Literature Review 2 1 Interconnectivity Definition Computer Science Essay

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It is defined as a set of protocols, procedural and equipped arrangements between the networks such that the customer who resides in one network should be able to communicate with the customer who resides in other network. The network should be connected in such a way that the messages which are been transmitted from one network should be received at the other network without any modification in the data content. There are many interconnection services such as ancillary services, enabling services, network elements, basic internet services which are needed to establish the connection from one network to the other network. It allows the users to gain access to the services which it is providing in different networks due to which the performance of the networks would also be increased rapidly.

Interconnection establishes a connection between the public networks which are situated at different locations so that the proper transmission takes place between the networks. It is giving an opportunity to the one side of party to utilize the latest services which it is providing at the other side of the party in a timely manner. It is mostly needed in telecommunication industry and the main purpose of utilizing it because, no single operator can switch on to the different networks when he is located in one place and cannot able to utilize the components situated in other locations which would be very difficult to integrate the components in order to acquire the desired target. More connectivities are possible between the systems as per the requirements in order to achieve the data which we require so that there would be a consistent increase in the performance of interconnection process.

(Minehane 2005) It is a process of connecting two or more systems for exchanging of information and resources. It is used for planning, maintaining and controlling the interconnections when it is linked with the other system. It will be logically situated in one organization but it will be operated in some other organization by the interconnection process. There exists many advantages in connecting the systems and also many security issues arise. Some of the benefits observed in the interconnection process are reducing the costs, improvement in the efficiency, can access the data from the central location. The lifecycle management of the interconnection process is divided into four phases. They are planning, establishing, maintaining and terminating the interconnection as per our requirements. Proper safety measures are to be taken while providing security to protect the data in the connected system. Schedule and cost for transmitting the data from one network to the other network should be estimated in prior so that the work could be completed as per the expectations. This process would be established by the system and data owners, system administrators and security and network officers by using all the available protocols in a consistent manner.

Latest technologies and procedures are used in the corporate companies to establish a unique interconnection between the systems which meets our requirements. Proper guidelines must be followed in an organization to enhance the security issues and eliminate them to a maximum extent. It also provides the rational structure for those organizations who still did not employed the interconnection process in their firm. All the required components, methods and security issues should be identified so that there would be enhanced versions established in the interconnection process. Proper connections leads to proper transmission of resources and there would be a betterment observed in connecting the systems.

2.2. Data Visualization:

(Educause 2000) It is process of representing data in different forms such as maps, charts, animations, graphical images etc in order to understand the data in an easy manner. Applications, technologies and existence of suitable environment have supported the data visualization in the recent years and electronic sensors are used to find whether the required data is for visualization. Geographical information systems(GIS) supported the individuals to gather the information from various sources ,and make the necessary changes and analyze the data in our own words such that ,there would be growth in the results of data visualization. The information regarding any topic can be visualized in any format as per our requirements. The tools which are used in preparing data visualization have become popular in the sites such as face book and twitter in which friend maps option help the users in making friends and flicker mapping tells from which location the photos have been taken. The web tools have become popular within a short period of time because of its accessible nature. Data which is stored in the public records can be easily accessed by the educational institutions through online process and can utilize the available resources in an optimal way.

General public are creating wonders in the animation field by creating funny cartoons for the children by using the latest tools which are coming in the market. They are feeling comfortable in using data visualization technique and using them in accordance with their needs. Animations are also implemented in mobile phones by using sophisticated tools which is very critical task to perform and the people are encouraging new technologies and creating the awareness of such developments to the neighboring countries.

(Michael, 2006)It is a process of discovering the new things in the world with new thoughts and new implementations lead to recent developments and ever growing results. Statistical graphics is the new development in the field of statics which acts as deep roots from which many discoveries are yet to come in the future generations. These enter into various fields like medicine and science by using sophisticated applications and tools. There is also a consistent rise in the statistical thinking and a huge awareness of collecting data from various resources used for planning and export purposes. New advancements in mathematical and statistic fields will help in data collecting and recording. Any development starts with the root and grows big to become fruit. There are many changes that the world has undergone from medieval to modern times which had a successful growth in the discovery of new developments. Milestones project consists of all the old and new developments of data visualization including all the fields.

