approach of the Radio Frequency (RF).

The main aim of the RF is to transfer the large amount data as possible and faster. But the issues are arise due to the huge no of the radio frequencies are over coming are interfering the transferring of the data. For these interruptions and to attain the bandwidth IEEE has been developed the 802.11 standards for the RF signals. By using the Half-duplex operations on the same frequency to transfer and receive the data on the WLAN.

The main aim of the wireless network is to provide the internet connection through radio frequency among the components and among the devices. This wireless network has been divided in to the three main groups according to their coverage range. These groups are such as Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWAN), WLANs, and Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). The WLAN contains the wide are coverage area with 2G cellular, Cellular digital Packet Data (CDPD), Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Mobitex. The wave lengths range used by the wireless technology is from the Radio Frequency (RF) band up to above the IR band.

From the above description it specifies that how the wireless network routes are from the 1990 and how it was established from the olden procedures of the networks. The infrared light wave's frequency has been helpful in the generating the wireless communication and how the several authors are faced the various kinds of the issues while doing the researches on the data transferring in the network. The major key role in the network, during the transferring the data is played by the Radio Frequency (RF). The technologies are discovered by the authors Herschel, Ampere, and Hertz they have been completed the approach of the Radio Frequency (RF). It specified that major role and aim of the wireless network. The wireless network provides the internet connection through radio frequency among the components and among the devices.

Features of the Wireless Network:

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Norton, P., and Stockman, M. Peter (2002), on the grounds of the networking the wireless network has been brought the new approach f the technology. The cost of the cables for networking and data broadcasting through the radio has been decreased through the wireless network. Due to the portability and capability of the wireless network users are doing their work for any location according to their convenience. Through wireless network the effectiveness of the business and performance of the business has been increased due to the continuous communication among the clients through wireless network.

Through the Wi-Fi technology it created the more options on the wireless network to download the songs; transferring the mails and etc. this approach is very helpful for the network users.

Support of the age bracket: Through the Wi-Fi technology it was making the complete age bracket and building connection in the components and at same time it provided the data transferring capabilities through the different devices.

Convenient and flexibility: The range of the station was provided during the time of the travelling it builds the connection among the components.

Faster and Secure: Through utilizing the Wi-Fi network the wireless network has been provided the high speed of the internet and make the connection more faster than the DSL and cable connections. For the Wi-Fi network connection any special installation is not required it just need the Ethernet cord and user could be easily browse with effective security. The performance of the system has been improved by configuring the entire devices. By the embedded systems and network security had been make the wireless network more effective.

From the above description the author stated that major features of the wireless network and it was different from the other specified networks. The cost of the cables for networking and data broadcasting through the radio has been decreased through the wireless network. Due to the portability and capability of the wireless network users are doing their work for any location according to their convenience. Through using the Wi-Fi technology the it provided the additional features such as Support of the age bracket, Convenient and flexibility, and Faster and secure in the wireless network.

Traditional Method is the Wired Method:

The author Tracy V. Wilson and John Fuller stated that the present and current wireless and Ethernet network had the various kinds of the benefits to the users in several approach. The old and traditional wired method provides the higher security for the user's information compared to the wireless network. Through the wired networks the user can transfer the large amount of the data very faster and this network is very affordable and lesser cost for the user. The most of the wired local area networks are directly wired from one system to another system. This connection is provided through the central devices like hubs, switches or routers to have room for several computers. The wired network was had the benefits such as cost, reliability, Performance, and Security. These are more effective compared to the wireless networks features.

From the above description it states that the traditional method before utilizing the wireless network is the wired network. This wired network was most popular and more secure compared to the other networks. Through the wired networks the user can transfer the large amount of the data very faster and this network is very affordable and lesser cost for the user. The most of the wired local area networks are directly wired from one system to another system. The older method was now also very helpful and utilizing method the mostly the wireless network was utilized due to its flexibility and portability. In the wired network that feature become in to the main draw back to the network.

2.3. Consumption resources in the network:

2.4. Reduction of consumption of resources in wireless networks:

The author N. Bulusu, J. Heidemann and D. Estrin (2000) the wireless sensor network requires some enhancement in the following regions to improve the effectiveness of the application:

Power effectiveness: Power effectiveness is a prevailing deliberation to improve the effectiveness of the wireless sensor network application. The main reason behind this is that the sensor nodes contains only small as well as limited source of energy which restrict the application to work efficiently. Several of hardware and software solutions are required optimize power handling and utilization.

