Invention Of The Micro Computer Computer Science Essay

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One Of The Earliest operating systems for personal computer WAS The Windows Produced by Microsoft. The First Of The operating system version WAS released on November 20th, 1985 (Microsoft Windows History, 2008), "under the name of Windows 1.0. Originally, Microsoft wanted to call The Pioneer operating system "Interface Manager" Describing icts multi-tasking Abilities, Purpose Rowland Hanson, The head of marketing at Microsoft, wanted to go with a Name That Would Be More Appealing to Consumers. THUS the "Windows" alt Was Born. Version 1.0 of Windows Was Not Actually a complete operating system, goal Rather year extension of MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) That Gave Customers a graphical user interface to Simplify executing applications and documents. In the first version of Windows, all loaded device drivers Cam With The operating system, applications and thesis "could use only pre-loaded drivers. Always looking forward WAS Microsoft Into the future, and wanted to Develop Technology That Could Be Used For Subsequent operating systems as well. As Such, Windows 1.0 Was The First Program to Develop and Utilization 'virtual memory', a software based scheme That Would allow for larger applications Than The current available RAM (Random Access Memory). Many challenges Microsoft faced icts When releasing first wide-scale operating system. Apple, Microsoft's rival and Competing Company Claimed That There Were Striking SIMILARITIES To The Operating System That HAD Already Been released by Apple That Appeared in Microsoft's operating system. Apple Agreed to a licensing agreement by Microsoft to Use Their features in Windows 1.0 and all future versions of Windows (Apple v. Microsoft: Virtual Identity In The GUI Wars, 1999). This operating system HAD Many Flaws, and never really Much Gained popularity with Business Consumers gold.

Was released Windows 2.0 Two Years Later, on December 9th, 1987 (Microsoft Windows History, 2008). It Was Much More Popular Than The previous version of That Much To The Fact That caused Microsoft teamed Up With AT & T and packaged this System with AT & T computers have test software for Many Educational Institutions. Version 2.0 Added Added Many graphical functions, Such As The Ability to overlap windows for Each Other, "as well as the 'Minimize' and 'Maximize' functions. Icons Were First Introduced to the Windows desktop, as well as "SEVERAL 'outside applications, Such as Microsoft Word and Excel. The Conflict Between Microsoft and Apple Were far from over though, on March 17th, 1988, Apple follows Filed Against Microsoft and Hewlett Packard, accusing 'em of copyright violations. Apple recyclé thats the look and feel "of the Macintosh operating system COPY WAS've Written A Whole, and Windows 2.0 Violated this copyright by looking Extremely similar to it. Because The licensing agreement HAD Been Written by Bill Gates and Microsoft, Apple Did Not Realize optometrist HAD Given Microsoft permission to use graphical features Many of icts In Any Subsequent versions of Windows as well. On June 1st, 1993, after a short battle Four Year, Won the Microsoft decision, and as a result, All Other copyright suits Were Dismissed. (Apple v. Microsoft: Virtual Identity In The GUI Wars, 1999)

The next version of Windows, version 3.0, it WAS released May 22nd, 1990 (Microsoft Windows History, 2008), and Was The First Widely popular version of Windows. This Was The last version to boast 100% backward compatibility With older Windows applications. It Was Based On The New Intel 386 processor, Which Greatly Improved Speed and Reliability. This first version of Windows aussi Implemented The Use of third-party device drivers, Allowing for more focus is writing applications Rather Than device drivers. Graphical upgrades included The icon based file manager and program manager, making access to data Much Easier. The addition of the Well Known aussi solitaire card game icts Made In The early version of Windows 3.0. Another big leap for Windows 3.x WAS That It Could Run in Three different memory modes (Windows Products and Technologies History, 2006). Real's only mode uses WAS for The Running of applications built for Windows 2.x Standard mode Was The MOST common running mode, as It Was With The MOST compatible 286 processor and 1 MB of memory That Were MOST computers in a planning. The last WAS 386 Enhanced Mode, Implemented WITH ALL The Benefits of standard mode, most 32-bit Addressing and paging for Fast Memory Access. In 386 Enhanced mode, The user could "run SEVERAL MS-DOS Based Programs, In Their Own EACH window, at the Same Time. Third-party programming support pour la version 3.0 exploded, and companies under All Over the World Were Developing Programs compatible with Windows 3.0. In the first year of release icts Version 3.0 million copies sold over Three. This version of Microsoft Windows Gave the Edge In The Computer Industry. On April 6th, 1992 (Microsoft Windows History, 2008), Windows 3.1 Was released, and it sold 3 million copies in The First Two Months Alone. Windows 3.x Became The number one operating system installed on PC's Windows 95 Until 1997 When Was released.

