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Mobile computingÂ is a form ofÂ human-computer interactionÂ where a computerÂ is expected to be transported during normal usage (FreeDownloadDoc, 2011). Mobile computing has three aspects which include mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. The first aspect, mobile communication issues in ad-hoc and infrastructure networks as well as communication properties, protocols, data formats and concrete technologies. The second aspect focuses on the mobile hardware, in example, mobile devices or device components. The third aspect deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications which is mobile software.
MobileÂ computingÂ is getting advanced day by day, from notebook computers to personal digital assistants (PDAs), to standard cell phones, to smartphones like the Blackberry andÂ iPhone;Â mobileÂ computingÂ has become an indispensable way of life. (Kayne, 2011)
The objective of research for this assignment is to investigate the latest mobile development, understanding mobile hardware and the mobile operating system being used daily.
Mobile phones are long-range, portable electronic device used for mobile communication. Mobile phones are electronic devicesÂ used to make mobile telephone callsÂ across a wide geographic area. Mobile phones are electronic telecommunicationsÂ device, often referred to as a cellular phone or cellphone. Besides, mobile phones connect to a wireless communications network through radio wave or satellite transmissions. Of course, most mobile phones provide voice communications, Short Message Service (SMS), Multimedia Message Service (MMS), and newer phones may also provideÂ InternetÂ services such as WebÂ browsingÂ andÂ e-mail. (Webopedia, 2011)
Here's a list of some smartphone manufacturers that will undergo research for this assignment:
Research In Motion (RIM)
Never the less, platforms are required to run on a smartphone, here are some popular platforms currently running on smartphones:
Windows Phone 7 OS (Windows Mobile 7)
Technical Area of Research
A mobile ad-hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes forming an ad-hoc network without the assistance of any centralized structures. These networks introduced a new art of network establishment and can be well suited for an environment where either the infrastructure is lost or where deploy an infrastructure is not very cost effective. There are quite a number of uses for mobile ad-hoc networks. Local community can use an ad-hoc network to detect your car moving through an intersection, checking the speed and direction of the car. In an environmental network, you can find out the temperature, atmospheric pressure, amount of sunlight, and the relative humidity at a number of locations.
Ad-hoc networks can be categorized into the first, second, third and the fourth generation ad-hoc networks systems.Â Fourth generation is being introduced recently. (Bakht, 2011)
The first generation (1G) began in the early 80's with commercial deployment of Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) cellular networks. Early AMPS networks used Frequency Division Multiplexing Access (FDMA) to carry analog voice over channels in the 800Â MHz frequency band. (Phifer, 2000)
The second generation (2G) emerged in the 90's when mobile operators deployed two competing digital voice standards. In North America, some operators adopted IS-95, which used Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) to multiplex up to 64 calls per channel in the 800 MHz band. Across the world, many operators adopted the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) standard, which used Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) to multiplex up to 8 calls per channel in the 900 and 1800 MHz bands. (Phifer, 2000)
The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) defined the third generation (3G) of mobile telephony standards IMT-2000 to facilitate growth, increase bandwidth, and support more diverse applications.Â (Phifer, 2000)
This label is a bit premature because what constitutes "4G" has not yet been standardized. The ITU is currently considering candidate technologies for inclusion in the 4G IMT-Advanced standard, including LTE, UMB, and WiMAXÂ II. Goals for 4G include data rates of least 100 Mbps, use of OFDMA transmission, and packet-switched delivery of IP-based voice, data, and streaming multimedia. (Phifer, 2000)
Definition for mobile phones was being explained at Research Description, and we know what mobile phones are for. Recently, we might have heard the term "smartphones" tossed around. Well, smartphone is a device that lets you make telephone calls, but also adds in features that you might find on a personal digital assistant or a computer--such as the ability to send and receive e-mail and edit Office documents, for example.
Yet, to understand what a smartphone is, we should start with a history lesson. In the beginning, there were cell phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). Cell phones were used for making calls--and not much else--while PDAs, like the Palm Pilot, were used as personal, portable organizers. A PDA could store your contact info and a to-do list, and could sync with your computer. Eventually, PDAs gained wireless connectivity and were able to send and receive e-mail. Cell phones, meanwhile, gained messaging capabilities, too. PDAs then added cellular phone features, while cell phones added more PDA-like (and even computer-like) features. In the end, smartphones were invented. (Cassavoy, 2011)
Here's a list of some smartphone manufacturers
Research In Motion (RIM)
Apple Inc., exist since 1976. Apple Inc. created its first multi-touch screen smartphone named iPhone. At the Macworld Conference & Expo in January 2007, Steve Jobs revealed the long anticipated iPhone, a convergence of an Internet-enabled smartphone and video iPod. The iPhone combines a 2.5G quad band GSM and EDGE cellular phone with features found in hand held devices, running scaled-down versions of Apple's Mac OS X, with various applications such as Safari web browser, e-mail, and navigation. The iPhone features a 3.5Â inch touch screen display, 8 GB of memory, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi. The iPhone first became available on June 29, 2007. (iPod to PC transfer Inc., 2008)
HTC was founded in 1997 by Cher Wang, Chairwoman, HT Cho, Director of the Board & Chairman of HTC Foundation, and Peter Chou, President and CEO, HTC made its name as the company behind many of the most popular operator-branded devices on the market. It has established unique partnerships with key mobile brands, including the leading five operators in Europe, the top four in the US, and many fast-growing Asian operators. It has also brought products to market with industry leading OEM partners and, since June 2006, under its own HTC brand. HTC is one of the fastest-growing companies in the mobile sector and has achieved remarkable recognition over the past couple of years. Business Week ranked HTC as the second best performing Technology Company in Asia in 2007 as well as giving the company the number 3 spot in its Global listing in 2006. Since launching its own brand 18 months ago the company has introduced dozens of HTC-branded products around the world. (HTC, 2011)
In 1928 Paul Galvin and associates incorporate the Galvin Manufacturing Corporation in Chicago, begin making battery eliminators for home radios, and establish a company culture and vision.
