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Initially the language was called as "oak" but it was renamed as "java" in 1995.The primary motivation of this language was the need for a platform-independent(i.e. architecture neutral)language that could be used to create software to be embedded in various consumer electronic devices.
Java is a programmer's language
Java is cohesive and consistent
Except for those constraint imposed by the Internet environment. Java gives the programmer, full control
Finally Java is to Internet Programming where c was to System Programming.
Importance of Java to the Internet
Java has had a profound effect on the Internet. This is because; java expands the Universe of objects that can move about freely in Cyberspace. In a network, two categories of objects are transmitted between the server and the personal computer. They are passive information and Dynamic active programs. in the areas of Security and probability. But Java addresses these concerns and by doing so,has opened the door to an exciting new form of program called the Applet.
Applications and applets:
An application is a program that runs on our Computer under the operating system of that computer. It is more or less like one creating using C or C++ .Java's ability to create Applets makes it important. An Applet I san application, designed to be transmitted over the Internet and executed by a Java-compatible web browser. An applet I actually a tiny Java program, dynamically downloaded across the network, just like an image. But the difference is, it is an intelligent program, not just a media file. It can be react to the user input and dynamically change.
Java architecture provides a portable, robust, high performing environment for development. Java provides portability by compiling the byte codes for the Java Virtual Machine, which is then interpreted on each platform by the run-time environment. Java is a dynamic system, able to load code when needed from a machine in the same room or across the planet.
Compilation of code:
When you compile the code, the Java compiler creates machine code(called byte code)for a hypothetical machine called Java Virtual Machine(JVM). The JVM is supposed t executed the byte code. The JVM is created for the overcoming the issue of probability. The code is written and compiled for one machine and interpreted on all machines .This machine is called Java Virtual Machine.
Compiling and interpreting java source code.
Java Byte code
During run-time the Java interpreter tricks the byte code file into thinking that it is running on a Java Virtual Machine. In reality this could be an Intel Pentium windows 95 or sun SPARCstation running Solaris or Apple Macintosh running system and all could receive code from any computer through internet and run the Applets.
Java was designed to be easy for the Professional programmer to learn and to use effectively. Most of the confusing concepts from C++ are either left out of Java or implemented in a cleaner, more approachable manner. In Java there are a small number of clearly defined ways to accomplish a given task.
The multi-platform environment of the web places extraordinary demands on a program, because the program must execute reliably in a variety of systems. The ablity to create robust programs. Was given a high priority in the design of Java. Java is strictly typed language; it checks our code at compile time and runtime.
Java virtually eliminates the problems of memory management and deal location, which is completely automatic. In a well-written Java program, all run-time errors should be managed by our program.
Java was not designed to be source-code compatible with any other language. This allowed the Java team the freedom to design with a blank state. One outcome of this was a clean usable, pragmatic approach to objects. The object model in Java is simple and easy to extend, while simple types, such as integers, are kept as high-performance non-objects.
Object oriented approach:
In object oriented languge combines data,functions that operate on that data such unit is object.the object function called member method.if we want to read the item,we have to call the member function in the object it will read the item return the value for us. Data encapsulation,data hiding are key terms in object oriented language.
In object oriented programming language objects are members of classes.all languages have built in data types ,we can declare as many variables as we like.a class serves as template,which specifies what data,what function included in the object of that class. we know a data type int which is integer predefined in java. defining class doesn't create any objects.
A traditional complex program can be transformed by abstraction into component objects.the sequence of process steps will be the collection of messages between these objects.each object defines its unique behaviour.
The process of binding the code and the data is called encapsulation.the other way of defining the encapsulation is by providing the code,data with a protective wrapper.the code,data in the wrapper controlled through defined interface.the basis of encapsulation is the class,which defines the data and code that will be shared by set of objects.
This is the process by which one object acquires the other object properties.
This feature allows one interface used for a general class of actions.