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Knowledge based system is a system that uses artificial intelligence techniques in the process of problem solving to help and support at making decision, learning and action and also develop computational models of the human intelligence. Knowledge based system includes database of expert knowledge; retrieval is couplings and linkages.
MYCIN is an expert system and one of the largest artificial intelligence that is designed to aid physicians in the diagnosis and assists internists in diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.
Data is the factual, accurate, fixed and separate things and raw observations of the given area of interest. The information can be made after systematic processing of such data. The data are usually recognized as numeric values within the environment. It also can be seen as the transactional, physical records of the activities of building blocks of any information system. As for MYCIN, it asks questions, gives reasons and explanations based on the questions asked about the diagnostic questions and deals with uncertainties. The data that is included in MYCIN program are the patient detail, patient activities, and the medical information. MYCIN would simply ask yes or textual question and provides answers based on the probability of each diagnosis and reasons behind each diagnosis. It also provides a consultative advice such as bacteremia and meningitis.
As for rules, it deals with the conditions and actions that are also known as antecedents and consequences. The types of rules are used in MYCIN is the IF THEN rules with certainty factors. It also contains rules for the result display and the explanation and the rules for matching the product according to the risk and class of the patientsâ€™ condition.
IF the infection is primary bacreremia
AND the site of the culture is one of the sterile sites
AND the suspected portal of entry is the gastrointestinal tract
THEN there is suggestive evidence that the infection is bacteroid.
The overall structure of the knowledge-based system contains a source of knowledge called a knowledge base. Knowledge base is a database of related information where the data are stored. It is a procedure for generating new knowledge such as the inference, reasoning and explanation. Reasoning has the capability and quality of human expert upon ability to reason and explanation that provide by the experts. Explanation enables the expert system to analyze the reasoning and explain its decisions. Therefore the expert system should be able give the explanation of its reasoning and justify its advice, review or conclusion.
Knowledge based system has the knowledge of the human expert in a structure and formalized form that also known as knowledge base. It includes the metaknowledge that is knowledge about knowledge. It is very useful in searching knowledge and finds solution of a problem. Inference engine is to search and select the correct rule to be applied in the reasoning process. User interface allows communication with KBS and input and output of the data. MYCIN does utilize rule-based characteristics for the diagnosis of infectious blood diseases to provide a doctor with therapeutic advice in a convenient manner where user can request rephrasing of questions.
Inference engine is a software program that refers the existing knowledge, manipulates the knowledge according to need, and makes decisions about actions to be taken. Inference engine usually used for searching techniques for conclusions. Where inference engine will examine the existing facts and rules and adds new facts when possible. As for MYCIN, MYCIN is used to test the hypothesis that domain specific knowledge could successfully be kept separate from the inference procedures.
All data are information but not all information are data such as the distinguished information where it is the processed data that makes decision making easier. In that processed data, it includes the data collection, calculation, data corrections and it such way it causes in the flow of messages.
Knowledge is where knowing how the system in domain work. It can be described as the intersection of the information and ideas. An expert is the one who possessed the knowledge. Knowledge can be represented as the multiplication of information and ideas. There 2 types of knowledge and they are tactic and explicit. Tactic is difficult to encode and communicate where it resides in the practitioner minds whereas the explicit knowledge is the knowledge that can be encoded and is transmittable in language. Explicit knowledge is easy to capture, identify, store and retrieve.
Artificial intelligence is defined as the study of the human thoughts processes and solves the problems in symbolic and non-algorithmic way. It solves problems by mimicking human thoughts using heuristic and symbolic approach. Artificial intelligence can act as human, help in problem solving; it is the system that thinks logically.
MYCIN shows human thoughts as it also reasons with incomplete information such as the human specialists and also the MYCINâ€™s knowledge base is very useful as it gives complete details because it obtained from the best human practitioners. MYCIN does not miss anything or miss any details as it considers every possibility. If their experiment fails, they will never skip to conclusions of fails to ask for key pieces of information.
Objectives of KBS are it provides a high level of intelligence and help people to discover and develop the unknown fields. It also offers a huge amount of knowledge in different areas and help in knowledge management that are stored in the knowledge base.
Expert system is designed to use for solving problems. Artificial intelligence is defined as the computer science that point out the intelligent machine that react, think like humans. It is designed for learning, recognition and solving the problems. Research related with the artificial intelligence that is highly specialized. Programming computer consists of the core problems of the artificial intelligence foe certain traits such as knowledge, reasoning and problem solving.
Knowledge base is a collection and retrieval of knowledge where the data will be stored in database and find solution for further problems by using the previous data from the previous experience.
MYCIN is an expert system for treating the blood infections. MYCIN could request further information regarding the patient details as well as suggest additional laboratory tests and to arrive at a probable diagnosis and therefore everything has been diagnosed, the next step would be recommending a course of treatment. The expert system will gather the data that has been given and rules of they system will be applied and suggest likely solutions for the problem.