Moving into the 1930s, Galvin Manufacturing Corporation establishes the Motorola brand, gains proficiency and experience in engineering, mobile communications and market building, and becomes a technology and equipment supplier to automotive customers.
In the 1940s, Motorola's first modern research and development efforts and first generation of professionally trained engineers develop the world's first commercial two-way radios to use FM technology. This technology leadership transformed the communications product line and advanced Motorola's market leadership.
In 1967, Nokia Group was formed. Introduction of mobile network began enabling theÂ Nokia productionÂ to invent the Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT), the world's very first multinational cellular network in 1981. The NMT was later on introduced in other countries. Very soon Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), a digital mobile telephony, was launched andÂ NokiaÂ started the development ofÂ GSM phones. Beginning of the 1990 brought about an economic recession in Finland. Rumor has it that Nokia was offered to the Swedish telecom company Ericsson during this time which was refused. Due to thisÂ NokiaÂ increased its sale of GSM phones that was enormous. This was the main reason for Nokia to not only be one of the largest but also the most important companies inÂ Finland. As per the sources, in August 1997,Â NokiaÂ supplied GSM systems to 59 operators in 31 countries.Â Nokia once was the number 1 production in digital technologies.
Research In Motion (RIM)
Research in Motion Ltd. is known primarily as the maker and provider of BlackBerry wireless devices and e-mail services. These always-on devices have proven popular with corporations who use them for field service representatives and other mobile employees. BlackBerry's service delivers e-mail messages from corporate servers to handheld BlackBerry devices. Some models also have voice capabilities and can function as cell phones. Other advanced features include the ability to visit specific web sites and conduct Internet searches. In addition, BlackBerry devices include other features common to personal digital assistants (PDAs), including calendars and \organizers. In addition to wireless handheld devices, RIM also provides radio modems to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and software development kits for creating applications for BlackBerry Wireless Handhelds. (FundingUniverse, 2011)
Samsung is one of the world's largest technology providers. It started out as trading company exporting various products from South Korea to Beijing, China. Founded by Lee Byung-chul in 1938, Samsung gradually developed into the multinational corporation that it is today.Â
It became the name associated with different types of business establishments in South Korea and in various parts of the world. Internationally, people associate the name with electronics, information technology and development.Â
Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications is a global provider of mobile multimedia devices, including feature-rich phones, accessories and PC cards. The products combine powerful technology with innovative applications for mobile imaging, music, communications and entertainment. The net result is that Sony Ericsson is an enticing brand that creates compelling business opportunities for mobile operators and desirable, fun products for end users. Sony Ericsson is a 50-50 joint venture between Sony Corporation and Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson. It was established in 2001 by telecommunications leader Ericsson and consumer electronics powerhouse Sony Corporation. The company is owned equally by Ericsson and Sony and announced its first joint products in March 2002. Sony Ericsson products have universal appeal and are different in the key areas of imaging, music, design and applications. The company has launched products that make best use of the major mobile communications technologies, such as the 2G and 3G platforms, while enhancing its offerings to entry level markets. (Ericsson, 2010)
Mobile software or platform is developed software that runs on handheld such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs) or smartphones.