Windows NT (New Technology) 3.1 WAS Introduced on July 27th, 1993 (Microsoft Windows History, 2008). Mainly this WAS are based applications for business, and use it for servers. The Main Purpose Of The newer version of WAS to unify Windows 3.1 and Windows NT. There Were A Few Improvements On this version, The Most Significant Being That Was The Windows NT 3.1 operating system first That Was fully-compatible 32-bit (Windows Products and Technologies History, 2006). It aussi Introduced The New NTFS (New Technology File System) That Allowed Greater use of advanced data structures and Improved Performance, Reliability, and disk space utilization. In this new file system, all file data are Stored as metadata (Data Within data, at The End of the file). Allowed for this has more Detailed description of Every file Contained In The File Itself. Because Of The newer 32-bit technology, programmers found it difficulty to Much More write device drivers for this operating system. It Was Also Supported only limited hardware, Which Meant thats the operating system on Much Needed high end computer to function to capacity icts Fullest. This flaw Almost Made The operating system unusable to private Consumers, Business Leaving a limited clientele. Microsoft Introduced their "Internet Explorer" in this version of Windows, and it has been "Gaining popularity ever since. It Was Not Until Windows 95 Was released private That Consumers Would Be Introduced to the "Windows style" optometrist Are All Familiar With today.

Windows 95 Was released on August 24th, 1995 (Microsoft Windows History, 2008). At 30 minutes promotional video released WAS Prior To The operating system Hitting the shelves titled "cyber sitcom", Which featured Jennifer Aniston and Matthew Perry. On the day of onset icts, in New York City, The Empire State Building to match bed WAS The Colors of the Windows logo. The buying fever WAS SO Great for the release of this version of Windows That Consumers Who Did Not Even own a computer buying Were The Software. Over 1 million copies sold Were Within The first 4 days of release. Within a year and a half after release icts, it Became The Most Successful Ever Produced operating system (Unusual History of Microsoft Windows, 2008). The Biggest and improvement MOST Noticed Was The new graphical user interface That included the "Start" button and taskbar That Is Still prevalent today. This newer version of Windows Provided Full pre-emptive multitasking, "as well as support for 255 character file names. Windows 95 Was The First Consolidated operating system, Meaning That It Did Not require a version of MS-DOS to Be installed beforehand. Additionally, this operating system Took control of DOS, Almost Completely hiding it from The End Users. In essence, The only use for MS-DOS WAS have a boot loader for the Windows 95 operating system. Once booted, users WORKED Completely In The graphical user interface Provided. With The patch releases of Windows 95, Microsoft Introduced MSN (the Microsoft Network) to Consumers have a dial-up Internet connection.

The system requirements for Windows 95 Intel 80386 processor Were year of Any Speed, 4 megabytes of system RAM and 50 megabytes of system hard drive space. Was released in this version The Forms of CD-ROM formatted floppy disks or 13, Because That Has point in time, not Every computer WAS Equipped With A CD-ROM drive.

The next major release from Microsoft cam is June 25th, 1998 (Microsoft Windows History, 2008) With The launch of Windows 98. This operating system has required 486 or higher processor (a Pentium processor recommended WAS), 16 megabytes of RAM, and at least 500 megabytes of free hard drive space. The Most Significant changes in this version of windows Was The new standard for device drivers, WDM (Windows Driver Model). Although Windows 98 Was released With this new driver standard, Microsoft Did Not Publish The Fact That a new driver WAS are going to Be Implemented. Because of this error, most is hardware Producers to Develop Drivers for Continued The old standard, VxD (Virtual Driver x). This misconception That Spread the Windows 98 only Would Operate On The VxD drivers, and hardware MOST Producers accordance Did Not To The newer standard WDM Until Windows 2000, When The VxD drivers Were No Longer Supported. "During the press launch at Comdex in April 1998, Bill Gates and Program Manager Chris Capossela Were Highlighting the System ease of use and enhanced support plug and play. When a scanner WAS plugged in, Windows Attempted to install it, Causing The System to crash and display the "Blue Screen of Death", an error screen Windows That WAS notorious for resulting and in data loss and system failure.