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Localization: The sensor nodules are arranged in an ad hoc style. The nodes are required to identify themselves in a few spatial co- ordinate systems. This is also a major predicament in the wireless sensor network and is known as localization.

Routing: The communication expenses in a wireless sensor network are also responsible in choosing the routing method. The routing methods are also responsible for the effectiveness of the application. The conventional routing methods are not functional now as power concern requires that only vital least routing is possible.

From the above description it specified that how the wireless network could be enhance it features through utilizing the various algorithms and protocols etc. Through using the specified routing and localization methods could be helpful in the decrement of the consumption of the resources in the wireless network. The wireless network consumes the large amount of the energy resources like power and huge amount of the resources was wasted during the transferring of the data from the single data sets of the network.

2.5. Algorithms and solutions and issues:

Hexagonal and Square Grid Coverage

The author Zhang and Hou (2005) explained that the efficient algorithm for choosing the covering sensors in a time-synchronized network. The Sensors were occasionally originates the novel decisions concerning their active or sleeping position. A particular sensor will be begins for the every single round and the decision procedure, which then distributed to the entire network. Mainly the novel sensors are chosen for target the preference is specified to closely situated sensors to the optimal hexagonal area coverage. If the obtained region is perfectly separate into identical regular hexagons. The coverage is certainly fairly excellent specified the distributed character of the verdicts. Then the second round the requirement for individual sensors is to commence the procedure will made the grounds troubles in applying it, and augmented latency. If a number of sensors begin the procedure then the decisions at intersection point would be suboptimal. For the supplementary setback is the actual sensing area coverage might not be preserved. The protocols that secures the entire coverage of the previously enclosed the region as considered in the localized sensor area coverage.

The accessibility of the algorithm accessible recommended for dividing the region into small grids after that wrap upping entire grids through the sensor node. The individual sensor is capable to wrap a grid keeps a list of other sensors that can also cover up it and to maintain superiority sorts. The every sensor covers the identical grid that could be corresponding with each other. IF the density of the sensor is huge then it needs the stacks of memory and furthermore it consumes bulky amount of processing time to uphold priority lists, together with the message overhead for building covering decisions in a accommodating approach is nontrivial.

From the above description it states that the hexagonal and square grid coverage approaches to select the coverage sensors and manages it in a time synchronized network. New sensors are selected so that the priority is given to sensors located near the optimal hexagonal area coverage, obtained when the area is ideally divided into equal regular hexagons. The coverage is indeed quite good, given the distributed nature of the decisions. The main problem with it is that it fails when more sensor nodes start processing at the same time and other dilemma is that original sensing area coverage cannot be conserved. The algorithm employed in the localized sensor area network divides the area into small grids and then covers each grid with a sensor. Each sensor that can cover a grid maintains a list of other sensors that can also cover it, in a priority order.

Coordinated Area Coverage:

The author Hsin and Liu (2004) has been made the deep revise on the random and coordinated area coverage algorithms to the wireless sensor network. The individual sensor wraps a circle of radius (R). The coordinated coverage method, a sensor could be decide to sleep later than receiving authorization from supporting neighbors, for the time such authorization is agreed. The node which supports an additional node must be active. The evaluations are not harmonized, because each sensor could be discussed through its supporting neighbors separately, and the method permits for various alternatives through complicated descriptions of the protocol. According to the author suggested that nodes congregate information about remaining power from neighboring sensors. The Sensors with small enduring power are more feasible to go into the sleep position than sensors with elevated remaining power. Then the individual sensor maintains its own delay counter, which is utilized for function adjustment. In the experiments the coordinated schemes illustrated the better performance. Even though the coordinated method, for example localized behavior, it might be choose more than one sponsor nodes to be active, as no coordination is formulated among nodes for the assortment of maximum probable general supporting nodes.

From the above description it states that the power the coordinated area coverage is a sensor may decide to sleep after receiving permission from sponsoring neighbors, for the time such permission is given. A node that sponsors another node must be active. The decisions are not synchronized, since each sensor can negotiate with its sponsors independently, and the scheme allows for several variants with protocol details. The coordination methods have an enhanced property of localized behavior in which it allows more than one sensor node be active.

