Ip Address Internet Protocol Address Computer Science Essay

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The biggest advantages of Dynamic IP Addressing are less security risk as the computer is assigned a new IP address each time the customer logs on, they are cost effective and there is automatic network configuration. Dynamic addressing is usually used by ISP's so that one IP address can be assigned to several users, however some ISP's use Sticky Dynamic IP Addressing and do not change the IP address very often. Dynamic IP Addressing can be used by families with several computers or by a small business owner who has a home office. The software that comes with a router allows for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol setup and assigns each computer attached to the router an IP address automatically.

Static IP Address

If you feel the need to always know what your IP address is then you need a Static IP address, because it is constant. Static IP addresses are more reliable for Voice over Internet Protocol, more reliable to host a gaming website or to play XBox, Play Station, use Virtual Private Network for secure access to files from your company network computer, etc. Static IP addresses are also great if you use your computer as a server, as it should give your file server faster file uploads and downloads. Another plus with Static IP's,In contrast a static IP address can become a security risk, because the address is always the same. Static IP's are easier to track for data mining companies. Static IP addressing is less cost effective than Dynamic IP Addressing.

Mac Address: Media Access Control address

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A MAC address is a physical hardware address assigned to each device that has the capability of connecting to a network. which is why it is sometimes called the hardware address. A MAC Address is a 48- or 64-bit address associated with a network adapter

TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol

TCP/IP is a networking protocol suite that contains a set of communication of protocols. It can also be used for private networks like the Intranet. The Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol defines how computers and other electronic devices should be connected to the Internet. It also defines how data is transmitted between them.

DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

It’s a network protocol used to configure devices connected to hosts, so they can communicate on an Internet Protocol network. A DHCP server maintains configuration information and an IP address database. When the server receives a request from a client eg computer, the DHCP server chooses the network to which the DHCP client is connected to.

NAT: Network address translation

For a computer to communicate with other computers and Web servers on the Internet, it must

have an IP address.is a unique 32-bit number that identifies the location of your computer on a network. Basically, it works like your street address -- as a way to find out exactly where you are and deliver information to you. NAT is a process of modifying IP address information in IP packet headers while in transit across a traffic routing device.

ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol

Its function is to take care of error handling in the network. This is used to send error messages if a host or router couldn’t be reached or when a requested service is not available for use.

IPv6: The Internet Protocol version 6

Ipv6 was a solution to solve people running out of ip addresses. IPv6 addresses consist of eight groups of four hexadecimal digits separated by colons eg 534:298:634.

Firewall:

Many personal computer operating systems include software-based firewalls to protect against threats from the public Internet.A Firewalls primary job is to control the incoming and outgoing network traffic by analyzing the data packets and determining whether it should be allowed through or not, based on a predetermined rule set

Gateway

A gateway is a node that allows you to gain entrance into a network and vice versa.A computer that controls the traffic of your network or your ISP receives is a node. In most homes a gateway is the device provided by the Internet Service Provider that connects users to the internet.

Peer-to-peer

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A Peer to peer is a computer network is one in which each computer in the network can act as a client or server for the other computers in the network, allowing shared access to various resources such as files without the need for a central server.

Subnet mask

A subnet mask separates the IP address into the network and host addresses.It is called a subnet mask because it is used to identify network address of an IP address by perfoming bitwise and operation on the netmask.