Even though if there are any failures in the developments to reach the desired target it has to be encouraged for its existence in the competitive world. There are no financial records which can describe the visual thinking and visual representation of data and can integrate all the contributions which are acquired during the development of new discoveries. Practitioners today are ignoring the old developments and trying to produce it in the new way by employing critical tools with all the available resources collected and making it to represent in a unique manner in order to check the demand in the market. If the demand exists, then automatically the costs would be increased and the organization would also be benefited in order to achieve the organizations goals and objectives.

(Minehane 2005) It is considered as a tool in infovis which is used for military and national applications in the recent years. Mixture of infovis and mathematical deduction are used together to mine all the massive patterns which undergoes consistent changes in the visualization and should be able to sustain them, which becomes one of the major development in the field of data visualization. If there are any problems initially it would look like technical issues as chromatic aberration which can be viewed in telescope. If there is a new thought in the mind then later it would raise to a question that can be solved with a proper solution. We can also perform art on the data in some institutions such as Whitney Museum of American Art and San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. These works are dependent on the older techniques which they implemented earlier in the recent discoveries. The basic techniques are commonly used by all the developers, but the motivations and creations are different from each other. The developer will always try to explore all the techniques that they have implemented for the creation of new technologies. Defining art is difficult so artistic visualization is also difficult to learn. Visualizations of data done by the artists is called artistic visualization which will be very interesting topic to work with and will also have great future in the field of data visualization.

To implement artworks are critical, but if we have a good command and interest in the particular field then there would be no excuses in developing it. Everything seems to be pretty outside but there exists lot of hard work internally to implement perfectly as per the requirements.

2.3. TouchGraph:

(Bill 2007). "TouchGraph is the graphical form where website is linked most". TouchGraph is referred that Google related sites. This is Java application. That is also known as a TouchGraph Google Browser. That was created by "Alex Shaprio". That is exactly similar to URL. The perfect Google complement for those who appreciate visual displays of information is TouchGraph Google Browser.

From the above lines, TouchGraph is java application. This is giving support for Google related sites. In this application websites are linked most as a graphical form, so that it is called Touch graph. That is also known as a TouchGraph Google Browser. That was found by Alex Shaprio. It is working similar to URL. This is the perfect complement for those who are grateful for visual displays of information.

(Rogers 2007) The TouchGraph Google browser is used for Google's database is displays the links between URLs when user enter on other pages. It shows to users inbound and outbound relationships between URL's. [Koelzer] User will never be the same when they recognize the interconnected web expose on the TouchGraph Google Browser to them. This because of the user will have actually seen that which they could imagine before.

From the author's point of view it can be concluded that, when user enter in one page to another page Google database is displays that links between different URLs. So TouchGraph Google Browser is shows to user's relationship between inbound and outbound URLs. After entering in the URL user will never be the same. Because of that user can see what they actually imagine before.

(Rogers, 2007) Connectivity of similar pages around search results returned through Google, it is displayed by TouchGraph Google Browser. For the research questions TouchGraph is the well suited technology. By displaying connections between related web sites, it supports to exploratory search. Rather than the Google users TouchGraph users got more successful. Because of this reason users of TouchGraph were highly effective in finding related items in Amazon.com. TouchGraph user's boundary graphically displays relationship between pages, it is expected.

From the above lines the author's point of view, Google returns connectivity of similar pages around search results, shown by TouchGraph Google browser. If users have any research questions TouchGraph is well suited technology. Google TouchGraph is used for the investigative searching by displaying connections between related web sites. Google TouchGraph is supports to this investigative research. TouchGraph users got more successful rather than Google users. In this case TouchGraph became highly effective. Because of this reason users find related items of Amazon.com.

(Bill 2007) TouchGraph is a free online tool for browsing related websites by discovering links between related sites based on Google search. TouchGraph technology is giving power to the Alexa Browser, Amazon Browser, BlogStreet Browser, CiteSeer Browser, and Google Relator browser. TouchGraph used for LiveJournal Browser, PubMed browser, TouchGraph Google Browser, TouchGraph Wiki browser, Visualizing the Web with Google. Similarly, LiveJournal applications have been created for using TouchGraph such as the Amazon browser and Google browser

By considering the above lines it can be concluded that technology of TouchGraph is working as a online tool for surfing related web sites based on Google search by discovering links between inbound and outbound sites. By using TouchGraph technology many browsers such as Alexa, Amazon, BlogStreet, CiteSeer, and Google related browsers are obtained power. As well as TouchGraph used for LiveJournal Browser, PubMed browser, TouchGraph Google Browser, TouchGraph Wiki browser, visualizing the Web with Google. LiveJournal applications also created for using TouchGraph for example Amazon and Google browser.