Development of an expert system.
The process of building the expert system must have accurate planning. An expert system is a computer program that aims to mimic the process of the expertâ€™s reasoning and knowledge in problem solving.
The knowledge base system development was aided by the development of process of the symbolic language such as the Prolog. Prolog is a high-level logic programming language. It is based on defining and solving the logical formulas. In prolog, with facts, it allows to make some statements where the facts consist of a particular item or relation between the items.
Domain experts are a person who is specialized in a particular area within the business and these specialists will develop their own domain knowledge and will use for the problem solving. For example in bioinformatics, the domain expert application would be the drug designing and chemical analysis. The task performance should be related to the knowledge and the rules and facts must be stable.
A knowledge engineer is a computer programmer who researches, designs, creates, the expert systems and who has responsibility to obtain, transfer and represent the experts knowledge in form of computer system that can fulfill a wide variety of the problem solving task. A knowledge engineer will consider the limitations of the technologies and the need for more of efficient programs when researching the new type of knowledge base system. In medical diagnosis system, knowledge engineer will include diagnosis, selection, prediction, classification, clustering, optimization and control.
Diagnosis is inferring malfunctions of an object from its behavior and recommending solutions. Selection is where recommending is the top option from a possible alternative list. Prediction is predicting the future behavior of an object from the past behavior. Classification referred to assigning an object to one of the defined classes. Clustering is diving a diverse group of objects into uniform subgroups. Optimization is where improving the quality of solutions until the best one is found. Control involves in governing the behavior of an object to meet the specific requirements in real time.
Resources need to be determined for building and developing the system. When developing a system, it includes the computer facilities, development of software and the data sources that consist of the human experts, manuals and databases.
The advantages of KBS are it is a permanent documentation of knowledge where the experts and other resources will be obtained by the knowledge engineer and the knowledge engineer will represent them in a well-designed knowledge base. In knowledge-based system, the expert system is able to provide the permanent documentation of the decision process. Consistency and reliability of knowledge-based a system where with the knowledge component that are being added in the system and has the ability to act effectively. Therefore with the amount of knowledge level increases, it can be resulted in effective and more reliable decision making and reduce the error of decision-making.
Disadvantages of KBS are the creativity and innovation where the human experts can answer creatively to the uncommon situations where the expert systems are not able to do the same. The expert systems also not good when it comes to recognizing when there is no existing answer available or when they are not familiar with the problem that is outside their expertise area.
Tree structure of prolog is where it is the pairing of a root with a forest of subtrees. One of the most common types of tree is the binary tree. Data structure contains nodes with more that once self-referenced field. In the binary tree, it is also made of nodes where each node consists of left and right reference and also the data element. Root will be placed at the top of the binary tree. All nodes in the binary tree are connected by the directed edge from one other node that is called parent. Whereas the other node can be connected to random number of nodes that is called as children. The nodes that are connected to the same parent are called siblings.
Name: Felicia Ray
Height: 5 ft. 1
Weight: 60 kg
Sample blood test taken to measure the blood glucose levels in the blood after the patient has not eaten for several hours.
Symptoms are used when the person or patient is showing signs of a disease or the health and physical condition. It is a sign of disease or disorder where the person experienced changes with their health condition such as unusual changes from normal function or appearance in their bodies.
Patient details consist of their name, age, weight, height, and gender. These details are needed that will be stored in the database. Through these details, it can help the doctor to identify and diagnose the health condition of the patient.
The tests are to check the condition health of the patient that can confirm of what the patient is suffering from and also by testing their blood to ensure the confirmation of their health condition and with the tests that has been performed; it can help and suggest the patient to better conclusion.
Type 2 diabetes
Slow-healing sores or frequent infections
Data structure defined as the plan for organizing and arranging the information related pieces. The basic types of data structure include the lists, records, trees where each of these has many differences and the data can be performed with different operations. Data structure is designed for the data to be organized to match the specific purpose therefore it can be accessed in appropriate ways. It also designed to store and keep the data for the working purpose on it with various algorithms.
File structure is the data collection that stores on the storage. The data is subdivided into records where this record contains the data of the information such as name.
Disease (Symptom [ ], Disease_name)
Symptom (Symptom [ ], Symptom_name)
Disease (Fatigues, Diabetes)
Disease (Excessive_urination, Diabetes)
Disease (Weight_loss, Diabetes)
Disease (Nauses, Diabetes)
Symptom ( Blurred_vision, Type_2_Diabetes)
Symptom ( Fatigues, Type_2_Diabetes)
Symptoms ( Slow_healing_sores, Type_2_Diabetes)
? (X,Y) [Excessive_urination, nauses]
X = Diabetes
Y = [Blurred vision, sores]