CIDR

/4

240,435,456

11110000 00000000 00000000 00000000

240.0.0.0

CIDR

/5

134,217,728

11111000 00000000 00000000 00000000

248.0.0.0

CIDR

/6

67,108,864

11111100 00000000 00000000 00000000

252.0.0.0

CIDR

/7

33,554,432

11111110 00000000 00000000 00000000

254.0.0.0

A

/8

16,777,216

11111111 00000000 00000000 00000000

255.0.0.0

CIDR

/9

8,388,608

11111111 10000000 00000000 00000000

255.128.0.0

CIDR

/10

4,194,304

11111111 11000000 00000000 00000000

255.192.0.0

CIDR

/11

2,097,152

11111111 11100000 00000000 00000000

255.224.0.0

CIDR

/12

1,048,576

11111111 11110000 00000000 00000000

255.240.0.0

CIDR

/13

524,288

11111111 11111000 00000000 00000000

255.248.0.0

CIDR

/14

262,144

11111111 11111100 00000000 00000000

255.252.0.0

CIDR

/15

131,072

11111111 11111110 00000000 00000000

255.254.0.0

B

/16

65,534

11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000

255.255.0.0

CIDR

/17

32,768

11111111 11111111 10000000 00000000

255.255.128.0

CIDR

/18

16,384

11111111 11111111 11000000 00000000

255.255.192.0

CIDR

/19

8,192

11111111 11111111 11100000 00000000

255.255.224.0

CIDR

/20

4,096

11111111 11111111 11110000 00000000

255.255.240.0

CIDR

/21

2,048

11111111 11111111 11111000 00000000

255.255.248.0

CIDR

/22

1,024

11111111 11111111 11111100 00000000

255.255.252.0

CIDR

/23

512

11111111 11111111 11111110 00000000

255.255.254.0

CIDR

/24

256

11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000

255.255.255.0

CIDR

/25

128

11111111 11111111 11111111 10000000

255.255.255.128

CIDR

/26

64

11111111 11111111 11111111 11000000

255.255.255.192

CIDR

/27

32

11111111 11111111 11111111 11100000

255.255.255.224

CIDR

/28

16

11111111 11111111 11111111 11110000

255.255.255.240

CIDR

/29

8

11111111 11111111 11111111 11111000

255.255.255.248

CIDR

/30

4

11111111 11111111 11111111 11111100

255.255.255.252

Networking Components

Network Adapter

A computer needs a network adapter to connect to a network. It converts computer data into electronic signals. It listens for silence on the network cable and applies the data to it when it has an opportunity. The network access element of its job is called Media Access Control, or MAC. The physical address of every computer on a network is called its MAC address. The MAC address is the network adapter's serial number. Most computers are shipped with the network adapter integrated into the motherboard. However, early PCs didn't include this function and computer owners had to buy it separately and fit it into an expansion slot on the motherboard. Although network adapters are now integrated, the name network card is still used. The wireless equivalent is called a Wireless Network Interface Controller.

Network Medium

Wired networks need cable. The most common form of cable used in networks is called the "Unshielded Twisted Pair." In PC shops, it is generally just referred to as "network cable" or "Ethernet cable." Ethernet is the most widely implemented set of standards for the physical properties of networks. UTP is so closely identified with Ethernet that it is often given that name. Other cable types used for networks are twin-axial, Shielded Twisted Pair and single-mode and multi-mode fiber optic cable. Wireless networks don't need cable; they send data on radio waves generated by the WNIC.

Cable Connectors

In wired networks, the most common form of connector is the RJ45. Every computer with networking capabilities has an RJ45 port. This is sometimes called a "network port" or an "Ethernet port." The RJ45 plug looks like a slightly larger telephone plug and connects the Unshielded Twisted Pair or the Shielded Twisted Pair cable.

CLIENT-SERVER

client-server is purely to the relationship between two computers on a network. it makes a service request from the server, and how the server can accept these requests, process them, and return the requested information to the client.

Power Supply

Both wired and wireless networks need a power supply. A wireless network uses the current to generate radio waves. A cabled network sends data interpreted as an electronic pulse.

Hub/Switch/Router

In wired networks, one computer cannot connect to many others without some form of splitter. A hub is little more than a splitter. It repeats any signals coming into one of its ports out onto all its other ports. A cable leads from each port to one computer. A switch is a more sophisticated version of a hub. It only sends the signal onto the computer with the address written in the arriving message. Routers are much more complicated and are able to forward messages all over the world. Larger networks sometimes use routers for their LAN traffic. The wireless networking device is called a "wireless router."

Network Software

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Software on a communicating computer packages data into segments and puts that data into a structure called a "packet." The source and destination addresses of the packet are written into the header of the packet. The receiving computer needs to interpret these packets back into meaningful data and deliver it to the appropriate application.

Ethernet access control

Ethernet's access control is distributed, because Ethernet has no central mechanism that grants access to the physical medium within the network. Instead, Ethernet uses carrier sense multiple access with collision detection. Because multiple devices on an Ethernet network can access the physical medium, or wire, simultaneously, each device must determines whether the physical medium is in use.