Alexa Browser: TouchGraph is given power to Alexa browser, it is working as an online tool for surfing related websites on Google search, by creating links between related sites. Alexa browser was launched by TouchGraph, with links to the first 10 related sites in the containing nodes, including user's URL in the middle node.( Eugene Eric Kim, April 2003)

From the above lines, Alexa browser was launched by TouchGraph, including users URL in the middle node. This is taking power from TouchGraph. TouchGraph is a online tool, for browsing Google related sites, by creting links between related sites.

Amazon browser: TouchGraph giving power to this browser. Here browsing the mass literature, music, and films including Amazon database by TouchGraph online tool. But here links between related items are exploring. Amazon browser was launched by TouchGraph. Including users search methods in the central node. Here links to the first 10 search results in the containing nodes. (Eric Kim April 2003)

From the above lines compared with the Alex browser some differences are there. TouchGraph is working as an online tool for both whereas Alexa browsing is related to sites and Amazon browsing is related to items such as mass literature, music and films including Amazon database. Amazon browsing was launched by TouchGraph.

BlogStreet: weblog neighborhoods are browsing by using TouchGraph tool. Links between related sites are exploring.

CiteSeer Browser: Scientific literature in the CiteSeer database is browsing by using TouchGraph tool. Links between related articles are exploring.

Google Relator Browser: Google's internet database is browsing by using TouchGraph tool. Links between related sites are exploring.

PubMed Browser: 40 years of medical literature included in the MEDLINE database is browsing by using TouchGraph tool. Links between related articles are explored.

From the lines different types of browsers are browsing different things by using TouchGraph online tool. By using TouchGraph tool BlogStreet is browsing weblog neighborhoods, CiteSeer is browsing scientific literature, Google Relator is browsing Google's internet database, and PubMed is browsing medical literature. BlogStreet and Google Relator browsers are exploring links between related sites and CiteSeer and PubMed browsers are exploring related articles.

2.4. TouchGraph evolution:

(P.Haase, Y.Sure, 2001) With the creation of the original visual browser for Google TouchGraph was founded in 2001. From that time, the most of the people have used the TouchGraph online tools. This is used in Google, Amazon, Alex, other famous information sources and discovers the relationship between these browsers. So many companies' commercial applications contain solutions for users in management consulting, social networking, mass media, and medical articles. [Kim, 2003] founded LiveJournal browser, its similar application have been created for using TouchGraph such as the Amazon, and Google browser. TouchGraph is giving permission to Facebook also. The TouchGraph Google browser is tool that visualizes connections between web sites.

(Eric, 2003) In the TouchGraph Facebook browser users official data also they can see. TouchGraph allows for the creation and navigation for the interactive graphs. So many browsers are providing many features, but all browsers are depending in the TouchGraph online tool. So it is a well developed technology. TouchGraph has small clusters given by a search for the term of search engine marketing. If user gives a click on the cluster one small box will appear with a name of the related site. If user click on the site the corresponding circle becomes the center of the cluster then user can recognize what other sites are related to that sites. If the user will turn of the appeared blocker, a click will also open the home page of the site. There are some buttons for changing the number of clusters displayed and user can filter much and more. User can also enter the URL site in search field to analyze the neighborhood of one particular site.

From the above lines, in 2001 with the support of the original visual browser for Google TouchGraph was discovered. Since, most of the people are using that tool in Google browser. This technology of the TouchGraph browser is giving support to many browsers such as Alexa, Amazon, BlogStreet, CiteSeer, and Google related browsers and giving support to some TouchGraph browsers also. This technology is used in some information searching browsers such as Amazon, Alex, Google browsers. Along with this technology is maintaining relationship with the information research browsers. TouchGraph is giving support to the Facebook also, when user enters in the Facebook account TouchGraph displays their data in links mode. LiveJournal applications have been created for using such as Amazon and Google browser. TouchGraph will allows in the Facebook account users can get their official data also. The creation and navigation for the interactive graphs are allowed by the TouchGraph. I strongly support this technology because it is very easy to users and it is well developed technology. So many browsers are providing many features but TouchGraph is giving power to that browsers. TouchGraph has small clusters given by a search for the term of search engine market. Here we can see easy method of the touch graph working. Users can paste their requiring sites in the TouchGraph clusters.

