Introduction What Is Cnc Computer Science Essay


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Numerical control refers to the automation of machine tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually via handwheels or levers, or mechanically automated via cams alone. The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and 1950s, based on existing tools that were modified with motors that moved the controls to follow points fed into the system on punched tape. These early servomechanisms were rapidly augmented with analog and digital computers, creating the modern computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools that have revolutionized the machining processes.

In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly automated using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) programs. The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract the commands needed to operate a particular machine via a postprocessor, and then loaded into the CNC machines for production. Since any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools-drills, saws, etc., modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single "cell". In other cases, a number of different machines are used with an external controller and human or robotic operators that move the component from machine to machine. In either case, the complex series of steps needed to produce any part is highly automated and produces a part that closely matches the original CAD design.

Graphical User interface (GUI) is a human-computer interface that uses windows, icons and menus, which allows users to interact with program in more ways than typing. Example of GUI is the web browser and window explorer. This term GUI exists because the first interactive user interface to computer was not graphical; they were text and keyboard oriented. Usually users need to remember certain commands and the computer response were infamously brief. Example of the user computer interface is the command interface of the DOS operating system

The major operating system today will provide a graphical user interface. Elements of a GUI include buttons, scroll bars, iconic images, windows, and pull down menus. With the increasing use of multimedia, sound, voice and motion video are likely to become part of today GUI for multiple application.

A major advantage of GUI is that make the computer operation more spontaneous and thus easier to learn and use, For example, in windows, is much easier for user to move a file from one directory to another by dragging it with mouse, rather than remember and type long and complicated commands to accomplish the same task.

There are many ways of creating a GUI, either by using the DOS operating system, or by using high level programming software, such as visual basic, C++, C# and C. Each of the software has their benefits. Visual C series are easier to be programmed, but more difficult in interface design, while Visual Basic is easier in interface design than programming.


Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based on flexible, easy-to-use hardware and software. It's intended for artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone interested in creating interactive objects or environments.

Arduino can sense the environment by receiving input from a variety of sensors and can affect its surroundings by controlling lights, motors, and other actuators. The microcontroller on the board is programmed using the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring) and the Arduino development environment (based on Processing). Arduino projects can be stand-alone or they can communicate with software running on a computer (e.g. Flash, Processing, MaxMSP).

The boards can be built by hand or purchased preassembled; the software can be downloaded for free. The hardware reference designs (CAD files) are available under an open-source license, you are free to adapt them to your needs.

Problem Statement

There are a lot computer numerical control (CNC) machine with different function sells in the market but most of them are costly, especially use for industry. Some User might needs to used CNC machine to do the project, so user had to borrow from campus or any industry nearby. User need to book the CNC machine from campus or any industry and that is very waste time and might delay the progress of doing project.

Besides, if it use for simple project, the interface of CNC machine is not friendly for beginner user.

Therefore, built a low cost CNC machine is a good ways for solve the problem. User might use anytime for the project and can design the friendly interface for the CNC machine.


The main objective of this project is to build a low cost CNC machine and design a friendly CNC machine interface for the user.

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