Added MSConfig The Microsoft (Microsoft System Configuration Utility) application to Windows 98, Letting the users modify Which Programs run at startup, edits certain configuration files, and Simplified The Controls over Windows services. It has a graphical interface Simplified That To The Exchange and Other registry files thats the system uses to boot up The Program. This Replaced The Older, text only format of Sysedit. Also, the USB support IS far superior to Windows 95. Controversially, Microsoft integrated STI version of Internet Explorer windows Directly Into, Which spurred Another short battle Microsoft in Which Was The defendant. In United States v. Microsoft, The Question Asked if Microsoft WAS WAS Abusing icts hold On The operating system market to unfairly compete Against companies like Netscape and Opera. A Judge Ruled Against Microsoft, Stating That The Company Must Be Broken Into Two Parts: The One That Produced operating system and Another That Produced Other software components (U.S. v. Microsoft: Court's Findings of Fact, 1999). Quickly decision being Microsoft, & the Ruling Overturned WAS Eventually. Instead, Microsoft Was Not Forced to keep icts software packaged separately from ITS operating system, Rather, It Was to share its applications programming interfaces (APIs) With Third-Party Companies and auxiliary A Three person panel To Have full access to Microsoft's systems, records, and source code for a Period of Five Years. That short ruling expired in late 2007.

Windows ME (Millennium Edition) Was Introduced on September 14, 2000 (Microsoft Windows History, 2008). This version of Windows WAS Marketed as a "Home Edition" when the Windows 2000 Compared To That Was released seven months for a more business Earlier use. A major improvement in this edition Is That The Automatic Update feature WAS Added. When activated, this software Automatically downloads and installs updates and fixes Needed To The operating system. Me Was The first edition of the Windows systems to Completely remove access to real-mode MS-DOS to Improve boot time and performance. Older DOS-based Programs and Utilities Would No Longer Work on Windows ME and later editions. Compared to all previous versions of Windows, The ME edition Had the shortest shelf life, Being Replaced by Windows XP just over a year after the original release icts.

Windows XP, "The Windows Experience" Marketed as It Was, Was Made available on October 25th, 2001 (Microsoft Windows History, 2008). This version of Windows WAS Aimed to merge The Business and home product lines. As Such, It Is The First Windows operating system for home use based Intended Entirely On The NT kernel. Previously, Microsoft HAD kernel to this limited use of icts The business-oriented systems. Brought Much criticism about this, due Mainly To The Lack of security With The newer kernel. Quickly Two Major Microsoft released service packs to address contention issues and Promote Widespread use of XP and Office Between home use. Much criticism produire aussi, cette version of Windows Product Activation feature The Introduced to combat piracy. The graphical user interface changed Dramatically With The release of XP, and users Gave year array of graphics options to choose from, gold Allowed Them to Create Their Own design. Another "significant feature adds XP That Is The Ability to discard a newer device driver for older version a year (this Would Be Useful If The new device driver Produced unwanted results, or if corrupt Became The Driver). Additionally, XP Was The "current version" Longer Than Any previous version of Windows, from 2001 Until Late 2007 When Was released Windows Vista (Windows Products and Technologies History, 2006).

Windows Vista, The Most current version of Windows To The Public Was released on January 30th, 2007. The primary objective of Stated Windows Vista WAS and Improvement to Address The State of Security in Windows operating systems. Also Added WAS restricted user mode Called User Account Control, Which Replaced the "administrator by default" that Windows XP Utilized. Microsoft changed again The graphical user interface icts With Vista release, Adding a visual style Called "Windows Aero". Other minor additions to this newest edition are the Windows DVD Maker, Windows Calendar, & the addition of games Such as chess, mahjong, and Purble palace That Are Into the imbedded software. Some Of The Most Significant Additions To The Vista release Were the adaptation of speech recognition and Better Overall computer performance. This software WAS first Introduced in Windows Server 2003, aims Was Only Compatible with Office and WordPad, The newer version is Compatible with all Windows applications and Almost Any Third Party Software That lifeguard "speech recognition. Also, Microsoft Aimed at enhanced computer performance, Which led to new technology Such as SuperFetch, Windows lifeguard "Which in machine learning techniques to analyze usage patterns to allow Vista to make intelligent decisions you happy What Should Be present in system memory at Any Given Time. While It Is Still very new, There Will Be Bugs consequently Need To Be That WORKED out. Microsoft has Addressed Such issues, Stating That hast Such bugs are patched and Reported; users Will Automatically Receive the updates from The Automatic Update feature.

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