2.5. Existing search engines:

(Tim 2005) The other tools which are similar to the touch graph Google browser are Grokker, Kartoo, Viewzi, searchme, Quintura, Ujiko, Search-Cube, Middlespot, WebBrain, Oskope, Nexplore, Eyeplorer, Ziipa, Redzee and Liveplasma

Grokker:

(Tim, 2005) The search engine that gathers its results and is available as a free java-enabled web service is termed as Grokker. The results are presented in a circular map. To produce a result set from an inquiry this search engine depends on the Yahoo's search engine. This is also available as software for endeavor use. Exploring the results in a visual manner is allowed by the Grokker search engine. By using the specific related keywords results can be sorted by date, source, and domain and refined selecting. Exploring the results in a visual manner is allowed by the Grokker search engine. By using the specific related keywords results can be sorted by date, source, and domain and refined selecting.

Source: Tim Finin, 10 May 2005,http://ebiquity.umbc.edu/img/d.gif "Grokker search engine". http://ebiquity.umbc.edu/blogger/2005/05/10/grokker-search-engine/

From the above discussions it can be concluded that there are several other search engines similar to the touch graph web browser. Grokker is one of the search engines that present its results in a circular map. It is a java enabled web service and it explores the results in a visual manner. The results can be sorted in the form of data, source, and domain and refined selecting by the Grokker search engine.

Searchme:

(Terri Wells, 2008) Searchme is a visual search engine that produces efficient results. Searchme is a search engine that produces results in a revolving plane and it has several useful features. The matter we are searching for can be easily searched by the searchme engine. A better way of searching is provided by searching 10links with scraps on a page and making a sophisticated deduction in the searchme engine. Here the search can be done back and forth. Multiple categories of searches like videos, music, images, advertising, shopping, sport and entertainment can be performed by the searchme engine.

Source: Terri Wells, 2008, Search Engine News http://www.seochat.com/c/a/Search-Engine-News/Searchme-Most-Visual-Search-Engine-Yet/

From the above discussions it can be concluded that the searchme engine results in efficient results. It has several useful features and multiple categories of searches like videos, music, images, advertising, shopping, sport and entertainment can be performed by the searchme engine. In the searchme engine the required information can be browsed.

Kartoo:

(Yiqing Xu, 2005) The web, images and the Wikipedia entries can be searched by the Kartoo web based search engine. Creation of a visual map is allowed by the users in Kartoo search engine with the help of Google and yahoo search engines. The results can be filtered by a parental filter and one can save and print maps using the Kartoo search engine. It delivers the visual search results to the users.

Source: Yiqing Xu, 2005- Kartoo Application Study: (Revised)

From the above discussions it can be concluded that the Kartoo is a web based search engine that provides the efficient results. Kartoo search engine with the help of Google and yahoo search engines Kartoo search engine with the help of Google and yahoo search engines helps in the creation of visual map.

Middlespot:

(Robin Wauters, 2009) It is a web based search engine aims at improving the searching for websites, videos, images and news etc. When a keyword is searched in the Middlespot search engine, two columns are opened at the left containing title, summary and full link and at right containing search results visual representation. By using the slider or the scrolling button of the mouse, frames can be adjusted to the required sizes. The Middlespot also resembles a social book marking service because the results are saved on the work pad. The number of tools like bookmarklets and browser plug-ins are offered by the middle spot search engine. This search engine provides an easy way of browsing.

From the above discussions it can be concluded that Middlespot is a search engine that provides an improved search engine. This is a web based search engine and resembles a social book marking service. Easy way of browsing is provided by the Middlespot search engine. When a keyword is searched in the Middlespot search engine, two columns are opened at the left containing title, summary and full link and at right containing search results visual representation. By using the slider or the scrolling button of the mouse, frames can be adjusted to the required sizes.

Source: Robin Wauters, 2009- "Middlespot is an alternative visual search engine".http://techcrunch.com/2009/03/21/middlespot-is-analternative-visual-search-engine/

WebBrain:

(Andy Patrizio, 2008) A graphical interface on database websites is provided by the WebBrain search engine. The Microsoft office documents and the other files can be documented by the WebBrain search engine. A human-maintained directory of websites is provided by the WebBrain search engine. To explore the related information, the user can click on each topic displayed on the network instead of searching the long lists of text provided. The network will be rebuilt and all the related topics are displayed at each time the user click on a topic. By visually organizing the resources, the WebBrain acts as a generic tool for managing information.