Low-Communication-Overhead Schemes:

The author Tian and Georganas (2002) estimated that illuminated for sensor area coverage in synchronous identical networks. For this kind of the sensor area coverage the sensing range is identical as the transmission range. This requires that every node identifies the arrangements of the entire neighbors proceeding to building any monitoring judgment. In the primary stage of each round, each node selects a time-out gap. At the final part of the time- out interval, if a node observes that neighbors, who do not have up till now transmitted a recoil note commonly wrap its monitoring region, the node sends a departure message to the entire neighbors and enter upon the sleep mode. Unless then the nodule remains active although does not send out any information to its neighboring node. The process repeats for some interval of time to permit for alteration in the monitoring position. For the protocols this makes lots of the troubles. The adjacent active sensors could be stop working without any information, and adjacent sensors possibly will not activate and may neighbor assume that the sensor is active and monitoring the other sensor. The kind of predicament could be determined if a status message is transmitted to all the neighboring nodes at the beginning of each round. One additional trouble with this protocol is that covering sensors may not be linked with the network; then that message transmission to a monitoring station may fails.

From the above description it the low communication overhead scheme; in this algorithm the sensing range of the synchronous homogeneous network is equal to the range of the transmission area. Every node monitors each neighboring nodes present in its range and sends a retreat message to all sensor node before going to sleep mode. This process is repeated after a specified time in a time out manner which reduces the communication overhead. The main problem with this algorithm is that any node that is sleep mode without sending a retreat message to any neighbor is assumed as an active node, to overcome this problem they transmitted to entire neighbors in each round of the transmission. Another issue is connection problem, in which sensor nodes are not able to identify the actual status of its neighbors.

Coverage Evaluation:

The author T.H. Kim and S. Hong (2003)) mainly examined on the coverage of the sensor network and demonstrated that the criterion can be customized in order to avoid the quandary of border nodule effects. If the nodes positioned is close to the borders of the experiential area might be active in every round as they are the individuals who are capable to observe definite areas of their personal sensing coverage, which could be outer surface area to be observed. The author recommended to incorporate intersects the actual joint sensing coverage as well as the observed area. The experiential area is a geometrical outline for example a rectangle, within which sensors are installed. The consecutively to recover the drawbacks, the author implicit that nodes are attentive of the area they have to supervise and could be regulate the covering criterion so as to consider the segments of sensing areas positioned within the exploitation area

From the above description it specifies that the some problems occur to border node coverage. It is observed that the border node remains active in every round as they are capable of covering almost all the specified region. These nodes are attentive of the area they have to supervise and can regulate the covering criterion so as to consider the segments of sensing areas positioned within the exploitation area. Nodules basically locate the intersections of sensing and supervising regions and modify their sensing regions.

2.6. Localized sensor network:

The author Youssef Chraibi (2005) explained that for the wireless sensor network it includes the huge sets of the inexpensive sensor nodes in the communication of the wireless interface. The process of the wireless sensor network had the limited processing and computing resources. Then lots of the research has been gone through the localization of the wireless sensor network. But the several algorithms are created but they are not sufficient energy and memory of the wireless networks and for the proper communication. Then the problems of the wireless sensor network had been studied in the three dimensional due to its complexity reasons for the network. Then the localization in the sensor network has been defined and this localization of sensor network is considered as the "Identification of sensor node's position". For the wireless sensor network the localization is highly most preferred. Then this localization algorithm is divided in to the two main categories such as the

Range Based Technique

Range Free Technique

From the above description it states that the wireless sensor network needs the large amount of the huge sets of the inexpensive sensor nodes in the communication of the wireless interface. The various kinds of the research and created the several algorithms to overcome the issues of the wireless sensor network. Then the localization in the sensor network has been defined and this localization of sensor network is considered as the "Identification of sensor node's position". For the wireless sensor network the localization is highly most preferred. Then this network has been divided in to the two techniques such as range based technique and range free technique.

The author Qiang Cheng (2006) described that from the Technique of the range based mechanism the local sensor network node was identified with the support of the distance and angle metrics. There are various kinds of the metrics present in the network such as Time of Arrival (ToA), Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA), Angel of Arrival (AoA), And Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI). The technique of the range based is highly effective and very efficient but it needs the lots of computation and very expensive. Radio Interferometric Measurement (RIM), Multidimensional Scaling (MDS), 3D- Landscape, DV-Distance, DV-hop, and Euclidean Distance etc.

from the above description it specify that the range based technique was used to identified distance and angle metrics with help of the range based mechanism. Time of Arrival (ToA), Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA), Angel of Arrival (AoA), And Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) these are several kinds of the metrics for the network.

The authors Rong Yu, Zhi Sun and Shunliang Mei (2006) described that through the Range free techniques the location of the sensor node is recognized on the general information by nearby anchor node, on triangulation basis. For the individual node of the communication range the range free technique had the error accuracy up to 10%. Compared to the range based technique it was very cheaper. This range free technique had the various approaches like APIT, chord selection approach, three dimensional multilateration approach, and centroid scheme etc.