Devices

Desktop PC/Laptop

sends data to the router eg what kind of data it wants, the data it wants to receive. the computer sends the data wirelessly or wired

Mobile devices such as Netbook, PDA and Smartphone

sends data to the data it wants to receive and what it wants wirelessly

Switch

Tells the data where to go eg the word document to the printer

Modem/Router

Job is to take care of the information between the devices

Scanner

Creates a digital copy of the physical copy of a document

Print Server

print/ create a physical copy of the data that it sent to the printer in the printer server

Network Storage/File Server

A NAS unit is a computer connected to a network that provides only file-based data storage services to other devices on the network

Network connection technologies

advantages and disadvantages of the common cable, fibre and wireless technologies for connecting the components of a specific LAN

Mesh

In a mesh network, every member is connected to every other member. It is a typical choice when it's essential to reach every member of the network.which means each node must not only capture and disseminate its own data, but also serve as a relay for other nodes.

Advantages

Should a fault occur in a given link, only those communications between that specific pair of devices sharing the link will be affected.

Disadvantages

The more extensive the network, in terms of scope or of physical area, the greater the investment necessary to build it will be, due, among other considerations, to the amount of cabling and the number of hardware ports it will require.

Ring

A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node - a ring. Data travels from node to node, with each node along the way handling every packet.

Because a ring topology provides only one pathway between any two nodes, ring networks may be disrupted by the failure of a single link. A node failure or cable break might isolate every node attached to the ring.

Advantages

Performs better than a bus topology under heavy network load

Point to point line configuration makes it easy to identify and isolate faults.

Disadvantages

Moving, adding and changing the devices can affect the network

Bandwidth is shared on all links between devices

Bus

A signal from the source travels in both directions to all machines connected on the bus cable until it finds the intended recipient. If the machine address does not match the intended address for the data, the machine ignores the data. Alternatively, if the data matches the machine address, the data is accepted. Since the bus topology consists of only one wire, it is rather inexpensive to implement when compared to other topologies

Linear bus

The type of network topology in which all of the nodes of the network are connected to a common transmission medium which has exactly two endpoints, The backbone, or trunk

Distributed bus

The type of network topology in which all of the nodes of the network are connected to a common transmission medium which has more than two endpoints that are created by adding branches to the main section of the transmission medium â€" the physical distributed bus topology functions in exactly the same fashion as the physical linear bus topology

Advantages

Ease of installation.

If one computer fails it does not affect the other computers.

Printers can be shared.

Disadvantages

If the main cable fails, all the other sources will die

Reconfiguration, fault isolation and installation of new devices tend to be difficult since the network is designed to be most efficient during installation.

Networking Cables

The Schools best choice for a topology is star which the school currently uses because a lot of people would be trying to use the network, students, teachers and that would create too much for other technologies A database would be recommended to be in the center of the enterprise for easier access for users

Fiber Optic cable

A technology that uses glass (or plastic) threads (fibers) to transmit data. A fiber optic cable consists of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messages modulated onto light waves.

Advantages

Extremely high bandwidth

Disadvantages

Installation costs, while dropping, are still high

Cat6

Cat6 was made in 2002 by a company called Telecommunications Industry Association

Advantages

Cat 6 cable keep each pair from contacting the others, creating a bandwidth that is twice as fast as Cat5 and Cat5e.

The plug and port of the Cat 6 cable is the same as the Cat5 and Cat5e.

Disadvantages

The Cat 6 cable is much more expensive than the Cat5e cable.

The Cat 6 cable only yields the power of a Gigabit connection.

Twisted pair

Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference.

Advantages

It is a thin, flexible cable that is easy to string between walls

More lines can be run through the same wiring ducts.

Disadvantages

it is physically larger and more expensive than twisted pair wire, and it is more difficult to connect to a terminating block.

Wifi

is a popular technology that allows devices to send data wirelessly using radio waves. nearly every device has wifi built into the device

Advantage

The wireless nature of such networks allows users to access network resources from nearly any convenient location within their primary networking environment.

Disadvantage

Like any radio frequency transmission, wireless networking signals are subject to a wide variety of interference.The speed on most wireless networks is far slower than even the slowest common wired networks

Alex Thomas