Source: Andy Patrizio, 2008- "Need a WebBrain to Net Search" http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2000/05/36600

From the above discussions it can be concluded that the WebBrain is the graphical interface database website. A human-maintained directory of websites is provided by the WebBrain search engine. To explore the related information, the user can click on each topic displayed on the network instead of searching the long lists of text provided. The network will be rebuilt and all the related topics are displayed at each time the user click on a topic. By visually organizing the resources, the WebBrain acts as a generic tool for managing information.

Oskope:

(Raj, 2007)It is a Germany based visual search engine that provides a visual interface. Using Oskope search engine is very simple. In the Oskope search engine the matter that is used to be searched is to be selected then the corresponding images appears as thumbnails in the display area at the middle of the monitor. It directly provides the source. It provides large number of images and preview information with nominal paging. Searching on popular websites like Amazon, eBay, YouTube or Flicker is allowed in the Oskope search engine.

Source: Raj 2007, Oskope - Visual Search Engine

http://www.technobuzz.net/oskope-visual-search-engine/

From the above discussions it can be concluded that the Oskope is a Germany based search engine. In the Oskope search engine the matter that is used to be searched is to be selected then the corresponding images appears as thumbnails in the display area at the middle of the monitor. It directly provides the source. In the Oskope search engine searching on popular websites like Amazon, eBay, YouTube or Flicker is allowed.

Nexplore:

(Venkat 2009) Nexplore is a search engine that is web2.0 tool based. It is used to provide superior end user experience, social network integration and rich media display. Each results preview can be viewed and when a query is searched it shows the rich interface. All types of searches can be performed by using the Nexplore search engine. The various webs, images, blogs and podcasts can be searched using this search engine. It redefines the search engine. The navigation can be made effortless and provides the new features. A user is gets a unique experience by logging into Nexplore search engine. The graphical appealing and functional interface can be provided by the Nexplore search engine. By hovering over the results itself a user can interact with any of the Nexplore search viewing options. The page in a box that drops down from the results can be loaded and previewed by the users in the Nexplore search engine. The user has two choices after navigating through the homepage namely save or Trash. When a save option is selected, the search page gets saved and they can review later. When a trash option is selected by the user the user is able to remove the search result from the list and continue with other search.

Source: Venkat, 2009- Nexplore: Yet another Search engine, Techdows. http://techdows.com/2009/07/nexplore-yet-another-search-engine.html

From the above discussions it can be concluded that Nexplore is a search engine that is web2.0 tool based. It is used to provide superior end user experience, social network integration and rich media display. It redefines the search engine. The navigation can be made effortless and provides the new features. The user has two choices after navigating through the homepage namely save or Trash. A user is gets a unique experience by logging into Nexplore search engine. The graphical appealing and functional interface can be provided by the Nexplore search engine. When a save option is selected, the search page gets saved and they can review later. When a trash option is selected by the user the user is able to remove the search result from the list and continue with other search.

Eyeplorer:

Eyeplorer is a graphical knowledge engine used for research and study. For brain storming and finding associative deals Eyeplorer search engine is used. The cross reference terms and search terms can be searched by the Eyeplorer. With a process approach this tool helps the learners prepare for writing assignments. Digital literacies can be developed by the Eyeplorer. It is a web 2.0 tool used for study and research. To search a particular topic in Eyeplorer website, the topic of interest should be entered. Then the various eye spots appear representing the concepts connected to the topic. By using a slider or double clicking a sector a particular topic can be focused. The eyespots appeared are grouped and divided by the colored segments. The interested topic can be selected by clicking on the eyespot so that the basic information connected to the topic will be provided.

Source: Eyeplorer: Interact with Knowledge- 2010 http://www.slideshare.net/jwoodward/eyeplorer-interact-with-knowledge

From the above discussions it can be Eyeplorer is a graphical knowledge engine used for research and study. The interested topic can be selected by clicking on the eyespot so that the basic information connected to the topic will be provided. The cross reference terms and search terms can be searched by the Eyeplorer Digital literacies can be developed by the Eyeplorer. It is a web 2.0 tool used for study and research. The eyespots appeared are grouped and divided by the colored segments. By using a slider or double clicking a sector a particular topic can be focused.