Here are some popular platforms currently running on smartphones:
Windows Phone 7 OS (Windows Mobile 7)
The Android was created for use on mobile devices. It was initially developed by a company called Android Inc., acquired by Google in 2005. This mobile device platform is powered by the Linux kernel and it was developed as a flexible and easily upgradeable system for mobile phone manufacturers and carriers. The first version of the Android OS was released in 2007. It was the flagship release from Google via the Open Handset Alliance, a group of big companies including Google,Â HTC,Â SamsungÂ andÂ MotorolaÂ and others. Their aim was to create an open source mobile phone platform which could compete with the big mobile platforms from Apple, Microsoft, Nokia, Research In Motion (RIM) and Palm.Android
The Android OS (Operating System) allows developers to create applications that can call on any of the phone's core functionality, from making calls to using the camera. Since Google has encouraged a great deal of third-party development there are new, innovative releases coming out all the time. The first mobile phone to be released running the new Android OS was the HTC Dream, which came out in October 2008. Since then the operating system has seen a number of updates, mostly with snack related nicknames:
1.1 (February 2009)
1.5 Cupcake (April 2009)
1.6 Donut (September 2009)
2.0 Éclair (October 2009)
2.1 Éclair (January 2010)
2.2 Froyo (Frozen Yogurt) (May 2010)
2.3 Gingerbread (December 2010)
3.0 Honeycomb (February 2011) (Hill, 2011)
The BlackBerry is also known as a RIM device. The device is equipped with the RIM software implementation of proprietary wireless-oriented protocols; furthermore, the device is supported by the RIM BlackBerry Message Center. The BlackBerry (RIM) device shares similarities to the PDA devices we discussed earlier; however, the BlackBerry (RIM) device is always-on, and participating in some form of wireless push technology. As a result of this the BlackBerry (RIM) does not require some form of desktop synchronization like the PDA does. This unique component of the BlackBerry (RIM) device adds a different dimension to the process of forensic examination, and in essence this portability can be the examiners greatest ally. (Wright, 2008)http://images.intomobile.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/blackberry-icon.jpg
iOS (iPhone Operating System), Apple Inc.'s mobile operating system. Originally, it is developed for iPhones but extended to other devices such as iPod touch, iPad and Apple TV. Of course, iOS did not license iOS for any other third party devices. Apple'sÂ App StoreÂ contains more than 300,000 iOS applications, which have collectively been downloaded more than 10 billion times. In the last quarter of 2010, it had a 16% share of the smartphoneÂ operating system market in terms of units sold, third behindÂ Google'sÂ AndroidÂ and Symbian. iOS is derived fromÂ Mac OS X, with which it shares theÂ DarwinÂ foundation, and is therefore aÂ Unix-like operating system by nature. (PyroCF, 2011)Apple iOS.svg
Symbian OS is anÂ open sourceÂ operating systemÂ for mobile phones primarily used on Nokia advanced or data enabled smart phones. Symbian OS runs exclusively on ARM processors and has evolved from Psion's EPOC which was developed as a rudimentary operating system for early electronic organizers. The Psion EPOC OS was referred to EPOC16 beginning in the late 1990's to help distinguish it from the newer 32bit Operating system EPOC32, which eventually became Symbian OS. Psion software created aÂ joint ventureÂ with several mobile hardwareÂ manufacturers, EricssonÂ®, MotorolaÂ®, and NokiaÂ® called Symbian and eventually took on the name Symbian Software, renaming EPOC32 Symbian OS. (Schauland, 2011)http://www.toptechviews.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/symbian-os.jpg
Windows Phone 7 OS (Windows Mobile 7)
Windows Mobile 7, the OS has flipped, flopped and morphed to the point that what has in 2010 bears little to no resemblance to what was envisioned in early 2008. As the smartphone OS world has advanced in recent years, Microsoft needed to start fresh, to re-think what a Microsoft mobile OS should be.Â And that's what they've done.http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_gcr8rnEV1js/S3qhcupMNdI/AAAAAAAAB7g/-LJu7sTzx9A/s400/windows-phone-7-series.jpg
Windows Mobile 7, renamed Windows Phone 7, is the result of this soul searching. In this Pocket PC Central Product Brief, we'll provide an aggregation of rumors and official statements regarding the upcoming Windows Phone 7 OS.Â This information will continue to be updated over the remainder of 2010, so drop back by regularly.Â (Pocket PC Central, 2010)
For mobile communication, 4G or Fourth Generation is being introduced as the latest development, but it has not yet been standardized. Of course, 5G or Fifth Generation is possible to develop for our future for better internet speed.
For mobile hardware, smartphones with different specification and different manufacturers are all over the market. Manufacturers are coming up with even better smartphones or maybe better and smarter phones than smartphones.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Smartphone_share_current.png
For mobile software, Android OS is currently taking over the market share around the world. Competitors such as Blackberry OS, iOS, Symbian and Windows Mobile 7 or others, will come up with better updates on their platforms and take over the market share. Never the less, Android OS will also update its OS to remain the 1st in the market.
In the chart, we see that Google Android OS is winning other OS and having 33% market share. Most of its user's age is from 15 to 20 and of course, not only young people; it is also widely welcome by adults from age 21 to 30. Google Android OS took people's heart through making its OS to be customizable according to users' desire. Besides, manufacturers also can have a chance to develop their own User Interface (UI) such as HTC Sense.
After researching for the "Latest Development on Mobile Computing", latest development on mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile operating system were being displayed. Of course, never the less, thanks a lot to my lecturer, Mr. Firdaus, for giving me hint to complete this research and assignment.
Works Cited/ References
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