These two techniques of the localization in sensor network could be achieved by the two major schemes such as

By using the GPS equipped devices help enable the small number of static sensor nodes in the network. Through these nodes the depending neighbor nodes on the placement strategy are located. The left of the sensor nodes will be collectively gathers the localized neighbor nodes.

Through some of GPS it enables the mobile sensor nodes to transfer within the network and supports to locate the further sensor nodes.

From the above description it specified that the Range free technique is utilized to identify the location of the sensor node that is much closed to the anchor node. For the range free technique is also having the several approaches like APIT, chord selection approach etc. From the description it states that these two techniques have to implement through the two specified schemes.

Disadvantages of the Localization algorithm:

The author A. Savvides, H. Park, and M. Srivastava, 2002 described that the Localization design algorithm contains the some of the issues such as

Resource constraints:

In generally the network resources are quite famished in the resources due to the weak processors contained in the nodes and creating the huge computation infeasible. In generally the sensor nodes are battery powered. The sensor networks are typically visualized only on the large scale among the number of the nodes in the distinctive deployment.

For the various operations of the sensor network it requires the localization. The designers and developers of the must be aggressively work to decrease the power cost, hardware cost, and deployment cost of the localization algorithms.

Node Density:

In this algorithm it is very sensitive at the node density. For the faster node density it needs the hop count based schemes through which hop count estimate for distance is correct. Algorithm was ineffective because it entirely based on the beacon nodes if the beacon density is not high in the specified region then it shows the unsuccessful results to the user. The developers and designers of the algorithm should be making the significant notice on the implicit on the assumptions of the density. The high density of the nodes is not totally infeasible but at some areas to is not available and very expensive.

Non-convex Topologies:

This algorithm had the issues in the locating the node positions nearer to the edges of the sensor field. The range of some range measurements are offered for the border nodes and some of them are measured from the same side of the node. From the smaller border nodes issues are present due to the very less information available about the nodes and quality of information is very low. When the sensor network had the convex shape then the outside sensors of the network had been unlocalizable and show the results as the disproportionate error for the users.

Environmental Obstacles and Terrain Irregularities:

Through the environmental obstacles and irregularities of terrain are inflicted and confused the localization. The large rocks could be obstacle the line of sight, preventing the TDoA ranging or meddle the radio, the errors in the RSSI and creates the incorrect hop count ranges.

From the above description it states that localization network had the some of the drawbacks such as the Resources constraint, node density, non-convex topologies, and environmental obstacles and terrain irregularities. If these issues of the localization are improved or enhanced then this will be very useful for the wireless network in future.

Advantages of the WLAN:

The author Jochen Schiller described the some of the benefits compared to the wired network are

Flexibility: This is an easy way that nodes can communicate with the radio coverage that is used without any restriction areas. The radio waves will penetrate through walls for the communication without making the obstruction to the user. The mobility and availability of network always exists we can just connect directly to the wireless network.

Planning: The wireless LAN was scheduled with the wireless ad hoc network that permits for the permission. The wire planning should be required in the wired network.

Robustness: through wireless network people can communicate easily, even in the disasters conditions also. Where wired network can't do communication it required wire connections.

The wireless network will reduce the additional price for the technical installation by vendors, maintenance of equipment and equipment redundancy elimination while system crash conditions.

Disadvantages of WLAN:

This network has limited bandwidth, and it does not support the VTC (Video Teleconference)

The malicious attacks can be done on the wireless network because of it vulnerable security for the network.

The wireless network would be interfered the other frequency of wired networks. This network has a lower band width, due to which it still in reinforcing process.

The WLAN products and different manufactures have been lacking the interoperability in the network.

The inclination in several forms like external interface and transmitting stations costs are the weak point of the WLAN.

In the WLAN technology the data base files cannot be upload or download

The WLAN system cannot be transmit the data while heavy storm or heavy fog in the environment.

The wired network was better in the traffic analysis in network, were WLAN is cant determine the risk of jamming, interference of potential and RF signals are not detected in the network.

From the above description it specifying the some of the benefits through the wireless network to the users and what are specified issues could be arise for the users through the wireless network. The benefits of the wireless network to the user is like reduction of the cost, installation approach and other wired connections issues are decreased totally to the users by wireless networks. From the wireless network it makes the interruption of the radio frequency and some of the bandwidth issues to the network.