Ziipa:

(Paul Glazowski, 2008) It is a visual search engine and its goal is to showcase the best web 2.0 web design and applications. The search can be performed in a number of ways for the things. It is a search engine that s geared towards the web 2.0 set and a traditional tool bar is present at the top of the page but also a tag cloud to its right. It is a combination of crowd sourcing, semantic search and random sit discovery features which made the search engine popular. Any site can be found by using this search engine. A search box, a cloud tag and 10 thumbnails and 3 different options for navigation can be seen whenever you first visit the website. Whenever a keyword is searched then it displays 10 related thumbnails for that keyword. The regular users of Ziipa can easily submit the sites to its systems.

Source: Paul Glazowski, 2008- Ziipa web 2.0 search: indie Web Apps FTW! http://mashable.com/2008/11/02/ziipa-visual-search/

From the above discussions it can be concluded that Ziipa is a visual search engine and its goal is to showcase the best web 2.0 web design and applications. It is a combination of crowd sourcing, semantic search and random sit discovery features which made the search engine popular. Any site can be found by using this search engine whenever a keyword is searched then it displays 10 related thumbnails for that keyword. The regular users of Ziipa can easily submit the sites to its systems.

Redzee:

(Sergio and Silva) It is a search engine that uses iPod system. Many interesting features like website thumbnails and Quick view are provided by the Redzee results. The Redzee search engine provides many advanced features and helps in fast accessing. The information related to any topic can be searched using this Redzee search engine.

Source: Sergio Silva, RedZee, a new search engine with fantastic features. http://www.drollthings.com/?p=1162

From the above discussions it can be concluded that Redzee search engine provides many advanced features and helps in fast accessing. The information related to any topic can be searched using this Redzee search engine. It is a search engine that uses iPod system. Many interesting features like website thumbnails and Quick view are provided by the Redzee results.

2.6. Benefits provided by the existing tools:

[Phil Bradley 2009] These various search engines provides various features. The various search engines helps to find the required matter. The different types of search engines discussed above use different technologies and interfaces and provide results in different fashions. The Grokker search engine provides an outline and a map view. Kartoo search engine is closed and Redzee search engine provides an arc of web pages you can flick through. A tag cloud based on results is offered by Quintura search engine. All the search engines provide the quick accessing of the data and produce the efficient results. Searchme is a search engine that produces results in a revolving plane and it has several useful features and has been closed now. The Viewzi search engine uses a tile approach. A cube of thumbnails is used by the search engine. A visual representation above and links below are provided by the WebBrain search engine.

From the above discussions it can be concluded that the various search engines provides vast information about the topic of interest. The accessing is made faster and a lot of information can be searched using the search engines. The images, videos, music, news, and entertainment related sites can be easily searched by the search engines. The various types of the search engines and the features and various advantages can be searched by using the search engines. The Grokker search engine provides an outline and a map view. Kartoo search engine is closed. A cube of thumbnails is used by the search engine. A visual representation above and links below are provided by the WebBrain search engine.

Phil Bradley 2009- Major types of search engine http://www.philb.com/whichengine.htm

2.7. Limitations of the existing tools:

All the search engines make the search easy and consist of 3 parts namely: database and web documents, database operations and a series of programs that determine display of the results. Even though there are many advantages provided by the search engines, there various challenges and limitations faced by them. Some of the challenges faced by the existing search engines are discussed below:

Searching using the keywords results in the millions of web pages that are totally irrelevant.

Ambiguous results may be produced due to searching of semantic keywords.

The web pages that do not include the matter directly may not be obtained.

The effectiveness of the search engine has to be maintained

In addition to the above limitations, the other challenges faced by the search engines are most of the search engines do not save the searches performed. The matter obtained from the search engines cannot be exported to the office files. Most of the search engines do not allow adding the custom search resources. Most of the search engines do not show the results on a single page.

From the above discussions it can be concluded that the search engines makes the search easy and the database and web documents, database operations and a series of programs that determine display of the results are the three main parts of the search engine. The effectiveness of the search engine is to be maintained by the designers. The main drawback of the search engine is searching using the keywords results in the millions of web pages that are totally irrelevant. Accessing of the keywords that are not directly mentioned in the search pages cannot be done. Most of the search engines do not provide the results in a single page. The searches performed cannot be saved in search engines. The matter obtained from the search engines cannot be exported to the office files. Most of the search engines do not allow adding the custom search resources.

2.8. Details and Description of the Project:

The present project is to design an application of Touch Graph Search Engine. As per the requirement of the project, the programmers have successfully designed a touch Graph application which can be used based on the necessities. Based on the details given by the programmers, in order to search something which is required by the client, the application of touch graph is more advantageous than the other traditional search engines. The entire coding of the touch graph application is carried out in Java and Google API.

Touch graph is a search engine that produces efficient results when a particular link is searched. The applications of touch graph already existing now are being developed and designed by making use of many programming languages where as the one designed now is entirely on the basis of the java coding. It is a graphical web browser. The main advantage of the touch graph application is that the client and the user can visually see the interconnection of the websites which are interrelated to the search. Whenever the user makes use of this touch graph application for the search, the web sites which are related to the topic of the search appears on the screen in a different manner. The key word of search would be displayed in the center of the page and all the sites which are connected to the subject are linked with the center in a circular form. These sites would also be displaying their internal links in the search page. This helps the user to have a better look at the search by visualizing the way in which these interrelated sites are connected. The total work is being done by using the code in Java and Google API.

The main advantage of this design is that the user can have the visuals of the related web sites on the same page and there is no necessity for them to go through n number of pages to get the relevant content of the search.

2.9. Different From Existing Tools:

The designing of the present application of touch graph is not similar to the regular ones. In general the application of the touch graph search engine is developed based on many programming languages. The initial and the basic difference of the present designing of the application is that it is developed totally on the basis of Java. The development of the project made use of the collection frames in Java.

The application developed and designed by the programmers can be used as a navigator to the required web pages. Unlike in the normal search engines, the user can have a visual of the related web sites when they start their search in this application. By making use of this application, the interrelated data and the information of the sites or the networks is provided on to the hand to the client. It is not like the page search and this is beyond the general search engines.

2.10 Technologies used in the Development of the Project:

The application of the touch graph web browser has been developed successfully by making use of Java. It is entirely developed on the coding of Java along with the Google API. These are the technologies used in the developments of the project. The brief description of these technologies is given below.

Java:

To have a few dependencies for the implementation, Java is a programming language which is concurrent class based and object oriented one which can be used in a general purpose for many implementations. There is a possibility for the developer of the program to write the program only once and execute it on the internet anywhere. So the ability of the Java coding is that it can run anywhere on the internet.

This coding can be used readily for a wide range of applications as this is a matured language. It is compatible with all the applications and even new trends are emerging. With this complete compatibility, simultaneously the compilers and the systems would be supporting this.

Collection frames in Java:

On the Platform of Java 2, the collection frames was initially introduced. Collection is the process of storing and manipulating a group of data as a single unit. A well defined set of classes and the interfaces, which are provided for the manipulation of the data and also for the storing of the data in collections, is called as the Collection Framework. A suitable API for many of the abstract data types like hash tables, maps, sets, trees, arrays, lists, and other collections is provided by the framework. The Java classes in the Collections Framework summarize both the data structures and the algorithms connected with this concept. This is mainly because of their object-oriented design. Without burdening the programmer with too many procedures and interfaces, this framework provides a standard programming interface to many of the most common abstractions. In order to easily define higher-level data abstractions, such as queues, stacks, and thread-safe collections, the operations supported by the collections framework however allow the programmer.

Google API:

The current project of touch graph also made use of API which allows the clients to download the files. These files can be downloaded in the original format. This Google API these days can be utilized for downloading the required documents in various forms by the programmers and developers. Open document format, PDF's, Microsoft Word and many other forms are being allowed to get downloaded in API.

2.11 Benefits of the Project:

The first and the foremost advantage of this project is that it allows the user to have an easy access to the specific page or the site he/she is searching for. The results of the search do not appear in the form of pages and instead, they appear in a form of a representation of linking all the related sites with the search key word in center. By this the user can have q quick preview at the sites in brief and he can directly choose the one which is appropriate. Hence speed of accessing increases by using this application.

This touch graph application developed here is mainly useful and benefitted to the users who had a necessity of fast accessing in their work. The time constraint in searching the pages in traditional ones is absent in this case as they can directly select and enter the required site.

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